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  • 研究论文
    DONG Shijie, XIN Liangjie, LI Shengfa, XIE Hualin, ZHAO Yuluan, WANG Xue, LI Xiubin, SONG Hengfei, LU Yahan
    地理学报(英文版). 2023, 33(7): 1361-1376. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11442-023-2133-7

    Driven by urbanization and industrialization, arable land in hilly and mountainous regions of China is gradually becoming marginalized, with the extent of arable land abandonment rapidly expanding from poor-quality sloping arable land to high-quality terraces. The abandonment of large-scale terraces will lead to a series of socio-economic and ecological effects. A national sample survey was used to investigate the extent and spatial distribution of terrace abandonment in China, and a total of 560 valid village questionnaires from 329 counties were collected in the mountainous areas of China. The main findings are as follows: (1) The phenomenon of terrace abandonment was widespread throughout the country, with 54% of the total surveyed villages exhibiting terrace abandonment, and the area of abandoned terraces accounting for 9.79% of the total. (2) The degree of terrace abandonment is high in the south and low in the north. The most serious region with abandonment was the hilly and mountainous areas in the south, especially in the middle and lower Yangtze River region. (3) The main driving factors of terrace abandonment were rural labor migration, agricultural mechanization level, irrigation conditions, and transportation conditions for cultivation. Targeted measures should be taken based on the specific conditions of each area to alleviate terrace abandonment. Measures such as improving terrace mechanization are universally applicable. Specifically, low-quality terraces can be withdrawn orderly, and for high-quality terraces, multiple measures are needed to consolidate agricultural production, such as adjusting the planting structure, strengthening agricultural infrastructure construction, and encouraging the transfer of land-use rights as well as large-scale operation.

  • 研究论文
    LI Wenbo, LI Han, YAN Zhuoran, HU Bingqing, ZHU Yuanli, YANG Yuewen, WANG Dongyan
    地理学报(英文版). 2023, 33(7): 1377-1396. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11442-023-2134-6

    Rust belt cities are largely threatened by a waste of urban space at their core; however, in developing countries where land resources are widely used as instruments for macroeconomic stabilization, urban periphery is also at risk of being underutilized due to land hoarding. Such geographic differences entail new knowledge about how, where, and why underutilized lands are regenerated in the city. Furthermore, rapid urban growth imposes development disparity and mixed underutilization issues on cities in developing countries; therefore, how the geo-information obtained by the regeneration of different underutilized lands differs will be valuable for urban planners and policymakers to make prudent trade-offs. To fill these gaps, we conducted a sequential investigation into the regeneration of underutilized lands in a representative rust belt city - Changchun City in Northeast China, in an attempt to measure the regeneration pattern and analyze the underlying determinants using the Classification and Regression Trees analysis. The results indicated that, of all underutilized lands, increments of vacant lot and remnant cultivated land continued to plague the expanding urban periphery during 2016-2019. In a way, reduced underutilized lands alleviated land use conflicts at the city core. Nearly 23% of the underutilized areas had been regenerated, dominated by realty development, with most converted to residential lands, ecological lands and industrial lands. On the contrary, conversion to transportation lands and parking lots seemed to avoid the rapidly expanding sites. The regeneration rates in a certain area can be increased by a multitude of factors, including denser, simply structured land underutilization, abundant ecosystem services nearby and accessibility to public infrastructures. Site conditions such as residential density and accessibility may have fueled the regeneration associated with residential purposes, while regeneration of industrial development was closely associated with the underutilization density and parcel regularity. This research provides an empirical paradigm for delivering regeneration geo-information across different underutilized lands, particularly for rust belt cities that are caught between a shrinking core and speculative periphery.

  • 研究论文
    PAN Tao, KUANG Wenhui, SHAO Hua, ZHANG Chi, WANG Xiaoyu, WANG Xinqing
    地理学报(英文版). 2023, 33(7): 1419-1441. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11442-023-2136-4

    Rapid urbanization has occurred in arid/semiarid China, threatening the sustainability of fragile dryland ecosystems; however, our knowledge of natural environmental constraints on multiscale urban lands in this region is still lacking. To solve this issue, this study retrieved 15-m multiscale urban lands. Results indicated that urban area increased by 68% during 2000-2018, and one-third of the increase was contributed by only three large cities. The coverage of impervious surface area (ISA) and vegetated area (VA) increased by 16.6% and 1.38%, respectively. Such land-cover change may be helpful in suppressing wind erosion and sand storms. We also found that the newly urban lands had relatively lower ISA and higher VA than the old urban lands, indicating an improved human settlement environment. Strong environmental constraints on urban expansion were identified, with cities in oasis urban environments (OUEs) that had water supply expanding 150% faster than cities in desert urban environments (DUEs). Urban development was also constrained by terrain, with 73% of the ISA expansion occurring in relatively flat areas. Overall, the aggregated pattern of urbanization and the increase in ISA and VA in the newly urbanized lands have improved water-use efficiency and ecological services and benefited desert ecosystem protection in arid/semiarid China.

  • 研究论文
    LIN Juan, LIN Mingshui, YOU Xiaojun, WU Shiyan
    地理学报(英文版). 2023, 33(7): 1442-1460. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11442-023-2137-3

    The agglomeration of the rural e-commerce industry represented by Taobao villages has reshaped the existing urban and rural spatial organization and proposed a new urbanization model. This study identified the spatiotemporal characteristics of Taobao villages in Quanzhou city and built panel regression models to examine the impact of these villages on urbanization level, which is measured via nighttime light (NTL). The results show that (1) while the number of Taobao villages in Quanzhou city has increased rapidly, it has also experienced sporadic growth and monocentric agglomeration, finally forming a polycentric agglomeration pattern; (2) Taobao villages display a significant near-city tendency, and the urbanization level of towns with Taobao villages is higher than that of towns without Taobao villages; (3) the panel regression model highlights that Taobao villages have a significant positive impact on urbanization level. Taobao villages near the city exhibit a greater effect; meanwhile, those that are far away from the city cannot improve their urbanization level unless they reach a considerable degree of agglomeration. Rural e-commerce will become an important direction for the transformation of urban fringe areas, which provides a certain reference for the development of new urbanization in China.

