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    Energy globalization of China: Trade, investment, and embedded energy flows
    YANG Yu
    地理学报(英文版)    2022, 32 (3): 377-400.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-022-1952-2
    摘要337)   HTML39)   

    China is in a critical period of transforming from the oil and gas era to the renewable energy era. To better understand the process of energy interaction between China and the rest of the world, this study aimed to investigate the basic theoretical cognition of global energy interaction and analyze the pattern and changes of energy interaction between China and the rest of the world with the method of complex networks, multi-region input-output analysis, and other technical methods. The main findings are as follows: (1) Chinas coal-based energy production structure and the huge demand for oil and gas indicate that ensuring overseas oil and gas supply is the most direct logic of energy interaction between China and the rest of the world, and the interaction scopes are mainly concentrated in oil- and gas-rich countries and regions. (2) With the development of renewable energy, the logic of energy interaction of China with the rest of the world has changed from countries and regions rich in oil and gas to countries with global renewable energy development and installation needs for its comparative advantages for manufacturing, which forms a renewable energy trade map that covers all major countries and regions in the world. (3) The overseas energy investment target of China has expanded from a limited number of host countries to Europe, Southeast Asia, and other countries and regions. The investment business is not only limited to the oil and gas field, but also expanded to solar energy, wind energy, hydro-power, and other renewable electricity generation projects. (4) As a global manufacturing and trading power, part of the energy consumed by China is embodied in the global production network and trade network for redistribution. The scope of energy interactions between China and the world will further expand to countries with general commodity trade relations with China, forming the global “energy hub” function. This study can provide a theoretical perspective and decision-making for a deeper understanding of the energy interactions between China and the world, maintaining national energy security, and participating in global energy economic governance.

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    China’s rural revitalization and development: Theory, technology and management
    LIU Yansui, ZANG Yuzhu, YANG Yuanyuan
    地理学报(英文版)    2020, 30 (12): 1923-1942.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-020-1819-3
    摘要258)   HTML22)    PDF (778KB)(642)   

    The urban-rural transformation from dichotomy to integration is a gradual process. Like rural areas in many countries, Chinese rural society is experiencing a decline in all spheres due to depopulation, aging, lack of economic opportunity, and so on. Aiming at solving the serious rural issues, China proposed the implementation of a rural revitalization strategy and the promotion of an integrated urban-rural development for the first time in 2017. This proposal marks the transformation of the urban-rural relationship, and the integrated urban-rural development reflects a significant conceptual change. Researches on issues of rural decline are urgently needed to determine the most effective method for rural revitalization and development from the perspective of the urban-rural dynamics. In this context, this paper focuses on studying the theory, technology and management of rural revitalization and development. We construct a theoretical framework for urban-rural integration based on population-land-industry-right between the urban and rural systems, regarding land engineering for land capacity building as the technical support and the rural land system reform and reconstruction as the policy support for management. This research will provide theoretical support for the implementation of China’s rural revitalization strategy.

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    Spatial-temporal characteristics and decoupling effects of China’s carbon footprint based on multi-source data
    ZHANG Yongnian, PAN Jinghu, ZHANG Yongjiao, XU Jing
    地理学报(英文版)    2021, 31 (3): 327-349.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-021-1839-7
    摘要238)   HTML202)    PDF (7393KB)(132)   

    In 2007, China surpassed the USA to become the largest carbon emitter in the world. China has promised a 60%-65% reduction in carbon emissions per unit GDP by 2030, compared to the baseline of 2005. Therefore, it is important to obtain accurate dynamic information on the spatial and temporal patterns of carbon emissions and carbon footprints to support formulating effective national carbon emission reduction policies. This study attempts to build a carbon emission panel data model that simulates carbon emissions in China from 2000-2013 using nighttime lighting data and carbon emission statistics data. By applying the Exploratory Spatial-Temporal Data Analysis (ESTDA) framework, this study conducted an analysis on the spatial patterns and dynamic spatial-temporal interactions of carbon footprints from 2001-2013. The improved Tapio decoupling model was adopted to investigate the levels of coupling or decoupling between the carbon emission load and economic growth in 336 prefecture-level units. The results show that, firstly, high accuracy was achieved by the model in simulating carbon emissions. Secondly, the total carbon footprints and carbon deficits across China increased with average annual growth rates of 4.82% and 5.72%, respectively. The overall carbon footprints and carbon deficits were larger in the North than that in the South. There were extremely significant spatial autocorrelation features in the carbon footprints of prefecture-level units. Thirdly, the relative lengths of the Local Indicators of Spatial Association (LISA) time paths were longer in the North than that in the South, and they increased from the coastal to the central and western regions. Lastly, the overall decoupling index was mainly a weak decoupling type, but the number of cities with this weak decoupling continued to decrease. The unsustainable development trend of China’s economic growth and carbon emission load will continue for some time.

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    Carbon neutrality and mitigating contribution of terrestrial carbon sink on anthropogenic climate warming in China, the United States, Russia and Canada
    CUI Yaoping, LI Nan, FU Yiming, CHEN Liangyu
    地理学报(英文版)    2021, 31 (7): 925-937.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-021-1878-0
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    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a major climate forcing factor, closely related to human activities. Quantifying the contribution of CO2 emissions to the global radiative forcing (RF) is therefore important to evaluate climate effects caused by anthropogenic and natural factors. China, the United States (USA), Russia and Canada are the largest countries by land area, at different levels of socio-economic development. In this study, we used data from the CarbonTracker CO2 assimilation model (CT2017 data set) to analyze anthropogenic CO2 emissions and terrestrial ecosystem carbon sinks from 2000 to 2016. We derived net RF contributions and showed that anthropogenic CO2 emissions had increased significantly from 2000 to 2016, at a rate of 0.125 PgC yr-1. Over the same period, carbon uptake by terrestrial ecosystems increased at a rate of 0.003 PgC yr-1. Anthropogenic CO2 emissions in China and USA accounted for 87.19% of the total, while Russian terrestrial ecosystems were the largest carbon sink and absorbed 14.69 PgC. The resulting cooling effect was -0.013 W m-2 in 2016, representing an offset of -45.06% on climate warming induced by anthropogenic CO2. This indicates that net climate warming would be significantly overestimated if terrestrial ecosystems were not included in RF budget analyses. In terms of cumulative effects, we analyzed RFs using reference atmospheres of 1750, at the start of the Industrial Revolution, and 2000, the initial year of this study. Anthropogenic CO2 emissions in the study area contributed by + 0.42 W m-2 and +0.32 W m-2 to the global RF, relative to CO2 levels of 1750 and 2000, respectively. We also evaluated correlations between global mean atmospheric temperature and net, anthropogenic and natural RFs. We found that the combined (net) RF caused by CO2 emissions accounted for 30.3% of global mean temperature variations in 2000-2016.

