This paper aims to demonstrate the relationships between ENSO and rice production of Jiangxi province in order to identify the reason that ENSO might have little effect on Chinese rice production. Using a data set with measures of Jiangxi’s climate and rice production, we find the reason that during 1985 and 2004 ENSO’s well correlated with rainfall did not promote Chinese rice production. First, the largest effects of ENSO mostly occur in the months when there is no rice in the field. Second, there is almost no temperature effect. Finally, the monthly distribution of rainfall is almost the same in ENSO and neutral years because the largest effects are during months when there is the least rain. In addition, due to the high irrigation share and reliable and effective irrigation facilities of cultivated land, China’s rice production is less climate-sensitive.
This paper constructs a comprehensive evaluation index system for the urbanization level in China in terms of four aspects of urbanization connotation: population, economy, society, and land. A comprehensive measurement is carried out for the Chinese urbanization between 1981 and 2006 based on the Entropy method. The results show that the comprehensive level of urbanization in China has a continuous increase with the major features of economic growth and a rapid evolution of the geographical landscape, followed by population urbanization and then social urbanization of health care standard; the distinguished evolutional characteristics can also be found in each of the subsystems. The integrated evolution of urbanization has a profound effect on the resources, energy and the environment, making the land resources and energy security situation under severe pressure. The environment pressure is also increased further.
This paper mainly analyzes the geomorphological changes of the tidal deposition in the Liaohe Estuary based on the multi-year bathymetric charts in 1990, 1996, 2002 and 2005 and Landsat TM images in 1987, 1994, 2002 and 2005. Evolution of the tidal depositional system during the past 20 years in the Liaohe River was studied on the basis of 50 boreholes drilling and 30 km shallow stratigraphic exploration from 2002 to 2005. The main tidal depositional body of the modern Liaohe River delta is located in the Shuangtaizihe Estuary. The stratum within the depth of 10 m includes tidal bank facies, tidal channel facies and neritic facies with paleo-delta facies underlying them. The sediments of tidal bank facies are mainly composed of sand and silt with siltation load and suspended load of about 50% respectively in proportion. The sediment of tidal channel facies and neritic facies is composed of clayey silt and silty clay which belongs to suspended load. The study area was a small bay between the old Daliaohe River, the old Dalinghe River and the Raoyanghe River complex delta since the Holocene to 1896. Many tidal banks formed and expanded rapidly after the Shuangtaizihe River was excavated by labor in 1896. The runoff and sediment discharge have decreased since the construction of brake at the Shuangtaizihe River in 1958.The Shuangtaizihe Estuary is in the state of deposition as a whole whose tidal bank is increasing and expanding southward, westward and northward. The maximum expansion speed is 87 to 683 m/a and the mean depositional rate is 0.189 m/a. Erosion occurred in some part of tidal bank with average erosional rate of 0.122 m/a. The tidal channel was filled up with sediment at a migration speed of 48–200 m/a. Geomorphologic changes have happened under the combined influences of runoff, ocean dynamics and human activities. The main source of sediment changes from river sediment to sediment driven by tidal current and longshore current.
Five diagnostic experiments with a 3D baroclinic hydrodynamic and sediment transport model ECOMSED in couple with the third generation wave model SWAN and the Grant–Madsen bottom boundary layer model driven by the monthly sediment load of the Yellow River, were conducted to separately diagnose effects of different hydrodynamic factors on transport of suspended sediment discharged from the Yellow River in the Bohai Sea. Both transport and spatio-temporal distribution of suspended sediment concentration in the Bohai Sea were numerially simulated. It could be concluded that suspended sediment discharged from the Yellow River cannot be delivered in long distance under the condition of tidal current. Almost all of sediments from the Yellow River are deposited outside the delta under the condition of wind-driven current, and only very small of them are transported faraway. On the basis of wind forcing, sediments from the Yellow River are mainly transported north-northwestward, and others which are first delivered to the Laizhou Bay are continuously moved northward. An obvious 3D structure characteristic of sediment transport is produced in the wind-driven and tide-induced residual circulation condition. Transport patterns at all layers are generally consistent with circulation structure, but there is apparent deviation between the depth-averaged sediment flux and the circulation structure. The phase of temporal variation of sediment concentration is consistent with that of the bottom shear stress, both of which are proved to have a ten-day cycle in wave and current condition.