  • LIU Wenhua, WANG Yizhuo, HUANG Jinku, ZHU Wenbin
    地理学报(英文版). 2023, 33(10): 1967-1988. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11442-023-2161-3

    Situated in the hinterland of Eurasia, Central Asia is characterized by an arid climate and sparse rainfall. The uneven spatial distribution of water and land resources across the region has pressured economic and social development. An accurate understanding of Central Asia's water resources carrying capacity (WRCC) is vital for enhancing the sustainability of water resources utilization and guiding regional economic and social activities. This study aims to facilitate the sustainability of water resources utilization by evaluating the region's WRCC from the viewpoints of economic and technological conditions and social welfare. A concise yet effective model with relatively fewer parameters was established by adopting water resources data from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and socioeconomic data from the World Bank. The results indicated that the WRCC of all five Central Asian countries showed an increasing trend with improved water use efficiency from 1995 to 2020. Kazakhstan's WRCC was significantly higher than the other four countries, reaching 54.03 million people in 2020. The water resources carrying index (WRCI) of the five Central Asian countries varied considerably, with the actual population sizes of Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan highly overloaded. Although there has been a decrease in Central Asian countries’ WRCI between 1995 and 2020, water resources utilization problems in the region remain prominent. Based on the water resources carrying capacity evaluation system, to increase available water resources and improve production water use efficiency are key to address these issues. In light of this, this study offers practical and feasible solutions at the policy level: (1) The implementation of signed multilateral agreements on transboundary water resources allocation must proceed through joint governmental efforts. (2) Investments in advancing science and technology need to be increased to improve water use efficiency in irrigation systems. (3) The output of water-intensive crops should be reduced. (4) The industrial structure could be further optimized so that non-agricultural uses are the primary drivers of gross domestic product (GDP) growth.

  • 人地关系与生态系统专辑
    LI Yu, GAO Mingjun, ZHANG Zhansen, ZHANG Yuxin, PENG Simin
    地理学报(英文版). 2023, 33(8): 1569-1586. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11442-023-2143-5

    Spatial-temporal scales effects are general among human-nature interactions. However, the laws and mechanisms of the interaction between humans and the environment at different spatial-temporal scales remain to be identified. The Hexi Corridor in Northwest China is located in the eastern section of the Silk Road and is one of the world’s first long-distance cultural exchange centers. Here we present a comprehensive dataset of the Hexi Corridor, including changes in environments, population, wars, famines, settlements, and ancient oases from the Neolithic to the historic period. Results show that humans adapt to climate change on the millennium scale by choosing corresponding production methods. Environmental change, civilization evolution, and dynasty replacement interrelate on the decadal and centennial scales. Social crises are closely linked to extreme weather events on the interannual scale. On the basis of these results, we find similar time scale effects in the world’s major ancient civilizations. We do so by analyzing their processes of civilization evolution.

  • 综述论文
    MENG Guangwen, WANG Ran, WANG Shufang
    地理学报(英文版). 2023, 33(7): 1505-1526. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11442-023-2140-8

    As a new mode for Chinese overseas investment and a growth pole for industrialization and urbanization of the host countries, the overseas economic and trade cooperation zone (OETCZ) or overseas free economic zone (OFEZ) of China plays an important role under the Belt and Road Initiative. With the rising attention on OETCZ, studies regarding OETCZ have also increased. However, there is a lack of studies reviewing this topic’s progress, challenges and future directions. This paper employs a systematic review to examine the literature on the OETCZ along the Belt and Road, based on domestic and overseas studies. The results show that domestic studies account for a large proportion of the collected literature, compared to overseas studies. Interdisciplinary research focus includes inductive case studies from a classification perspective, deductive studies based on cultural and institutional perspectives, trade network and bilateral trade relations based on the perspectives of international trade and regional economy, spatial planning studies from urban planning perspective, and overseas comments and earlier studies on Japan’s and Singapore’s overseas parks from the geopolitical and international political perspectives. Despite diverse research contents and dramatic progress, limitations exist in current OETCZ-related studies, including a lack of exploration of the mechanism, questions and concerns from overseas scholars, sustainable development and other problems. Future studies should broaden and deepen research insights, including the “overseas free economic zones (OFEZ)” as a general designation to cover all other types of OETCZs, studies on the primary conditions of host countries, exploration of the theoretical issues behind China’s OETCZ, comparative study of OETCZs such as management structures, profit models, environmental standards and legal systems as well as popular issues questioned internationally.

  • ZHANG Mingyu, ZHANG Zhengyong, LIU Lin, ZHANG Xueying, KANG Ziwei, CHEN Hongjin, GAO Yu, WANG Tongxia, YU Fengchen
    地理学报(英文版). 2023, 33(10): 2031-2051. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11442-023-2164-0