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    China’s food security situation and key questions in the new era: A perspective of farmland protection
    LIANG Xinyuan, JIN Xiaobin, HAN Bo, SUN Rui, XU Weiyi, LI Hanbing, HE Jie, LI Jin
    地理学报(英文版)    2022, 32 (6): 1001-1019.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-022-1982-9
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    As the world’s largest developing country, the ability of China’s agricultural resource utilization to effectively support the current and future food security goals has been affected by a variety of factors (e.g., transformed supply channels, tightening international situation and frequent emergencies) in recent years and has attracted extensive attention from the academic community subject to multiple factors. This study uses literature review, statistical analysis, and spatial analysis methods to systematically explore China’s food security situation in the context of farmland resource constraints. It is found that the demand-side pressures such as demographic changes, social class differentiation, and dietary structure adjustments derived from economic growth and rapid urbanization have placed extremely high expectations on food supply. However, the quantitative restrictions, utilization ways, and health risks of farmland resources on the supply side constitute a huge hidden concern that affects the stability of food production. Although China’s farmland protection system is undergoing a transition from focusing on quantity management to sustainable use, the matching and coordinating demand pressure and supply capacity for food security is unbalanced. Therefore, facing uncertain future development scenarios, policymakers should focus on building a resilient space for China’s farmland protection to withstand the interference of major emergencies. The existing farmland protection space policy can be integrated by establishing a national farmland strategic reserve system (based on resilient space), and further development of targeted use control measures for zoning, grading, and classification will help realize sustainable China’s farmland resources use.

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    Spatiotemporal changes of land desertification sensitivity in northwest China from 2000 to 2017
    WEI Wei, GUO Zecheng, SHI Peiji, ZHOU Liang, WANG Xufeng, LI Zhenya, PANG Sufei, XIE Binbin
    地理学报(英文版)    2021, 31 (1): 46-68.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-021-1832-1
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    Sensitivity assessment is useful for monitoring land desertification. Research into how to prevent and control desertification is also important. In the arid region of northwest China, desertification is becoming worse and is a serious problem that affects local sustainable development. Based on remote-sensing and geographic information system technology, this study establishes a “soil-terrain-hydrology-climate-vegetation” desertification sensitivity comprehensive evaluation system to reflect the spatiotemporal changes of land desertification, and proposes a spatial distance model to calculate a desertification sensitivity index. The spatiotemporal change characteristics of land desertification sensitivity in northwest China are quantitatively assessed from 2000 to 2017. Moreover, the main driving factors are analyzed using the geographical detector method. The results show the following. (1) Terrain, soil, climate, vegetation and hydrology affect and restrict each other, and constitute the background conditions of the distributions and changes of sensitivity to desertification in northwest China. (2) Desertification sensitivity generally displays a low distribution characteristic on the periphery of the area and a high one in the interior. The low-sensitivity regions are mainly in the five major mountain ranges (Altai Mountains, Tianshan Mountains, Kunlun Mountains, Altun Mountains and Qilian Mountains), while the high-sensitivity regions are mainly in regions such as the Junggar Basin, the Tarim Basin and the Inner Mongolia Plateau, as well as the Taklimakan Desert, Badain Jaran Desert and Tengger Desert. The spatial distribution of desertification sensitivity is obviously regional, and the high- and low-sensitivity regions have clear boundaries and a concentrated distribution. (3) With regard to spatiotemporal evolution, changes in desertification sensitivity since 2000 have been predominantly stable, and the overall sensitivity has displayed a slowly decreasing trend, indicating that potential desertification regions are decreasing annually and that some achievements have been made in the control of regional desertification. (4) Soil and climate play a direct role in the driving factors of desertification in northwest China, and these have been found to be the most important influential factors. Vegetation is the most active and basic factor in changing the sensitivity. In addition, topography and hydrology play a role in restricting desertification changes. Socio-economic factors are the most rapid factors affecting regional desertification sensitivity, and their impacts tend to be gradually increasing. In general, desertification has been effectively controlled in northwest China, and positive results have been achieved in such control. However, against the backdrop of intensified global climate change, increasingly prominent human activities and new normals of socio-economic development, the monitoring, assessment and control of desertification in China still have a long way to go.

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    Progress and prospects of applied research on physical geography and the living environment in China over the past 70 years (1949-2019)
    CHEN Fahu, WU Shaohong, CUI Peng, CAI Yunlong, ZHANG Yili, YIN Yunhe, LIU Guobin, OUYANG Zhu, MA Wei, YANG Linsheng, WU Duo, LEI Jiaqiang, ZHANG Guoyou, ZOU Xueyong, CHEN Xiaoqing, TAN Minghong, WANG Xunming, BAO Anming, CHENG Weixin, DANG Xiaohu, WEI Binggan, WANG Guoliang, WANG Wuyi, ZHANG Xingquan, LIU Xiaochen, LI Shengyu
    地理学报(英文版)    2021, 31 (1): 3-45.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-021-1831-2
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    Physical geography is a basic research subject of natural sciences. Its research object is the natural environment which is closely related to human living and development, and China’s natural environment is complex and diverse. According to national needs and regional development, physical geographers have achieved remarkable achievements in applied basis and applied research, which also has substantially contributed to the planning of national economic growth and social development, the protection of macro ecosystems and resources, and sustainable regional development. This study summarized the practice and application of physical geography in China over the past 70 years in the following fields: regional differences in natural environments and physical regionalization; land use and land cover changes; natural hazards and risk reduction; process and prevention of desertification; upgrading of medium- and low-yield fields in the Huang-Huai-Hai region; engineering construction in permafrost areas; geochemical element anomalies and the prevention and control of endemic diseases; positioning and observation of physical geographical elements; and identification of geospatial differentiation and geographical detectors. Furthermore, we have proposed the future direction of applied research in the field of physical geography.

