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  • Research Articles
    DONG Shijie, XIN Liangjie, LI Shengfa, XIE Hualin, ZHAO Yuluan, WANG Xue, LI Xiubin, SONG Hengfei, LU Yahan
    Journal of Geographical Sciences. 2023, 33(7): 1361-1376.

    Driven by urbanization and industrialization, arable land in hilly and mountainous regions of China is gradually becoming marginalized, with the extent of arable land abandonment rapidly expanding from poor-quality sloping arable land to high-quality terraces. The abandonment of large-scale terraces will lead to a series of socio-economic and ecological effects. A national sample survey was used to investigate the extent and spatial distribution of terrace abandonment in China, and a total of 560 valid village questionnaires from 329 counties were collected in the mountainous areas of China. The main findings are as follows: (1) The phenomenon of terrace abandonment was widespread throughout the country, with 54% of the total surveyed villages exhibiting terrace abandonment, and the area of abandoned terraces accounting for 9.79% of the total. (2) The degree of terrace abandonment is high in the south and low in the north. The most serious region with abandonment was the hilly and mountainous areas in the south, especially in the middle and lower Yangtze River region. (3) The main driving factors of terrace abandonment were rural labor migration, agricultural mechanization level, irrigation conditions, and transportation conditions for cultivation. Targeted measures should be taken based on the specific conditions of each area to alleviate terrace abandonment. Measures such as improving terrace mechanization are universally applicable. Specifically, low-quality terraces can be withdrawn orderly, and for high-quality terraces, multiple measures are needed to consolidate agricultural production, such as adjusting the planting structure, strengthening agricultural infrastructure construction, and encouraging the transfer of land-use rights as well as large-scale operation.

  • Research Articles
    LI Wenbo, LI Han, YAN Zhuoran, HU Bingqing, ZHU Yuanli, YANG Yuewen, WANG Dongyan
    Journal of Geographical Sciences. 2023, 33(7): 1377-1396.

    Rust belt cities are largely threatened by a waste of urban space at their core; however, in developing countries where land resources are widely used as instruments for macroeconomic stabilization, urban periphery is also at risk of being underutilized due to land hoarding. Such geographic differences entail new knowledge about how, where, and why underutilized lands are regenerated in the city. Furthermore, rapid urban growth imposes development disparity and mixed underutilization issues on cities in developing countries; therefore, how the geo-information obtained by the regeneration of different underutilized lands differs will be valuable for urban planners and policymakers to make prudent trade-offs. To fill these gaps, we conducted a sequential investigation into the regeneration of underutilized lands in a representative rust belt city - Changchun City in Northeast China, in an attempt to measure the regeneration pattern and analyze the underlying determinants using the Classification and Regression Trees analysis. The results indicated that, of all underutilized lands, increments of vacant lot and remnant cultivated land continued to plague the expanding urban periphery during 2016-2019. In a way, reduced underutilized lands alleviated land use conflicts at the city core. Nearly 23% of the underutilized areas had been regenerated, dominated by realty development, with most converted to residential lands, ecological lands and industrial lands. On the contrary, conversion to transportation lands and parking lots seemed to avoid the rapidly expanding sites. The regeneration rates in a certain area can be increased by a multitude of factors, including denser, simply structured land underutilization, abundant ecosystem services nearby and accessibility to public infrastructures. Site conditions such as residential density and accessibility may have fueled the regeneration associated with residential purposes, while regeneration of industrial development was closely associated with the underutilization density and parcel regularity. This research provides an empirical paradigm for delivering regeneration geo-information across different underutilized lands, particularly for rust belt cities that are caught between a shrinking core and speculative periphery.

  • Research Articles
    CHEN Xiaoqiang, YUAN Lihua, SONG Changqing
    Journal of Geographical Sciences. 2023, 33(6): 1185-1204.

    The Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) was formally signed by the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries, along with China, Japan, South Korea, Australia, and New Zealand. This was a significant step towards regional integration in the Asia-Pacific region. Analysing the trade structure among member states is crucial in understanding the path to regional integration and policy implications of regional cooperation within the RCEP framework. Based on subdivided commodity data, this study reviews the evolution of merchandise trade in the RCEP region in the past two decades. It investigates the current trade structure of the RCEP, emphasising the relative importance of intra-regional versus extra-regional interdependence and the trade asymmetry of the regional members. The results of the study are as follows: First, the overall extent of regional trade integration in the RCEP region increased modestly from 2001 to 2018, indicating that the RCEP region was export-oriented and there was significant room for further expansion of regional trade. Second, most of the commodities traded in the RCEP region demonstrated much higher extra-regional interdependence than intra-regional in 2018, particularly labor-, capital-, and technology-intensive products such as television and radio apparatus. Third, the trade networks of the top five traded commodities were distinguished by large economic asymmetries, with China, Japan, and South Korea being the dominant regional powers. These findings have significant implications for understanding how to promote regional integration and cooperation. Besides expanding intra-regional trade, outward-oriented factors influenced by the regional powers—including consolidating the global advantages of manufacturing, stabilizing supply chains by including large resource countries, and attracting extra-regional investments—were also the main rationales for the conclusion of the RCEP.