    The mass elevation effect (MEE) is a thermal effect, in which heating produced by long wave radiation on a mountain surface generates atmospheric uplift, which has a profound impact on the hydrothermal conditions and natural geographical processes in mountainous areas. Based on multi-source remote sensing data and field observations, a spatial downscaling inversion of temperature in the Tianshan Mountains in China was conducted, and the MEE was estimated and a spatio-temporal analysis was conducted. The GeoDetector model (GDM) and a geographically weighted regression (GWR) model were applied to explore the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of the study area. Four key results can be obtained. (1) The temperature pattern is complex and diverse, and the overall temperature presented a pattern of high in the south and east, but low in the north and west. There were clear zonal features of temperature that were negatively correlated with altitude, and the temperature difference between the internal and external areas of the mountains. (2) The warming effect of mountains was prominent, and the temperature at the same altitude increased in steps from west to east and north to south. Geomorphological units, such as large valleys and intermontane basins, weakened the latitudinal zonality and altitudinal dependence of temperature at the same altitude, with the warming effect of mountains in the southern Tianshan Mountains. (3) The dominant factors affecting the overall pattern of the MEE were topography and location, among which the difference between the internal and external areas of the mountains, and the absolute elevation played a prominent role. The interaction between factors had a greater influence on the spatial differentiation of mountain effects than single factors, and there was a strong interaction between terrain and climate, precipitation, the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and other factors. (4) There was a spatial heterogeneity in the direction and intensity of the spatial variation of the MEE. Absolute elevation was significantly positively correlated with the change of MEE, while precipitation and the NDVI were dominated by negative feedback. In general, topography had the largest effect on the macroscopic control of MEE, and coupled with precipitation, the underlying surface, and other factors to form a unique mountain circulation system and climate characteristics, which in turn enhanced the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of the MEE. The results of this study will be useful in the further analysis of the causes of MEE and its ecological effects.

  • 人地关系与生态系统专辑
    WANG Peng, XU Mingxiang
    地理学报(英文版). 2023, 33(8): 1681-1701. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11442-023-2148-0

    Climate change and human activities have profoundly altered ecosystem services in the Yellow River Basin (YRB) since the Grain for Green project was implemented, but have not been accurately revealed on a year-by-year scale. This study combined the InVEST model to reveal the year-by-year changes in the water-related ecosystem services (WRESs) in YRB during 1990-2020, including water yield, soil conservation and water purification services. The trade-off/synergy of WRESs and impacts of land management measures on WRESs were assessed fully. The results showed that from 1990 to 2020, cropland and barren land were considerably converted to forest and grassland in YRB. WRESs were continuously improved as a result of increase of water yield and reductions of soil export and nitrogen export, at rates of +1.11 mm·yr-1, -0.23 t·km-2·yr-1 and -1.01 kg·km-2·yr-1, respectively. We found that in YRB water purification service showed trade-off relationships with soil conservation and water yield services in recent decades, and water yield and soil conservation maintained a synergitic effect. Additionally, the revegetation measures showed a potential of enhancing soil conservation and water purification, but reducing water yield. This study provided a thorough understanding of WRESs dynamics and a valuable reference for the ecological restoration practices.

  • 人地关系与生态系统专辑
    SHAO Quanqin, LIU Shuchao, NING Jia, LIU Guobo, YANG Fan, ZHANG Xiongyi, NIU Linan, HUANG Haibo, FAN Jiangwen, LIU Jiyuan
    地理学报(英文版). 2023, 33(8): 1587-1613. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11442-023-2144-4

    We propose a theoretical framework for assessing the ecological benefits provided by key national ecological projects in China over the past 20 years. A dataset consisting of six primary indicators and nine secondary indicators of ecosystem structure, ecosystem quality, and ecosystem services for 2000-2019 was generated using ground survey and remote sensing data. Ecological benefits were quantitatively evaluated following the implementation of these projects in China. Areas with medium, relatively high, and high degrees of ecological restoration accounted for 24.1%, 11.9%, and 1.7% of the national land, respectively. Degrees of ecological restoration were higher in areas with greater numbers of ecological projects. Areas with relatively and absolutely high degrees of ecological restoration were mainly concentrated in the Loess Plateau, the farming-pastoral zone of northern China, the Northeast China Plain, and an area spanning the borders of Sichuan, Yunnan, Guizhou, Chongqing, and Hunan. The relative contributions of climatic factors and ecological projects to changes in vegetation net primary productivity were 85.4% and 14.6%, respectively, and the relative contributions of climatic factors and ecological projects to changes in water erosion modulus were 69.5% and 30.5%, respectively. The restoration potential of national vegetation coverage was 20%, and the restoration potential percentage of forest and grassland vegetation coverage was 6.4% and 23%, respectively. Climatic conditions can inhibit ecological restoration. Areas with relatively high and high degrees of ecological restoration were mainly distributed in areas with an average annual temperature greater than 0°C and annual precipitation greater than 300 mm. Therefore, the limitations associated with climate conditions require consideration during the implementation of national ecological projects. The implementation of combined measures should be emphasized, and the benefits of ecological investment funds should be maximized.

  • JIN Jiaxin, CAI Yulong, GUO Xi, WANG Longhao, WANG Ying, LIU Yuanbo
    地理学报(英文版). 2023, 33(11): 2159-2174. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11442-023-2170-2

    Transpiration (Tc) is a critical component of the global water cycle. Soil moisture (SM) and vapor pressure deficit (VPD) are key regulators of Tc, and exploring their contributions to changes in Tc can deepen our understanding of the mechanisms of water cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. However, the driving roles of VPD and SM in Tc changes remain debated because of the coupling of SM and VPD through land-atmosphere interactions which restrict the quantification of the independent effects of SM and VPD on Tc. By decoupling the correlations between SM and VPD using a novel binning approach, this study analyzed the dominant drivers of vegetation transpiration in subtropical China from 2003 to 2018 based on multi-source data, including meteorological reanalysis, remotely sensed soil moisture, transpiration, and land cover data. The results show that Tc first increased and then remained stable with an increase in SM across the study area but changed slightly with increasing VPD. Overall, the relative contribution of SM to the change in Tc was approximately five times that of VPD. The sensitivities of Tc to SM and VPD differed among vegetation types. Although the sensitivity of Tc to SM was greater than that of VPD for all four vegetation types, the thresholds of Tc in response to SM were different, with the lowest threshold (approximately 35%) for the other forests and the highest threshold (approximately 55% ) for short wood vegetation. We infer that this is associated with the differences in ecological strategies. To verify the reliability of our conclusions, we used solar- induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) data as a proxy for Tc based on the tight coupling between photosynthesis and transpiration. Consistent results were obtained by repeating the analyses. The results of this study, in which the impacts of SM and VPD on Tc were decoupled, are beneficial for further understanding the critical processes involved in water cycling in terrestrial ecosystems in response to climate change.