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    Visual method of analyzing COVID-19 case information using spatio-temporal objects with multi-granularity
    CHEN Yunhai, JIANG Nan, CAO Yibing, YANG Zhenkai, ZHAO Xinke
    地理学报(英文版)    2021, 31 (7): 1059-1081.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-021-1885-1
    摘要184)   HTML9)    PDF (7476KB)(134)   

    Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is continuing to spread globally and still poses a great threat to human health. Since its outbreak, it has had catastrophic effects on human society. A visual method of analyzing COVID-19 case information using spatio-temporal objects with multi-granularity is proposed based on the officially provided case information. This analysis reveals the spread of the epidemic, from the perspective of spatio-temporal objects, to provide references for related research and the formulation of epidemic prevention and control measures. The case information is abstracted, descripted, represented, and analyzed in the form of spatio-temporal objects through the construction of spatio-temporal case objects, multi-level visual expressions, and spatial correlation analysis. The rationality of the method is verified through visualization scenarios of case information statistics for China, Henan cases, and cases related to Shulan. The results show that the proposed method is helpful in the research and judgment of the development trend of the epidemic, the discovery of the transmission law, and the spatial traceability of the cases. It has a good portability and good expansion performance, so it can be used for the visual analysis of case information for other regions and can help users quickly discover the potential knowledge this information contains.

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    Dynamic features and driving mechanism of coal consumption for Guangdong province in China
    WANG Changjian, WANG Fei, ZHANG Xinlin, WANG Yang, SU Yongxian, YE Yuyao, WU Qitao, ZHANG Hong’ou
    地理学报(英文版)    2022, 32 (3): 401-420.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-022-1954-0
    摘要184)   HTML22)   

    Guangdong Province, as one of China’s fast-developing regions, an important manufacturing base, and one of the national first round low-carbon pilots, still faces many challenges in controlling its total energy consumption. Coal dominates Guangdong’s energy consumption and remains the major source of CO2. Previous research on factors influencing energy consumption has lacked a systematic analysis both from supply side (factors related to scale, structure, and technologies) and demand side (investment, consumption, and trade). This paper develops the logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI) method that focuses on the supply side and the structural decomposition analysis (SDA) method that focuses on the demand side to systematically identify the key factors driving coal consumption in Guangdong. Results are as follows: (1) Supply side analysis indicates that economic growth has always been the most important factor driving coal consumption growth, while energy intensity is the most important constraining factor. Industrial structure and energy structure have different impacts on coal consumption control during different development phases. (2) Demand side analysis indicates that coal is consumed mainly for international exports, inter-provincial exports, fixed capital formation, and urban household. (3) Industries with the fastest coal consumption growth driven by final demand have experienced significant shifts. Increments in industrial sectors were mainly driven by inter-provincial exports and urban household consumption in recent years. (4) Research on energy consumption in subnational regions under China’s new development pattern of “dual circulation” should not only focus on exports in the context of economic globalization but also pay more attention to inter-provincial exports on the background of strengthened interregional connections.

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    North-south vegetation transition in the eastern Qinling-Daba Mountains
    ZHANG Xinghang, ZHANG Baiping, WANG Jing, YU Fuqin, ZHAO Chao, YAO Yonghui
    地理学报(英文版)    2021, 31 (3): 350-368.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-021-1840-1
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    The Qinling-Daba Mountains are the main body of China’s North-South Transitional Zone. Analysis of the north-south gradual variation of vegetation components is significant for understanding the structural diversity and complexity of this transitional zone. In this study, based on survey data of plant communities, the eastern Qinling-Daba Mountains is divided into four geographic units: the north flank of eastern Qinling Mts., south flank of eastern Qinling Mts., north flank of eastern Daba Mts. and south flank of eastern Daba Mts. We also explore division of regional climate according to areal differentiation of plant-species, community structure and species-richness, respectively. The results show that, (1) at plant-species level, there are mainly northern plants in north flank of eastern Qinling Mts. with evergreen species and fewer northern plants in south flank of eastern Qinling Mts.; there are mainly southern plants in eastern Daba Mts. (2) At community structure level, there are 4 formations (3 northern formations and 1 widespread formation) in north flank of eastern Qinling, 6 formations (3 northern formations, 1 southern formation, and 2 widespread formations) in south flank of eastern Qinling, 4 formations (2 southern formations and 2 widespread formations) in north flank of eastern Daba Mts., and 3 formations (3 southern formations) in south flank of eastern Daba Mts. In terms of the numbers and properties of formations, there is a mixture of northern and southern formations only in the south flank of eastern Qinling Mts. (3) At species-richness level, the diversity of families, genera and species decreased with increasing latitude, but the mixing of northern plants and the southern plants began to occur in south flank of eastern Qinling Mts. This means that the south flank of the eastern Qinling Mts. serves more suitably as the dividing line between China’s warm temperate and subtropical zones.

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    Spatiotemporal patterns of the daily relative risk of COVID-19 in China
    CHENG Changxiu, JIANG Yifan, SONG Changqing, SHEN Shi, WU Yunfeng, ZHANG Tianyuan
    地理学报(英文版)    2021, 31 (7): 1039-1058.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-021-1884-2
    摘要176)   HTML11)    PDF (1131KB)(92)   

    The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to threaten lives and the economy around the world. Estimating the risk of COVID-19 can help in predicting spreading trends, identifying risk areas, and making public health decisions. In this study, we proposed a comparative risk assessment method to estimate comprehensive and dynamic COVID-19 risks by considering the pandemic severity and the healthcare system pressure and then employing the z-order curve and fractal theory. We took the COVID-19 cases from January 19-March 10, 2020 in China as our research object. The results and analysis revealed that (1) the proposed method demonstrated its feasibility to assess and illustrate pandemic risk; (2) the temporal patterns of the daily relative risk indices of 31 provinces were clustered into four groups (high-value, fluctuating-increase, inverted U-shaped, and low-stable); (3) the spatial distribution of the relative pandemic risk indicated a significant circular pattern centered on Hubei Province; and (4) healthcare system capacity is the key to reducing relative pandemic risk, and cases imported from abroad should be given more attention. The methods and results of this study will provide a methodological basis and practical guidance for regional pandemic risk assessment and public health decision-making.

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    Human’s digital footprints on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau: Variations during festivals and impacts on nature reserves
    DU Yunyan, TU Wenna, LIANG Fuyuan, YI Jiawei
    地理学报(英文版)    2021, 31 (2): 179-194.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-021-1841-0
    摘要174)   HTML8)    PDF (8739KB)(194)   

    Mobile internet and wireless communication technologies have produced unprecedented location-aware data. Such big geospatial data can be used as a proxy measure of the ‘digital footprints’ left by us on the planet and provide a valuable opportunity to understand the dynamic and short-term human disturbance on the nature at fine scales. This study investigated the spatiotemporal variations of human’s digital footprints on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau using smartphone-users-generated Tencent’s location request data. The results showed that human’s digital footprints cover less than 5% of Qinghai and Tibet, exhibiting either a U-shaped or an N-shaped temporal change pattern during the major festivals. Spatial changes of the digital footprints manifested a transition process from dispersion to concentration in Xining and Lhasa. Human disturbance assessment of seven large nature reserves on the plateau showed that the Qinghai Lake is the most disturbed one as shown by 14.6% of its area is stained with human digital footprints and the areal average of footprint intensity is 1.59, and the disturbance was significantly escalated during the National Day holiday. By contrast, the Qangtang and Hoh Xil are the least affected nature reserves with the two indices less than 1% and 0.1, respectively.