The Loess positive and negative terrains (P–N terrains), which are widely distributed on the Loess Plateau, are discussed for the first time by introducing its characteristic, demarcation as well as extraction method from high-resolution Digital Elevation Models. Using 5 m-resolution DEMs as original test data, P–N terrains of 48 geomorphological units in different parts of Shaanxi Loess Plateau are extracted accurately. Then six indicators for depicting the geomorphologic landscape and spatial configuration characteristic of P–N terrains are proposed. The spatial distribution rules of these indicators and the relationship between the P–N terrains and Loess relief are discussed for further understanding of Loess landforms. Finally, with the integration of P–N terrains and traditional terrain indices, a series of un-supervised classification methods are applied to make a proper landform classification in northern Shaanxi. Results show that P–N terrains are an effect clue to reveal energy and substance distribution rules on the Loess Plateau. A continuous change of P–N terrains from south to north in Shaanxi Loess Plateau shows an obvious spatial difference of Loess landforms and the positive terrain area only accounted for 60.5% in this region. The P–N terrains participant landform classification method increases validity of the result, especially in the Loess tableland, Loess tableland-ridge and the Loess low-hill area. This research is significant on the study of Loess landforms with the Digital Terrains Analysis methods.
There are 71 surface sediment samples collected from the eastern Beibu Gulf. The moment parameters (i.e. mean size, sorting and skewness) were obtained after applying grain size analysis. The geostatistical analysis was then applied to study the spatial autocorrelation for these parameters; while range, a parameter in the semivariogram that meters the scale of spatial autocorrelation, was estimated. The results indicated that the range for sorting coefficient was physically meaningful. The trend vectors calculated from grain size trend analysis model were consistent with the annual ocean circulation patterns and sediment transport rates according to previous studies. Therefore the range derived from the semivariogram of mean size can be used as the characteristic distance in the grain size trend analysis, which may remove the bias caused by the traditional way of basing on experiences or testing methods to get the characteristic distance. Hence the results from geostatistical analysis can also offer useful information for the determination of sediment sampling density in the future field work.
Seven cores were collected from different sediment zones of tidal flats at Xinyanggang in north Jiangsu province in August 2007. Sediment grain-size distribution and radioisotopes of 137Cs and 210Pb analysis were carried out for these cores. Sediment rates of the cores and radioisotopes distribution in surface sediment in different zones of the tidal flat were calculated from the 137Cs and 210Pb activities in sediments cores. The results indicated that each tidal zone had experienced different evolution phases, hydrological dynamics in the tidal flats made the grain-size of the surface sediment change gradually. 137Cs and 210Pb activities on the superficial layer of the cores varied spatially and the reason was discussed. On tidal flats, the fluctuation of 137Cs and 210Pb activities in the cores reflected the special sedimentary characteristics. Vegetation affects the grain-size distribution and the vertical profiles of 137Cs and 210Pb in the upper depths. 137Cs and 210Pb chronology got the comparable average sediment rates on the tidal flat. The characteristics of 137Cs and 210Pb in the cores reflected various depositional dynamical environments in different tidal zones and gave information on the different evolvement phases of the tidal zones. Based on the information of grain-size distribution, texture of the cores, sediment rates and topography, the evolution lines of the tidal flat were reconstructed.
The chemistry of major cations (Mg2+, Ca2+, Na+, and K+) and anions (HCO3 ?, SO4 2?, and Cl?) in the water of Lake Pumayum Co and its inflow river was studied, revealing the obvious ionic difference among various inflow rivers and the lake. The chemical type of the lake water was Mg2+-Ca2+-HCO3 ?-SO4 2+, but the major ions of the main inflow rivers were Ca2+-Mg2+-HCO3 ?. In the lake inlet of Jiaqu River, the main inflow river, there was significant variance of water chemistry within the depth less than 2 m. However, it was almost homogeneous at other area of the lake. Therefore, with the evidence of distribution of water chemistry and oxygen isotope of lake water, a conclusion can be outlined that Jiaqu River had a distinct effect on the hydrochemistry of the water on the submerged delta, whereas this is not the case for other rivers. The Gibbs plot revealed that the dominant mechanism responsible for controlling chemical compositions of the lake water was rocks weathering in the drainage area. Ion ratios and ternary plots further explored the main processes controlling the water chemistry of the catchment, i.e., carbonate weathering, pyrite weathering, and silicate weathering. The different hydrochemistry characteristics between river water and lake water may result from the CaCO3 precipitation. The findings will benefit the explanation of the environmental significance of carbonate in paleolimnological studies in the lake.