  • 综述论文
    CHEN Wanxu, PAN Sipei, YE Xinyue
    地理学报(英文版). 2023, 33(7): 1527-1552. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11442-023-2141-7

    Under the framework of ecological civilisation, the formulation of territorial spatial planning (TSP) and improvement of spatial governance systems are of great practical significance. Since the founding of the People’s Republic of China, land-use planning (LUP) has experienced profound changes, and tremendous research efforts have been made in that field. However, systematic studies on LUP history are scarce. To bridge the existing gap, this study traced back to the emergence of LUP, described its practice stages, and analysed the evolution of its classification system and methods. Further, the three rounds of general LUP practice and the current TSP over the past 40 years of the reform and opening-up have been discussed. The evolution of LUP was found to be closely related to economic development and could be broadly divided into four stages. The development of land-use classification in China has been slow and can be divided into five stages according to the evolution of the land classification system and important historical events. The development of LUP methods can be divided into two stages, before and after 1978. Since the economic reform, China has successively conducted three rounds of general LUP under different institutional and policy backgrounds. Future development should aim to innovate the theories and methods of TSP with Chinese characteristics and promote the study of village planning and the construction of TSP systems to achieve rural revitalisation and ecological civilisation.

  • 综述论文
    LIU Sheng, GE Jian, YE Xinyue, WU Chao, BAI Ming
    地理学报(英文版). 2023, 33(7): 1482-1504. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11442-023-2139-1

    The number of urban vitality assessment studies is rising continuously, owing to the emergence of geographic data. The current literature focuses primarily on evaluation, rather than implementation, of urban vitality. Hence, a scoping review and research agenda are needed for urban vitality research to be more practical. This study aims to fill the research gap by exploring the content and methods of vitality assessment that can make urban vitality research more compatible with policy, planning, and design practice. We chose the neighborhood scale, which is the most practical initiative unit for vitality enhancement. We discovered that the gaps between the current research and practice primarily lie in the diversity of research subjects, the authenticity and comprehensiveness of vitality measurement, and the multi-domain of impact factor analysis. On this basis, we classified the following expandable aspects: (1) multi-type, multi-dimensional, multi-temporal, and implementation-adaptive vitality evaluation; (2) methods reflecting high-quality social interactions and the perceptions of vulnerable groups; (3) how design and urban management impacts vitality; and (4) the synergistic effects of multiple indicators on vitality. Overall, the research content and methodology presented in this paper can help neighborhood-scale vitality assessment to provide more meaningful insights for policy makers and practitioners.

  • 人地关系与生态系统专辑
    CHEN Xin, CAI Anning, GUO Renjie, LIANG Chuanzhuang, LI Yingying
    地理学报(英文版). 2023, 33(8): 1747-1764. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11442-023-2151-5

    The leaf area index (LAI) shows a significant increasing trend from global to regional scales, which is known as greening. Greening will further enhance photosynthesis, but it is unclear whether the contribution of greening has exceeded the CO2 fertilization effect and become the dominant factor in the gross primary productivity (GPP) variation. We took the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) of China, where cropland and natural vegetation are significantly greening, as an example. Based on the boreal ecosystem productivity simulator (BEPS) and Revised-EC-LUE models, the GPP in the YRD from 2001 to 2020 was simulated, and attribution analysis of the interannual variation in GPP was performed. In addition, the reliability of the GPP simulated by the dynamic global vegetation model (DGVM) in the area was further investigated. The research results showed that GPP in the YRD had three significant characteristics consistent with LAI: (1) GPP showed a significant increasing trend; (2) the multiyear mean and trend of natural vegetation GPP were higher than those of cropland GPP; and (3) cropland GPP showed double-high peak characteristics. The BEPS and Revised-EC-LUE models agreed that the effect of LAI variation (4.29 Tg C yr-1 for BEPS and 2.73 Tg C yr-1 for the Revised-EC-LUE model) determined the interannual variation in GPP, which was much higher than the CO2 fertilization effect (2.29 Tg C yr-1 for BEPS and 0.67 Tg C yr-1 for the Revised-EC-LUE model). The GPP simulated by the 7 DGVMs showed a huge inconsistency with the GPP estimated by remote sensing models. The deviation of LAI simulated by DGVM might be a potential cause for this phenomenon. Our study highlights that in significant greening areas, LAI has dominated GPP variation, both spatially and temporally, and DGVM can correctly simulate GPP only if it accurately simulates LAI variation.

  • ZHANG Tao, ZUO Shuangying, YU Bo, ZHENG Kexun, CHEN Shiwan, HUANG Lin
    地理学报(英文版). 2023, 33(10): 2052-2076. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11442-023-2165-z

    Karst depressions are common negative topographic landforms formed by the intense dissolution of soluble rocks and are widely developed in Guizhou province. In this work, an inventory of karst depressions in Guizhou was established, and a total of approximately 256,400 karst depressions were extracted and found to be spatially clustered based on multidistance spatial cluster analysis with Ripley's K function. The kernel density (KD) can transform the position data of the depressions into a smooth trend surface, and five different depression concentration areas were established based on the KD values. The results indicated that the karst depressions are clustered and developed in the south and west of Guizhou, while some areas in the southeast, east and north have poorly developed or no clustering. Additionally, the random forest (RF) model was used to rank the importance of factors affecting the distribution of karst depressions, and the results showed that the influence of lithology on the spatial distribution of karst depressions is absolutely dominant, followed by that of fault tectonics and hydrological conditions. The research results will contribute to the resource investigation of karst depressions and provide theoretical support for resource evaluation and sustainable utilization.