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    Geomorphology-oriented digital terrain analysis: Progress and perspectives
    XIONG Liyang, TANG Guoan, YANG Xin, LI Fayuan
    地理学报(英文版)    2021, 31 (3): 456-476.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-021-1853-9
    摘要170)   HTML7)    PDF (2729KB)(56)   

    Digital terrain analysis (DTA) is one of the most important contents in the research of geographical information science (GIS). However, on the basis of the digital elevation model (DEM), many problems exist in the current research of DTA in geomorphological studies. For instance, the current DTA research appears to be focused more on morphology, phenomenon, and modern surface rather than mechanism, process, and underlying terrain. The current DTA research needs to be urgently transformed from the study of landform morphology to one focusing on landform process and mechanism. On this basis, this study summarizes the current research status of geomorphology-oriented DTA and systematically reviews and analyzes the research about the knowledge of geomorphological ontology, terrain modeling, terrain derivative calculation, and terrain analytical methods. With the help of DEM data, DTA research has the advantage of carrying out geomorphological studies from the perspective of surface morphology. However, the study of DTA has inherent defects in terms of data expression and analytic patterns. Thus, breakthroughs in basic theories and key technologies are necessary. Moreover, scholars need to realize that DTA research must be transformed from phenomenon to mechanism, from morphology to process, and from terrain to landform. At present, the research development of earth science has reached the critical stage in which the DTA research should focus more on geomorphological ontology. Consequently, this study proposes several prospects of geomorphology-oriented DTA from the aspects of value-added DEM data model, terrain derivatives and their spatial relations, and macro-terrain analysis. The study of DTA based on DEM is at a critical period along with the issue on whether the current GIS technology can truly support the development of geography. The research idea of geomorphology-oriented DTA is expected to be an important exploration and practice in the field of GIS.

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    Evaluating changes in ecological land and effect of protecting important ecological spaces in China
    GAO Jixi, LIU Xiaoman, WANG Chao, WANG Yong, FU Zhuo, HOU Peng, LYU Na
    地理学报(英文版)    2021, 31 (9): 1245-1260.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-021-1896-y
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    It is important to quantitatively analyze the effects of protection of important ecological spaces in China to ensure national ecological security. By considering changes in the ecological land, this study examines the effects of protecting three types of important natural ecological spaces in China from 1980 to 2018. Moreover, considering important ecological spaces and their surroundings yields differences in the effects of protection between internal and external spaces, where this can provide a scientific basis for the categorization and zoning of China’s land. The results show the following: (1) In 2018, the ratio of ecological land to important natural ecological spaces accounted for 92.64%. This land had a good ecological background that reflects the developmental orientation of important ecological spaces. (2) From 1980 to 2018, the area of ecological land in important ecological spaces shrank but the rate of reduction was lower than the national average, which shows the positive effect of regulating construction in natural ecological spaces. The restorative effects of ecological projects to convert farmland into forests and grasslands have been prominent. The expanded ecological land is mainly distributed in areas where such projects have been implemented, and the reduced area is concentrated in grain-producing areas of the Northeast China Plain and agricultural oases of Xinjiang. In the future, the government should focus on strengthening the management and control of these areas. (3) The area ratio of ecological land was the highest in national nature reserves. The rate of reduction in its area was the lowest and the trend of reduction was the smallest in national nature reserves, which reflects differences in the status of ecological protection among different spaces. (4) The ratio of ecological land to important ecological spaces was higher than that in the surrounding external space, and the rate of reduction in it was lower. Thus, the effects of internal and external protection had clear differences in terms of gradient.

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    Explicating the mechanisms of land cover change in the New Eurasian Continental Bridge Economic Corridor region in the 21st century
    FAN Zemeng, LI Saibo, FANG Haiyan
    地理学报(英文版)    2021, 31 (10): 1403-1418.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-021-1903-3
    摘要163)   HTML6)    PDF (1806KB)(212)   

    Land cover change has presented clear spatial differences in the New Eurasian Continental Bridge Economic Corridor (NECBEC) region in the 21st century. A spatiotemporal dynamic probability model and a driving force analysis model of land cover change were developed to analyze explicitly the dynamics and driving forces of land cover change in the NECBEC region. The results show that the areas of grassland, cropland and built-up land increased by 114.57 million ha, 8.41 million ha and 3.96 million ha, and the areas of woodland, other land, and water bodies and wetlands decreased by 74.09 million ha, 6.26 million ha, and 46.59 million ha in the NECBEC region between 2001 and 2017, respectively. Woodland and other land were mainly transformed to grassland, and grassland was mainly transformed to woodland and cropland. Built-up land had the largest annual rate of increase and 50% of this originated from cropland. Moreover, since the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) commenced in 2013, there has been a greater change in the dynamics of land cover change, and the gaps in the socio-economic development level have gradually decreased. The index of socio-economic development was the highest in western Europe, and the lowest in northern Central Asia. The impacts of socio-economic development on cropland and built-up land were greater than those for other land cover types. In general, in the context of rapid socio-economic development, the rate of land cover change in the NECBEC has clearly shown an accelerating trend since 2001, especially after the launch of the BRI in 2013.

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    Identification and alleviation pathways of multidimensional poverty and relative poverty in counties of China
    XU Lidan, DENG Xiangzheng, JIANG Qun’ou, MA Fengkui
    地理学报(英文版)    2021, 31 (12): 1715-1736.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-021-1919-8
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    To realize efficient and sustainable poverty alleviation, this study firstly investigated the identification of multidimensional poverty and relative poverty, and then explored relevant poverty alleviation pathways. Poverty levels in 31 provinces including the autonomous regions and municipalities of China were identified at the county level using the average nighttime light index (ANLI), county multidimensional development index (CMDI), and a method combining multidimensional poverty index and relative poverty standards. Poverty alleviation pathways for poverty-stricken counties were explored from the aspects of industry, education, tourism and agriculture. The results revealed that nearly 60% of counties in China were primarily under relative poverty, most of which were corresponded to light relative poverty. In terms of ANLI and CMDI, 63% and 79% of the national poverty-stricken counties, as of 2018, could be identified, suggesting that CMDI had a higher performance for identifying poverty at the county level. In terms of poverty alleviation pathways, 414, 172, 442, and 298 poverty-stricken counties were receptive to industry poverty alleviation, education poverty alleviation, tourism poverty alleviation, and agriculture poverty alleviation, and 61% of counties had more poverty-causing factors, implying that multidimensional poverty alleviation is suitable in most of the counties.