A total of 118 of agricultural soil and 43 of vegetable samples were collected from Dongguan City, Guangdong, China. The spatial distribution, sources, accumulation characteristics and potential risk of heavy metals in the agricultural soils and vegetables were depicted in details by three different approaches, including total contents of eight metal elements in soils and vegetables, GIS maps and multivariate analysis of heavy metals in soils in the study. The results show that there are higher accumulation of heavy metals such as Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb, Cd and Hg in agricultural soils, and the contents of Pb (65.38 mg kg?1) and Hg (0.24 mg kg?1) are 1.82 and 2.82 times of the background contents of the corresponding heavy metals in soils of Guangdong Province, respectively. There are about 3.4% of Cu, 5.9% of Ni, 1.7% of Cd and 28% of Hg in all collected soil samples from all investigated sites which have overran the contents for heavy metals of the China Environmental Quality Standard for Soils (GB15618-1995, Grade Ⅱ). The pollution characteristics of multi-metals in soils are mainly reflected by Hg. There are different sources to eight metal elements in soils, Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr and As are predominantly derived from parent materials, and Pb, Hg and Cd are affected by anthropogenic activities. The spatial distribution shows that the Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, Pb, As and Hg contents of agricultural soils are high in the west and low in the east, and Cd contents are high in the northwest, southeast and low in the southwest in Dongguan. The ratios of vegetable samples which Ni, Pb and As concentrations higher than the Maximum Levels of Contaminants in Foods (GB2762-2005) are 4.7%, 16.3% and 48.8%, respectively. The order of bio-concentration factors (BCF) of heavy metals in vegetables is Cd > Zn > Cu > As > Ni > Hg > Cr > Pb. It is necessary to focus on potential risk of heavy metals for food safety and human’s health from agricultural soils and vegetables in Dongguan City, Guangdong Province.
The environmental quality of heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, As, Hg) in agricultural surface soil of Chongming Island was assessed by national, local and professional standards based on a large scale investigation, in which 28 samples from vegetable plots, 65 samples from paddy fields and 9 samples from watermelon fields were collected from whole island area. Results showed that the average concentration of Pb, Cd, Cr, As and Hg was 21.6 mg·kg-1 , 0.176 mg·kg-1, 69.4 mg·kg-1, 9.209 mg·kg-1 and 0.128 mg·kg-1, respectively. Compared with the background value of Shanghai City soil, except for Pb and Cr, all the other heavy metals average concentrations in Chongming Island agricultural surface soil exceeded their corresponding natural-background values. The concentrations of Cd, As and Hg were 33.0%, 1.2% and 26.3% higher than the background value of Shanghai City, respectively. In addition, inverse distance interpolation (IDW) tool of GIS was also applied to study the spatial variation of heavy metals. The results indicated that most of agricultural soil quality was good, and the ratio of ecological, good soil, certified soil and disqualified soil were 1.26%, 97.1%, 1.47% and 0.12%, respectively. About 10.1%, 85.7%, 27.0%, 55.4% and 55.2% soil samples exceeded the Pb, Cd, Cr, As and Hg background value of Shanghai City, respectively. Among these three land use type soils, vegetable soil was most seriously polluted by heavy metals, which is probably related to the over-application of pesticides. The annual deposition fluxes of Pb, Cd, As and Hg were 7736 μg·m-2·a-1, 208 μg·m-2·a-1, 2238 μg·m-2·a-1 and 52.8 μg·m-2·a-1, respectively. Crop straw burning was the important source of heavy metals of atmospheric deposition, and atmospheric deposition contributed a lot to heavy metals in agricultural soil in Chongming Island.
Urban soil, forming along with the development of city, has unique properties of soil organic carbon. On the basis of field investigation and laboratory analysis, soil organic carbon (SOC) of Kaifeng city was studied, and the results showed that the characteristics of SOC were different not only among function districts in urban area, but also between urban area and suburbs. The order of SOC in topsoil was industrial district > recreational district > traffic district > cultural/educational district > residential/administrative district. The density of soil organic carbon (SOCD) in both topsoil and profile followed the orders of recreational district > industrial district > traffic district>cultural/educational district > residential/adminis- trative district, and cultural/educational district > traffic district>industrial district>recreational district > administrative/residential district, respectively. SOCD in both topsoil and profile decreased along the transection line from urban area to suburbs and urban area had 2.53-fold more SOCD in topsoil and 1.56-fold more SOCD in profile than suburbs, respectively. SOC decreased with the depth and was mainly distributed within the scope of 0–30 cm. The variances of SOC in urban area were more complicated than that in suburbs.