  • LI Xuhong, LIU Yansui, GUO Yuanzhi
    地理学报(英文版). 2023, 33(11): 2257-2277. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11442-023-2175-x

    Exploring the coupling coordinated level of rural population-land-industry (PLI) and its underlying driving mechanism contributes to the scientific decision-making on rural sustainable development. This study assessed the coupling coordinated level of PLI based on an improved evaluation index system and then revealed the regional differentiation and driving mechanism in China’s rural areas in 2020. The results showed that the rural PLI coupling coordinated degree was 0.4694, and thus was in the stage of approximate incoordination. In addition, China’s rural PLI coupling coordinated degree formed a spatially heterogeneous pattern with high levels in the northeast, eastern and central regions, and the intragroup difference contributed more than 80% to the total difference. The rural PLI coupling coordinated level was influenced by the combined effects of rural kernel and peripheral systems, but the rural kernel system mostly determined the differentiation. In the future, rural areas should first exploit population quality improvement projects, land consolidation projects and industrial integration development strategies to promote benign mutual feedback of PLI. Second, driving factors should be comprehensively regulated by implementing a “one village, one product” strategy, breaking the urban-rural dual system, improving agricultural machinery subsidies policy, and promoting urban-rural integrated development.

  • 人地关系与生态系统专辑
    GU Changjun, LIU Linshan, ZHANG Yili, WEI Bo, CUI Bohao, GONG Dianqing
    地理学报(英文版). 2023, 33(8): 1660-1680. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11442-023-2147-1

    Elucidating the distribution of the grazing pressure requires an understanding of the grazing activities. In this study, we analyzed the grazing behavior of yaks in Three-River- Source Region (TRSR) and identified the main factors influencing the distribution of grazing intensity (GI) using trajectory data and remote sensing datasets. Our results revealed that a semi-resident transhumance strategy is employed in this region. The average grazing time (GT) of four GPS collars over the year was 11.84 h/day (N6), 11.01 h/day (N11), 9.25 h/day (N18), and 11.61 h/day (N24). GT was generally higher in warm seasons (summer and autumn) than in cold seasons (spring and winter). The average daily moving speed was found to be closely related to the pasture size of different herders and the seasons. Geodetector analysis identified the distance to camp (DOC) as the most important single factor influencing the distribution of GI, explaining up to 52% of the GI variations. However, relying solely on this factor may not accurately depict the actual GI distribution. When pairwise factors interacted, the explanatory power of the model increased, ranging from 34.55% to 63.26%. Our study highlights the importance of considering multiple factors when predicting grazing intensity, as grazing activities tend to cluster near settlements, but other factors may also be influential.

  • 研究论文
    WANG Shaobo, LUO Xiaolong, TANG Mi
    地理学报(英文版). 2023, 33(7): 1461-1481. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11442-023-2138-2

    Under the wave of globalization, some cities in China, especially the so-called “megacities” are entering or have already entered the stage of post-suburbanization. The study places Shanghai suburbs in the post-suburbanization landscape and takes Qingpu New Town as an example to systematically analyze the development and formation mechanism of post-suburbanization spaces. This study reveals the features of the post-suburbanization in China as follows. Firstly, In China, post-suburbanization is achieved based on industrialization as well as on the promotion of urbanization. Although urbanization has strengthened other functions of suburban spaces aside from living and production, the production attributes of suburbs remain stable. Secondly, post-suburbanization space with the new town as the development model is an important path for a new round of suburban space growth, it has expanded the space for capital accumulation in metropolitan areas, thus promoting the possibility of reorganizing economic activities within metropolitan areas. At the same time, it focuses on the integration of industries and cities, and the simultaneous development of urbanization and industrialization. In turn, this promotes the accumulation of capital centered on the urban environment and manufacturing production. Furthermore, China’s special institutional circumstance enables its government to organize various actors to form a growth alliance, which will act together in the production of post-suburbanization space.

  • CUI Xiao, DENG Xiyue, WANG Yongsheng
    地理学报(英文版). 2023, 33(10): 1989-2010. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11442-023-2162-2

    Rural decline is a global issue accompanied by the regional imbalanced development and dysfunction in rural areas. Coordinated interaction among production, living, and ecological functions is essential for the sustainability of rural regional systems. Based on the framework of “element-structure-function”, an indicator system was constructed to explore the evolution characteristics and driving factors of rural regional functions in the farming-pastoral ecotone of northern China (FPENC) using the models of entropy-based TOPSIS (Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution), revised vertical and horizontal comparison, and GeoDetector. The results indicated a gradual synergy of rural production, living, and ecological functions during the period 2000-2020. Improvements were observed in production and living functions, and higher ecological function was found in Hebei, Inner Mongolia, Liaoning, and Shaanxi. However, conflicts between ecological function and production and living functions were evident in Shanxi, Gansu, and Ningxia. The spatial structure played a dominant role in determining rural production, living, and ecological functions, with ratios of 38%, 56%, and 84%, respectively. Land and industry emerged as the main driving factors influencing the evolution of rural regional functions. Notably, combined interactions of rural permanent population and primary industry output (0.73), grassland area and tertiary industry output (0.58), and forest area and tertiary industry output (0.72) were responsible for the changes observed in rural production, living, and ecological functions, respectively. The findings suggest that achieving coordinated development of rural regional functions can be accomplished by establishing differentiated rural sustainable development strategies that consider the coupling of population, land, and industry in FPENC.