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    The poverty evolution of typical countries along the Belt and Road and implications from China’s poverty reduction experiences
    SHI Linna, WANG Yongsheng, LIU Yansui, LI Yuheng
    地理学报(英文版)    2022, 32 (3): 458-476.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-022-1953-1
    摘要154)   HTML10)   

    The world is facing a poverty crisis. Despite the great achievements that have been made in poverty alleviation over the past two decades, the extent of poverty in countries along the Belt and Road is still high. Successful poverty reduction in these countries is crucial to meeting the 2030 SDGs. Improving governance to eradicate poverty is a shortcoming that needs to be addressed urgently in poverty reduction pathways along the Belt and Road. In this study, the Standard Deviational Ellipse method was used to study the spatial trajectory of the poverty gravity center. Results showed that the poverty gravity center moved from east to west by 87.60 km annually, while the poverty population decreased by 1211.14 million along the Belt and Road from 2000 to 2020. In addition, the trajectory of the center has shifted due to the different effects of poverty reduction. Among the countries situated along the Belt and Road, China is the most significant contributor to poverty reduction. Accordingly, this study examined the implications of China’s successful poverty reduction strategies in order to understand how other countries can effectively respond to poverty. Ultimately, we propose that sustainable poverty alleviation development strategies should be established with the objectives of promoting social equity and improving the wellbeing of all people.

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    Predicting and assessing changes in NPP based on multi-scenario land use and cover simulations on the Loess Plateau
    JIANG Xiaowei, BAI Jianjun
    地理学报(英文版)    2021, 31 (7): 977-996.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-021-1881-5
    摘要153)   HTML7)    PDF (2766KB)(92)   

    Land use/cover change (LUCC) is a major factor affecting net primary production (NPP). According to the LUCC of the Loess Plateau from 2005 to 2015, the LUCC patterns in 2025 in three scenarios were predicted by using the Future Land Use Simulation (FLUS) model. Furthermore, taking the average NPP of various land use/cover types in 16 years as the reference scale, the changes in NPP in multi-scenario simulations are predicted and analyzed, and the impact of different land use/cover transfers on NPP is quantified. The results are as follows: (1) The land use/cover changes greatly in the baseline and fast development scenarios, and changes relatively little in the ecological protection scenarios. (2) The changes in NPP in different scenarios reflected the significant difference in the ecological protection effect. All the three scenarios promote an NPP increase, but the ecological protection scenario can promote NPP increases the most. (3) The changes in NPP caused by LUCC in the three scenarios reflected the significant difference in the various land use/cover types protection effect. Analyzing and predicting NPP changes in multi-scenario LUCC simulations in the future can provide a theoretical basis for decision makers to judge the future changes in ecological environments and ecological protection effects against different policy backgrounds.

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    Heterogeneity of water-retention capacity of forest and its influencing factors based on meta-analysis in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region
    SHI Xiaoli, DU Chenliang, GUO Xudong, SHI Wenjiao
    地理学报(英文版)    2021, 31 (1): 69-90.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-021-1833-0
    摘要151)   HTML12)    PDF (7293KB)(226)   

    Water retention is important in forest ecosystem services. The heterogeneity analysis of water-retention capacity and its influencing factors is of great significance for the construction of water-retention functional areas, restoration of vegetation, and the protection of forest ecosystems in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. A total of 1366 records concerning water-retention capacity in the canopy layer, litter layer, and soil layer of forest ecosystem in this region were obtained from 193 literature published from 1980 to 2017. The influencing factors of water-retention capacity in each layer were analyzed, and path analysis was used to investigate the contribution of the factors to the water-retention capacity of the three layers. The results showed that mixed forests had the highest water-retention capacity, followed by broad-leaved forests, coniferous forests, and shrub forests. In addition, no matter the forest type, the ranking of the water-retention capacity was soil layer, canopy layer, and litter layer from high to low. The main influencing factors of water-retention capacity in forest canopy were leaf area index and maximum daily precipitation (R 2=0.49), and the influencing coefficients were 0.34 and 0.30, respectively. The main influencing factors of water-retention capacity in the litter layer were semi-decomposed litter (R 2=0.51), and the influencing coefficient was 0.51. The main influencing factors of water-retention capacity in the soil layer were non-capillary porosity and soil depth (R 2=0.61), the influencing coefficients were 0.60 and 0.38, respectively. This study verifies the simulation of the water balance model or inversion of remote sensing of the water-retention capacity at the site scale, and provides scientific basis for further study of the impact of global change on water retention.

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    Research progress and prospect on development geography
    DENG Xiangzheng, JIN Gui, HE Shujin, WANG Chengxin, LI Zhaohua, WANG Zhanqi, SONG Malin, YANG Qingyuan, ZHANG Anlu, CHEN Jiancheng
    地理学报(英文版)    2021, 31 (3): 437-455.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-021-1852-x
    摘要149)   HTML5)    PDF (1909KB)(44)   

    In this paper, we review the research progress in development geography since the 20th century, focusing on its connotation and theory, fields, methods, and development trends. Specifically, we systematically review the research and applications of development geography, comprising fields such as the convergence of underdeveloped countries and regions, and the convergence of the process of improving the quality of life in developed countries and regions. Then, based on an analysis of research progress in development geography in foreign countries, we examine the development conditions and disciplinary advantages of development geography in China. Further, we highlight that future development geography research in China should focus on the latest international academic research and China’s national macro-strategic needs. Future research in development geography should be guided by the theory of sustainable development, the core of which is to improve sustainable livelihood capacity and regional green development levels in underdeveloped regions. This core includes the construction of industrial policy and development geography theory, as well as an interdisciplinary integrated research system. The focus must be placed on researching the spatial patterns, diffusion characteristics, and the convergence mechanism of regional development. Such a focus will facilitate exploration of the regulatory policies and scientific paths that serve regional economic construction and industrial development.

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    Vertical distribution changes in land cover between 1990 and 2015 within the Koshi River Basin, Central Himalayas
    WU Xue, PAUDEL Basanta, ZHANG Yili, LIU Linshan, WANG Zhaofeng, XIE Fangdi, GAO Jungang, SUN Xiaomin
    地理学报(英文版)    2021, 31 (10): 1419-1436.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-021-1904-2
    摘要145)   HTML2)    PDF (1716KB)(140)   

    The study of mountain vertical natural belts is an important component in the study of regional differentiation. These areas are especially sensitive to climate change and have indicative function, which is the core of three-dimensional zonality research. Thus, based on high precision land cover and digital elevation model (DEM) data, and supported by MATLAB and ArcGIS analyses, this paper aimed to study the present situation and changes of the land cover vertical belts between 1990 and 2015 on the northern and southern slopes of the Koshi River Basin (KRB). Results showed that the vertical belts on both slopes were markedly different from one another. The vertical belts on the southern slope were mainly dominated by cropland, forest, bare land, and glacier and snow cover. In contrast, grassland, bare land, sparse vegetation, glacier and snow cover dominated the northern slope. Study found that the main vertical belts across the KRB within this region have not changed substantially over the past 25 years. In contrast, on the southern slope, the upper limits of cropland and bare land have moved to higher elevation, while the lower limits of forest and glacier and snow cover have moved to higher elevation. The upper limit of alpine grassland on the northern slope retreated and moved to higher elevation, while the lower limits of glacier and snow cover and vegetation moved northward to higher elevations. Changes in the vertical belt were influenced by climate change and human activities over time. Cropland was mainly controlled by human activities and climate warming, and the reduced precipitation also led to the abandonment of cropland, at least to a certain extent. Changes in grassland and forest ecosystems were predominantly influenced by both human activities and climate change. At the same time, glacier and snow cover far away from human activities was also mainly influenced by climate warming.

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    Simulation of land-cover change in Jing-Jin-Ji region under different scenarios of SSP-RCP
    FAN Zemeng
    地理学报(英文版)    2022, 32 (3): 421-440.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-022-1955-z
    摘要144)   HTML21)   

    How to simulate land-cover change, driven by climate change and human activity, is not only a hot issue in the field of land-cover research but also in the field of sustainable urbanization. A surface-modeling method of land cover scenario (SSMLC) driven by the coupling of natural and human factors was developed to overcome limitations in existing land-cover models. Based on the climatic scenario data of CMIP6 SSP1-2.6, SSP2-4.5, and SSP5-8.5 released by IPCC in 2020, which combines shared socioeconomic paths (SSPs) with typical concentration paths (RCPs), observation climatic data concerning meteorological stations, the population, GDP, transportation data, land-cover data from 2020, and related policy refences, are used to simulate scenarios of land-cover change in the Jing-Jin-Ji region using SSP1-2.6, SSP2-4.5, and SSP5-8.5 for the years 2040, 2070 and 2100, respectively. The simulation results show that the total accuracy of SSMLC in the Jing-Jin-Ji region attains 93.52%. The change intensity of land cover in the Jing-Jin-Ji region is the highest (plus 3.12% per decade) between 2020 and 2040, gradually decreasing after 2040. Built-up land has the fastest increasing rate (plus 5.07% per decade), and wetland has the fastest decreasing rate (minus 3.10% per decade) between 2020 and 2100. The change intensity of land cover under scenario SSP5-8.5 is the highest among the abovementioned three scenarios in the Jing-Jin-Ji region between 2020 and 2100. The impacts of GDP, population, transportation, and policies on land-cover change are generally greater than those on other land-cover types. The results indicate that the SSMLC method can be used to project the change trend and intensity of land cover under the different scenarios. This will help to optimize the spatial allocation and planning of land cover, and could be used to obtain key data for carrying out eco-environmental conservation measures in the Jing-Jin-Ji region in the future.

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    Integrating the ecosystem service in sustainable plateau spatial planning: A case study of the Yarlung Zangbo River Basin
    CHE Lei, ZHOU Liang, XU Jiangang
    地理学报(英文版)    2021, 31 (2): 281-297.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-021-1847-7
    摘要142)   HTML4)    PDF (9794KB)(193)   

    The Yarlung Zangbo River Basin (YZRB) is a key ecological protection area on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP). Determination of the ecosystem service values (ESVs) can help recognize the benefits of sustainable management. It is gradually becoming the main path that constructs plateau spatial planning of integrating ecological protection, and achieves global sustainable development goals (SDGs) in China. In this paper, the spatio-temporal dynamic evolutions of the ESVs were estimated on the multiple scales of “basin, subbasin and watershed” from 1980 to 2015. The main factors influencing ESVs were explored in terms of physical geography, human activities, and climate change. It had been proposed that sustainable spatial planning including ecological protection, basin management, and regional development was urgent to set up. Our results show that the increase in wetland and forest and results in an increase of 9.4% in the ESVs. Attention should be paid to the reduction of water and grassland. Water conservation (WC), waste treatment (WT), and soil formation and conservation (SFC) are the most important ecosystem services in the YZRB. At present, the primary problem is to solve the ESVs decreasing caused by glacier melting, grassland degradation, and desertification in the upper reaches region. The middle reaches should raise the level of supply services. Regulation services should be increased in the lower reaches region on the premise of protecting vegetation. The ESVs in adjacent watersheds are interrelated and the phenomenon of “high agglomeration and low agglomeration” is obvious, existing hot-spots and cold-spots of ESVs. Additionally, when the altitude is 4500-5500 m, the temperature is 3-8°C, and the annual precipitation is 350-650 mm, ESVs could reach its maximum. A framework of sustainable plateau spatial planning could provide references to delimit the ecological protection red line, key ecological function zone, and natural resource asset accounting on the QTP.