  • WANG Qing, ZHANG Ying, CHEN Shungang, GAO Yu, YANG Jishuai, RAN Jingkun, GU Zhengquan, YANG Xiaoyan
    地理学报(英文版). 2023, 33(9): 1851-1876. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11442-023-2156-0

    The transition of human societies from high mobility to sedentary lifestyles had a profound impact on subsistence, technology, and the origin of civilization. Sedentism was influenced by various factors such as climate change, population growth, resource pressure, and technological innovation. The Tibetan Plateau, due to its alpine and hypoxic conditions, is an ideal region to study human adaptation to extreme environments. However, the prehistoric process of sedentism on the Tibetan Plateau is unclear and the chronological sequence and driving mechanism of sedentism on the Tibetan Plateau are still controversial. Previous studies have focused on the diffusion of agriculture from low to high elevation areas, with little attention given to the role of animal resources in sedentism. Seasonality analysis using animal remains is crucial in determining whether a site was occupied year-round. To establish the seasonal calendar of animal resource utilization, it is recommended to create a database of skeletal morphology, whole genome, and proteome of contemporary Tibetan Plateau fauna to aid in the identification of animal remains from archaeological sites. Thus, intricate web of human-animal-environment relationship and the role of animal resources in human sedentism on the Tibetan Plateau can then be evaluated.

  • 研究论文
    XU Yong, WANG Lijia, YANG Hua
    地理学报(英文版). 2023, 33(7): 1397-1418. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11442-023-2135-5

    The current suitability evaluation methods for land resources human activity in China suffer from theoretical deficiencies related to fundamental data accuracy, elevation and slope classification, and suitability class judgment. Empirical application of these methods is also hindered by excessive evaluation indicators, data acquisition difficulties, and limited applicability to high altitude regions. To address these issues, this paper proposes a technical evaluation framework for the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) that employs selected key parameters varying with elevation and slope to establish grid-scale evaluation models for construction land suitability (CLS) and arable land suitability (ALS). A generalized algorithm is then proposed for key parameters such as air density, air temperature, slope suitability for construction, and soil erosion resistance of sloping arable land. Empirical research is conducted using Milin County in southeast Tibet as a case study, with interval measurements of 100 m in elevation and 1° in slope. The evaluation model is tested using grid accuracies of 30 m, 50 m, 100 m, 250 m, 500 m, and 1000 m. The results reveal that: Firstly, the CLS and ALS can be categorized into five classes: highly suitable, suitable, moderately suitable, marginally suitable, and unsuitable, with varying area ratios under different grid accuracies. Secondly, existing construction lands in Milin County are mainly distributed in suitable, highly suitable, and moderately suitable CLS classes, accounting for over 94% of the total area studied under different grid accuracies. While arable land is mainly distributed in suitable, highly suitable, and moderately suitable ALS classes, accounting for over 96%. Thirdly, the empirical research in Milin County indicates that the evaluation method, quantitative model, and parameters algorithm for evaluating human activity suitability of land resources on the QTP are feasible and applicable, with a recommended grid accuracy within 100 m and a maximum of 250 m. Fourthly, the paper establishes a correspondence between land suitability (including construction land and arable land) and topographic factors (elevation and slope) that can be applied to the QTP. Finally, some professional defects in the evaluation methods of available land resources in Major Function Zoning and “Double Evaluations” of Territorial Spatial Planning in China when applied to the QTP are identified.

  • 人地关系与生态系统专辑
    WEN Xinyuan, LIU Dianfeng, QIU Mingli, WANG Yinjie, NIU Jiqiang, LIU Yaolin
    地理学报(英文版). 2023, 33(8): 1725-1746. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11442-023-2150-6

    Yield forecasting can give early warning of food risks and provide solid support for food security planning. Climate change and land use change have direct influence on regional yield and planting area of maize, but few studies have examined their synergistic impact on maize production. In this study, we propose an analysis framework based on the integration of system dynamic (SD), future land use simulation (FLUS) and a statistical crop model to predict future maize yield variation in response to climate change and land use change in a phaeozem region of central Jilin province, China. The results show that the cultivated land is likely to reduce by 862.84 km2 from 2030 to 2050. Nevertheless, the total maize yield is expected to increase under all four RCP scenarios due to the promotion of per hectare maize yield. Among the scenarios, RCP4.5 is the most beneficial to maize production, with a doubled total yield in 2050. Notably, the yield gap between different counties will be further widened, which necessitates the differentiated policies of agricultural production and farmland protection, e.g., strengthening cultivated land protection and crop management in low-yield areas, and taking adaptation and mitigation measures to coordinate climate change and production.

  • 人地关系与生态系统专辑
    CHAO Lumen, BAO Yulong, ZHANG Jiquan, BAO Yuhai, MEI Li, YUAN Zhihui
    地理学报(英文版). 2023, 33(8): 1631-1659. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11442-023-2146-2

    Climate change is manifesting rapidly in the form of fires, droughts, floods, resource scarcity, and species loss, and remains a global risk. Owing to the disaster risk management, there is a need to determine the Dead Fuel Index (DFI) threshold of the fire occurrence area and analyze the spatio-temporal variation of DFI to apply prevention measures efficiently and facilitate sustainable fire risk management. This study used the MODIS Burned Area Monthly L3 (MCD64A1), Landsat Global Burned Area (BA) products, and MODIS Surface Reflectance 8-Day L3 (MOD09A1) data from 2001 to 2020 to calculate the values of the DFI in the study area before the occurrence of fire. The results showed that: (1) The inversion of the meadow steppe DFI values in the fire area was distributed in the range of 14-26, and the fire rate was the highest in the range of 20-22. The inversion of the typical steppe DFI values in the fire area was distributed in the range of 12-26, and the fire rate was the highest in the range of 16-22. (2) Areas with high fire DFI values included Khalkhgol, Matad, Erdenetsagaan, Bayandun, Gurvanzagal, Dashbalbar in Mongolia, and scattered areas of the Greater Khingan Mountains (forest edge meadow steppe area), East and West Ujumqin Banner, and Xin Barag Right Banner. The highest fire probability of fire occurred during October and April. (3) The DFI values were sensitive to changes in altitude. The results of this study may provide useful information on surface energy balance, grassland carbon storage, soil moisture, grassland health, land desertification, and grazing in the study area, especially for fire risk management.