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    Dynamic evolution trend of comprehensive transportation green efficiency in China: From a spatio-temporal interaction perspective
    MA Qifei, JIA Peng, SUN Caizhi, KUANG Haibo
    地理学报(英文版)    2022, 32 (3): 477-498.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-022-1957-x
    摘要138)   HTML13)   

    It is urgent and important to explore the dynamic evolution in comprehensive transportation green efficiency (CTGE) in the context of green development. We constructed a social development index that reflects the social benefits of transportation services, and incorporated it into the comprehensive transportation efficiency evaluation framework as an expected output. Based on the panel data of 30 regions in China from 2003-2018, the CTGE in China was measured using the slacks-based measure-data envelopment analysis (SBM-DEA) model. Further, the dynamic evolution trends of CTGE were determined using the spatial Markov model and exploratory spatio-temporal data analysis (ESTDA) technique from a spatio-temporal perspective. The results showed that the CTGE shows a U-shaped change trend but with an overall low level and significant regional differences. The state transition of CTGE has a strong spatial dependence, and there exists the phenomenon of “club convergence”. Neighbourhood background has a significant impact on the CTGE transition types, and the spatial spillover effect is pronounced. The CTGE has an obvious positive correlation and spatial agglomeration characteristics. The geometric characteristics of the LISA time path show that the evolution process of local spatial structure and local spatial dependence of China’s CTGE is stable, but the integration of spatial evolution is weak. The spatio-temporal transition results of LISA indicate that the CTGE has obvious transfer inertness and has certain path-dependence and spatial locking characteristics, which will become the major difficulty in improving the CTGE.

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    Characteristics and progress of land use/cover change research during 1990-2018
    HE Chunyang, ZHANG Jinxi, LIU Zhifeng, HUANG Qingxu
    地理学报(英文版)    2022, 32 (3): 537-559.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-022-1960-2
    摘要136)   HTML3)   

    Land use/cover change (LUCC) is the foundation and frontier for integrating multiple land surface processes. This paper aims to systematically review LUCC research from 1990 to 2018. Based on qualitative and quantitative analyses, we delineated the history of LUCC research and summarized their characteristics and major progress at different stages. We also identified the main challenges and proposed future directions for LUCC research. We found that the number of publications on LUCC research and their total citations grew exponentially. The research foci shifted from the process of LUCC during 1990-2004 to the impact of LUCC during 2005-2013 and then to the sustainability of LUCC from 2014 onwards. Currently, LUCC research is facing theoretical, methodological and practical challenges ranging from integrating the framework of sustainability science, adopting emerging technologies to supporting territorial spatial planning. To move forward, LUCC research should be closely integrated with landscape sustainability science and geodesign and take the leading role in territorial spatial planning to achieve the related Sustainable Development Goals.

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    Model construction of urban agglomeration expansion simulation considering urban flow and hierarchical characteristics
    WANG Haijun, WU Yue, DENG Yu, XU Shan
    地理学报(英文版)    2022, 32 (3): 499-516.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-022-1958-9
    摘要135)   HTML8)   

    Since the launch of China’s reform and opening up policy, the process of urbanization in China has accelerated significantly. With the development of cities, inter-city interactions have become increasingly close, forming urban agglomerations that tend to be integrated. Urban agglomerations are regional spaces with network relationships and hierarchies, and have always been the main units for China to promote urbanization and regional coordinated development. In this paper, we comprehensively consider the network and hierarchical characteristics of an urban agglomeration, while using urban flow to describe the interactions of the inter-city networks and the hierarchical generalized linear model (HGLM) to reveal the hierarchical driving mechanism of the urban agglomeration. By coupling the HGLM with a cellular automata (CA) model, we introduced the HGLM-CA model for the simulation of the spatial expansion of an urban agglomeration, and compared the simulation results with those of the logistic-CA model and the biogeography-based optimization CA (BBO-CA) model. According to the results, we further analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of the proposed HGLM-CA model. We selected the middle reaches of the Yangtze River in China as the research area to conduct this empirical research, and simulated the spatial expansion of the urban agglomeration in 2017 on the basis of urban land-use data from 2007 and 2012. The results indicate that the spatial expansion of the urban agglomeration can be attributed to various driving factors. As a driving factor at the urban level, urban flow promotes the evolution of land use in the urban agglomeration, and also plays an important role in regulating cell-level factors, making the cell-level factors of different cities show different driving effects. The HGLM-CA model is able to obtain a higher simulation accuracy than the logistic-CA model, which indicates that the simulation results for urban agglomeration expansion considering urban flow and hierarchical characteristics are more accurate. When compared with the intelligent algorithm model, i.e., BBO-CA, the HGLM-CA model obtains a lower simulation accuracy, but it can analyze the interaction of the various driving factors from a hierarchical perspective. It also has a strong explanatory effect for the spatial expansion mechanism of urban agglomerations.

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    Spatial pattern of location advantages of ports along the Maritime Silk Road
    MOU Naixia, WANG Chunying, CHEN Jinhai, YANG Tengfei, ZHANG Lingxian, LIAO Mengdi
    地理学报(英文版)    2021, 31 (1): 149-176.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-021-1837-9
    摘要131)   HTML8)    PDF (5182KB)(186)   

    Location advantages of ports refer to the current developments of ports based on their conditions, such as geographic location, traffic accessibility and hinterland economy, etc., and the spatial pattern of ports’ location advantages reflects the spatial distributions, the regularities and the correlations among their conditions for development. A good understanding of the spatial patterns of ports’ location advantages can help to better identify the relative advantages of ports, position ports’ functions and make strategic plans for development. This paper selected 1259 ports from 63 countries along the Maritime Silk Road as research objects and builds an accessing model to analyze their location advantages on the bases of six factors: the influence of strategic shipping pivot, the competitiveness of port location potential, port network status, the influence of city, the influence of traffic trunk, and road network density in hinterland. The study has the following three findings. Firstly, the location advantages of ports show a “high-low-high” distribution pattern from the west to the east, displaying an obvious “core-periphery” regionalized distribution. Secondly, most ports have high location advantages, mainly located in Strait of Malacca, the United Arab Emirates, northern Mediterranean coastal region and China-Japan region, the top 10 ports are mainly located in Singapore, China, Malaysia and Japan, indicating that the shipping industry in Asia-Pacific region has stepped to the far front of the global competition; slow economic growths, wars, far away from the Belt and Road countries or bad climate have low location advantages, mainly located in African coastal areas, Oceania, Northeast Europe and Russia. Thirdly, compared with the landward location advantages, the seaward location advantages have a higher influence, and different indicators of location advantages have different influences on the evaluation results, the competitiveness of port location potential being the core indicator.