  • LENG Jing, GAO Mingliang, GONG Huili, CHEN Beibei, ZHOU Chaofan, SHI Min, CHEN Zheng, LI Xiang
    地理学报(英文版). 2023, 33(10): 2131-2156. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11442-023-2169-8

    Land subsidence is a geohazard phenomenon caused by the lowering of land elevation due to the compression of the sinking land soil body, thus creating an excessive constraint on the safe construction and sustainable development of cities. The use of accurate and efficient means for land subsidence prediction is of remarkable importance for preventing land subsidence and ensuring urban safety. Although the current time-series prediction method can accomplish relatively high accuracy, the predicted settlement points are independent of each other, and the existence of spatial dependence in the data itself is lost. In order to unlock this problem, a spatial convolutional long short-term memory neural network (ConvLSTM) based on the spatio-temporal prediction method for land subsidence is constructed. To this end, a cloud platform is employed to obtain a long time series deformation dataset from May 2017 to November 2021 in the understudied area. A convolutional structure to extract spatial features is utilized in the proposed model, and an LSTM structure is linked to the model for time-series prediction to achieve unified modeling of temporal and spatial correlation, thereby rationally predicting the land subsidence progress trend and distribution. The experimental results reveal that the prediction results of the ConvLSTM model are more accurate than those of the LSTM in about 62% of the understudied area, and the overall mean absolute error (MAE) is reduced by about 7%. The achieved results exhibit better prediction in the subsidence center region, and the spatial distribution characteristics of the subsidence data are effectively captured. The present prediction results are more consistent with the distribution of real subsidence and could provide more accurate and reasonable scientific references for subsidence prevention and control in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region.

  • MA Jiahao, WANG Xiaofeng, ZHOU Jitao, JIA Zixu, FENG Xiaoming, WANG Xiaoxue, ZHANG Xinrong, TU You, YAO Wenjie, SUN Zechong, HUANG Xiao
    地理学报(英文版). 2023, 33(9): 1897-1920. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11442-023-2158-y

    The degradation of ecosystem structure and function on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is the result of a combination of natural and anthropogenic factors, with landscape change driven by global change and human activities being one of the major ecological challenges facing the region. This study analyzed the spatiotemporal characteristics of ecosystem services (ESs) and landscape patterns in eastern Qinghai province (EQHP) from 2000 to 2018 using multisource datasets and landscape indices. Three ecosystem service bundles (ESBs) were identified using the self-organizing map (SOM), and changes in ecosystem structure and function were analyzed through bundle-landscaped spatial combinations. The study also explored the interactions between ESs and natural and human factors using redundancy analysis (RDA). We revealed an increase in total ecosystem service in the EQHP from 1.59 in 2000 to 1.69 in 2018, with a significant change in landscape patterns driven by the conversion of unused land to grassland in the southwest. Forestland, grassland, and unused land were identified as important to the supply of ESs. In comparison to human activities, natural environmental factors were found to have a stronger impact on changes in ESs, with vegetation, meteorology, soil texture, and landscape composition being the main driving factors. However, the role of driving factors within different ESBs varied significantly. Exploring the response of ecosystem services to changes in landscape patterns can provide valuable insights for achieving sustainable ecological management and contribute to ecological restoration efforts.

  • 研究论文
    ZHANG Jing, MA Kai, FAN Hui, HE Daming
    地理学报(英文版). 2024, 34(2): 329-354. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11442-024-2207-1

    The transboundary influence of environmental change is a critical issue in the Lancang-Mekong region. As the largest river-connected lake in the lower Mekong, the ecological change and influence of Tonle Sap Lake have received widespread attention and discussion, especially after 2008, when the hydrological regime of the Lancang-Mekong River mainstream underwent distinct changes. However, the linkage and coupling mechanism between the lake riparian environment and mainstream water level change are still unclear. In this study, the interannual spatiotemporal changes in land cover in the Tonle Sap Lake riparian zone (TSLRZ) and their relationship with mainstream water levels were analysed. The results showed that the expansion of farmland was the most notable change in 1988-2020. After 2008, the land cover changes intensified, manifested as accelerated farmland expansion, intensified woodland fragmentation and significant water body shrinkage. Furthermore, the responses of the water body, degraded land, wasteland and grassland areas to the mainstream water levels weakened after 2008. Evidently, the land cover changes in the TSLRZ in the last 30 years were less related to the mainstream water level change than to local reclamation and logging. These results can offer a new scientific basis for the transboundary influence analysis of hydrological change.

  • 研究论文
    TIAN Hao, LIU Lin, ZHANG Zhengyong, CHEN Hongjin, ZHANG Xueying, WANG Tongxia, KANG Ziwei
    地理学报(英文版). 2024, 34(2): 375-396. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11442-024-2209-z

    The variation of land surface temperature (LST) has a vital impact on the energy balance of the land surface process and the ecosystem stability. Based on MDO11C3, we mainly used regression analysis, GIS spatial analysis, correlation analysis, and center-of -gravity model, to analyze the LST variation and its spatiotemporal differentiation in China from 2001 to 2020. Furthermore, we employed the Geodetector to identify the dominant factors contributing to LST variation in 38 eco-geographic zones of China and investigate the underlying causes of its pattern. The results indicate the following: (1) From 2001 to 2020, the LST climate average in China is 9.6℃, with a general pattern of higher temperatures in the southeast and northwest regions, lower temperatures in the northeast and Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, and higher temperatures in plains compared to lower temperatures in mountainous areas. Generally, LST has a significant negative correlation with elevation, with a correlation coefficient of -0.66. China’s First Ladder has the most pronounced negative correlation, with a correlation coefficient of -0.76 and the lapse rate of LST is 0.57℃/100 m. (2) The change rate of LST in China during the study is 0.21℃/10 a, and the warming area accounts for 78%, demonstrating the overall spatial pattern a “multi-core warming and axial cooling”. (3) LST’s variation exhibits prominent seasonal characteristics in the whole country. The spatial distribution of average value in winter and summer differs significantly from other seasons and shows more noticeable fluctuations. The centroid trajectory of the seasonal warming/cooling area is close to a loop shape and displays corresponding seasonal reverse movement. Cooling areas exhibit more substantial centroid movement, indicating greater regional variation and seasonal variability. (4) China’s LST variation is driven by both natural influences and human activities, of which natural factors contribute more, with sunshine duration and altitude being key factors. The boundary trend between the two dominant type areas is highly consistent with the “Heihe-Tengchong Line”. The eastern region is mostly dominated by human activity in conjunction with terrain factors, while the western region is predominantly influenced by natural factors, which enhance/weaken the change range of LST through mutual coupling with climate, terrain, vegetation, and other factors. This study offers valuable scientific references for addressing climate change, analyzing surface environmental patterns, and protecting the ecological environment.

  • ZHAO Xiaoyuan, ZHANG Zhongwei, LIU Xiaojie, ZHANG Qian, WANG Lingqing, CHEN Hao, XIONG Guangcheng, LIU Yuru, TANG Qiang, RUAN Huada Daniel
    地理学报(英文版). 2023, 33(10): 2094-2112. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11442-023-2167-x

    There is a great uncertainty in generation and formation of non-point source (NPS) pollutants, which leads to difficulties in the investigation of monitoring and control. However, accurate calculation of these pollutant loads is closely correlated to control NPS pollutants in agriculture. In addition, the relationships between pollutant load and human activity and physiographic factor remain elusive. In this study, a modified model with the whole process of agricultural NPS pollutant migration was established by introducing factors including rainfall driving, terrain impact, runoff index, leaching index and landscape intercept index for the load calculation. Partial least squares path modeling was applied to explore the interactions between these factors. The simulation results indicated that the average total nitrogen (TN) load intensity was 0.57 t km-2 and the average total phosphorus (TP) load intensity was 0.01 t km-2 in Chengdu Plain. The critical effects identified in this study could provide useful guidance to NPS pollution control. These findings further our understanding of the NPS pollution control in agriculture and the formulation of sustainable preventive measures.

  • QI Xiaoqian, CHENG Xike, LIU June, ZHOU Zhengchao, WANG Ning, SHEN Nan, MA Chunyan, WANG Zhanli
    地理学报(英文版). 2023, 33(10): 2113-2130. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11442-023-2168-9

    Effective soil particle size composition can more realistically reflect the particle size sorting process of erosion. To reveal the individual contributions of rainfall intensity and slope to splash erosion, and to distinguish the enrichment ratio of each size and the critical size in splash, loessial soil collected on the Loess Plateau in May 2019 was tested under different rainfall intensities (60, 84, 108, 132, 156 mm h-1) and slopes (0°, 5°, 10°, 15°, 20°). The results demonstrated that 99% of splash mass was concentrated in 0-0.4 m. Rainfall intensity was the major factor for splash according to the raindrop generation mode by rainfall simulator nozzles. The contributions of rainfall intensity to splash erosion were 82.72% and 93.24%, respectively in upslope and downslope direction. The mass percentages of effective clay and effective silt were positively correlated with rainfall intensity, while the mass percentages of effective very fine sand and effective fine sand were negatively correlated with rainfall intensity. Opposite to effective very fine sand, the mass percentages of effective clay significantly decreased with increasing distance. Rainfall intensity had significant effects on enrichment ratios, positively for effective clay and effective silt and negatively for effective very fine sand and effective fine sand. The critical effective particle size in splash for loessial soil was 50 μm.

  • 人地关系与生态系统专辑
    WANG Yahui, YANG Aoxi, YANG Qingyuan, KONG Xiangbin, FAN Hui
    地理学报(英文版). 2023, 33(8): 1614-1630. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11442-023-2145-3

    In the context of social and economic transformation in rural China, ecosystem disservices have emerged frequently. This study reveals the spatiotemporal patterns, hazards and driving factors of wild boar damage from 2000 to 2021 by using the meta-analysis and collecting 733 typical human and wild boar conflicts. In this period, the number, spatial scope and hazard degree of wild boar damage incidents showed an increasing trend, and the number of provincial-level regions, prefecture-level cities and districts (counties) involved increased from 18, 41 and 67 to 25, 147 and 399, respectively. Wild boar damage incidents were concentrated in Chongqing municipality and central and western Hubei province before 2005, and then expanded to the Sichuan Basin, Loess Plateau, middle-lower reaches of Yangtze River and mountainous areas such as Changbai Mountains after 2015. The main manifestations were destroying crops, infringing poultry and causing casualties, especially the destruction of crops and farmland abandonment, accompanied by a rapid increase in casualties, accounting for 23.66% of the damage incidents. Meanwhile, the spreading trend and harmfulness of wild boar damage is a typical phenomenon of ecosystem disservices. The aggravation of this phenomenon is the result of ecological restoration, hunting ban policy, unclear boundary between agricultural land and ecological land, strong viability of wild boar and lack of natural enemies. This has posed an obvious threat to the use of abandoned farmland, the improvement of farmers’ livelihood and the maintenance of regional ecological security. It is urgent to formulate a policy of controlling the number of wild boars and establish a compensation mechanism for the loss by wild boars.