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    Evaluation of the carbon sequestration of Zhalong Wetland under climate change
    YU Chenglong, LIU Dan, ZHAO Huiying
    地理学报(英文版)    2021, 31 (7): 938-964.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-021-1879-z
    摘要130)   HTML10)    PDF (1984KB)(141)   

    Wetland ecosystems are crucial to the global carbon cycle. In this study, the Zhalong Wetland was investigated. Based on remote sensing and meteorological observation data from 1975-2018 and the downscaled fifth phase of the coupled model intercomparison project (CMIP5) climate projection dataset from 1961-2100, the parameters of a net primary productivity (NPP) climatic potential productivity model were adjusted, and the simulation ability of the CMIP5 coupled models was evaluated. On this basis, we analysed the spatial and temporal variations of land cover types and landscape transformation processes in the Zhalong Nature Reserve over the past 44 years. We also evaluated the influence of climate change on the NPP of the vegetation, microbial heterotrophic respiration (Rh), and net ecosystem productivity (NEP) of the Zhalong Wetland and predicted the carbon sequestration potential of the Zhalong Wetland from 2019-2029 under the representative concentration pathways (RCP) 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios. Our results indicate the following: (1) Herbaceous bog was the primary land cover type of the Zhalong Nature Reserve, occupying an average area of 1168.02 ± 224.05 km 2, equivalent to 51.84% of the total reserve area. (2) Since 1975, the Zhalong Nature Reserve has undergone a dry-wet-dry transformation process. Excluding several wet periods during the mid-1980s to early 1990s, the reserve has remained a dry habitat, with particularly severe conditions from 2000 onwards. (3) The 1975-2018 mean NPP, Rh, and NEP values of the Zhalong Wetland were 500.21±52.76, 337.59±10.80, and 162.62±45.56 gC·m-2·a-1, respectively, and an evaluation of the carbon balance indicated that the reserve served as a carbon sink. (4) From 1975-2018, NPP showed a significant linear increase, Rh showed a highly significant linear increase, while the increase in the carbon absorption rate was smaller than the increase in the carbon release rate. (5) Variations in NPP and NEP were precipitation-driven, with the correlations of NPP and NEP with annual precipitation and summer precipitation being highly significantly positive (P < 0.001); variations in Rh were temperature-driven, with the correlations of Rh with the average annual, summer, and autumn temperatures being highly significantly positive (P < 0.001). The interaction of precipitation and temperature enhances the impact on NPP, Rh and NEP. (6) Under the RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios, the predicted carbon sequestration by the Zhalong Wetland from 2019-2029 was 2.421 (± 0.225) × 1011 gC·a-1 and 2.407 (± 0.382) × 1011 gC·a-1, respectively, which were both lower than the mean carbon sequestration during the last 44 years (2.467 (± 0.950) × 1011 gC·a-1). Future climate change may negatively contribute to the carbon sequestration potential of the Zhalong Wetland. The results of the present study are significant for enhancing the abilities of integrated eco-meteorological monitoring, evaluation, and early warning systems for wetlands.

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    Spatiotemporal analysis of COVID-19 risk in Guangdong Province based on population migration
    YE Yuyao, WANG Changjian, ZHANG Hong’ou, YANG Ji, LIU Zhengqian, WU Kangmin, DENG Yingbin
    地理学报(英文版)    2020, 30 (12): 1985-2001.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-020-1823-7
    摘要129)   HTML6)    PDF (2450KB)(50)   

    Population migration, especially population inflow from epidemic areas, is a key source of the risk related to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic. This paper selects Guangdong Province, China, for a case study. It utilizes big data on population migration and the geospatial analysis technique to develop a model to achieve spatiotemporal analysis of COVID-19 risk. The model takes into consideration the risk differential between the source cities of population migration as well as the heterogeneity in the socioeconomic characteristics of the destination cities of population migration. It further incorporates a time-lag process based on the time distribution of the onset of the imported cases. In theory, the model will be able to predict the evolutional trend and spatial distribution of the COVID-19 risk for a certain time period in the future and provide support for advanced planning and targeted prevention measures. The research findings indicate the following: (1) The COVID-19 epidemic in Guangdong Province reached a turning point on January 29, 2020, after which it showed a gradual decreasing trend. (2) Based on the time-lag analysis of the onset of the imported cases, it is common for a time interval to exist between case importation and illness onset, and the proportion of the cases with an interval of 1-14 days is relatively high. (3) There is evident spatial heterogeneity in the epidemic risk; the risk varies significantly between different areas based on their imported risk, susceptibility risk, and ability to prevent the spread. (4) The degree of connectedness and the scale of population migration between Guangdong’s prefecture-level cities and their counterparts in the source regions of the epidemic, as well as the transportation and location factors of the cities in Guangdong, have a significant impact on the risk classification of the cities in Guangdong. The first-tier cities - Shenzhen and Guangzhou - are high-risk regions. The cities in the Pearl River Delta that are adjacent to Shenzhen and Guangzhou, including Dongguan, Foshan, Huizhou, Zhuhai, Zhongshan, are medium-risk cities. The eastern, northern, and western parts of Guangdong, which are outside of the metropolitan areas of the Pearl River Delta, are considered to have low risks. Therefore, the government should develop prevention and control measures that are specific to different regions based on their risk classification to enable targeted prevention and ensure the smooth operation of society.

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    Spatial evolution and growth mechanism of urban networks in western China: A multi-scale perspective
    YANG Liangjie, WANG Jing, YANG Yongchun
    地理学报(英文版)    2022, 32 (3): 517-536.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-022-1959-8
    摘要128)   HTML12)   

    Globalization and informatization promote the evolution of urban spatial organization from a hierarchical structure mode to a network structure mode, forming a complex network system. This study considers the coupling of “space of flows” and “spaces of places” as the core and “embeddedness” as the link and a relevant theoretical basis; then we construct a conceptual model of urban networks and explore the internal logic of enterprise networks and city networks. Using the interlocking-affiliate network model and data from China’s top 500 listed companies, this study constructs a directed multi-valued relational matrix between cities in western China from 2005 to 2015. Using social network analysis and the multiple regression of quadratic assignment program model (MRQAP), this study adopts a “top-down” research perspective to analyze the spatio-temporal evolution and growth mechanism of the city network in western China from three nested spatial scales: large regions, intercity agglomerations, and intracity agglomerations. The results show the following: (1) Under the large regional scale, the city network has good symmetry, obvious characteristics of hierarchical diffusion, neighborhood diffusion, and cross-administrative regional connection, presenting the “core-periphery” structural pattern. (2) The network of intercity agglomerations has the characteristics of centralization, stratification, and geographical proximity. (3) The internal network of each urban agglomeration presents a variety of network structure modes, such as dual-core, single-core, and multicore modes. (4) Administrative subordination and economic system proximity have a significant positive impact on the city network in western China. The differences in internet convenience, investment in science and technology, average time distance, and economic development have negative effects on the growth and development of city networks. (5) The preferential attachment is the internal driving force of the city network development.

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