  • Research Articles
    REN Yawen, YANG Yu, WANG Yun, LIU Yi
    Journal of Geographical Sciences. 2023, 33(6): 1141-1160.

    The semiconductor industry typifies the international division of labor and exhibits significant structural differences in global trade in key product segments. The evolution of cross-border trade flows and dependency relationships, as well as trade organization patterns of manufactured products, equipment and materials for manufacturing, are investigated by constructing a global semiconductor trade relationship matrix and using the Gini coefficient and trade dependency index. It was found that: (1) the global semiconductor trade is highly spatially unbalanced, with materials and equipment trade in particular highly concentrated in a few countries on both the supply and demand sides; (2) China has replaced the US as the largest global semiconductor trade player and has shaped the regionalized system of manufactured goods and materials trade with East and Southeast Asian economies, but its equipment trade is highly dependent on Europe and the US; (3) the semiconductor production model has promoted the regionalization of the east and southeast Asia region in the trade of manufactured products and materials, and developed economies such as the US, the EU, Japan, and South Korea have maintained their monopolistic advantage in the trade of semiconductor equipment by building exclusive innovation networks and establishing trade barriers. The monopolistic nature of the semiconductor equipment trade and the regionalization of manufactured goods and materials have formed the characteristics of the global semiconductor trade and are likely to be further strengthened in future trade.

  • Research Articles
    LIU Zhitao, WANG Shaojian, FANG Chuanglin
    Journal of Geographical Sciences. 2023, 33(6): 1226-1244.

    Ecosystem services are the media and channels through which ecological elements, structures, functions, and products benefit human society. Regulating the utilization intensity and protection methods of society on the ecosystem according to the ecosystem service value (ESV) and its influencing mechanism is of great significance for achieving the sustainable development goals. This paper takes the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area (GBA) as the research object and describes the spatiotemporal evolution characteristics of ESV in the GBA from 2000 to 2015. Panel quantile regression is also implemented to increase the understanding of the influencing mechanism of ESV. The main results are as follows: (1) From 2000 to 2015, the total ESV declined with a decreasing rate. The areas of decline were mainly distributed in the central part of the GBA and areas along the Pearl River Estuary. (2) Elasticity index, indicating response of ESV to land use change, reached its peak (1.08). The spatial distribution of elasticity index showed that land use changes brought about more intense ESV variations at the junction of cities. (3) In areas with different ESV levels, the influencing factors have different effects. Land use integrity can only promote ecosystem service capabilities in low-ESV areas. The positive effect of temperature on ecosystem service capacity increases with the increase of ESV, which reflects the self-reinforcement of the ecosystem. Moreover, the negative effect of economic density on ecosystem service capacity decreases with the increase of ESV, which reflects the self-protection of the ecosystem. The combination of such self-reinforcement and self-protection will lead to an ESV gap between the high- and low-ESV areas, and induce the “natural Matthew effect.”

  • Research Articles
    FENG Weilun, LIU Yansui, LI Yurui, CHEN Zongfeng
    Journal of Geographical Sciences. 2023, 33(6): 1271-1286.

    Cropping systems worldwide have been affected by the current trend in global warming and the optimization of cropping systems is an important area of research in the transition of agricultural land. The Loess Plateau is a typical ecologically fragile region with the most serious soil erosion in China. We carried out a field experiment in Yan’an city on the Loess Plateau to explore the effect of sowing date on crop growth and yield. We then analyzed the feasibility of a double-cropping system by considering climatic adaptability, ecological suitability and economic viability. Our results showed that different sowing dates resulted in significant differences in crop growth and that appropriate early sowing can result in higher crop yields for early maturing varieties. We showed that double-cropping systems of sweet maize (Zea mays)-forage rape and feed maize-forage rape are feasible on the Loess Plateau. We discuss the implications for the efficient use of farmland, which is important in guiding agricultural supply-side reform and the development of modern agricultural management.

  • Research Articles
    PAN Tao, KUANG Wenhui, SHAO Hua, ZHANG Chi, WANG Xiaoyu, WANG Xinqing
    Journal of Geographical Sciences. 2023, 33(7): 1419-1441.

    Rapid urbanization has occurred in arid/semiarid China, threatening the sustainability of fragile dryland ecosystems; however, our knowledge of natural environmental constraints on multiscale urban lands in this region is still lacking. To solve this issue, this study retrieved 15-m multiscale urban lands. Results indicated that urban area increased by 68% during 2000-2018, and one-third of the increase was contributed by only three large cities. The coverage of impervious surface area (ISA) and vegetated area (VA) increased by 16.6% and 1.38%, respectively. Such land-cover change may be helpful in suppressing wind erosion and sand storms. We also found that the newly urban lands had relatively lower ISA and higher VA than the old urban lands, indicating an improved human settlement environment. Strong environmental constraints on urban expansion were identified, with cities in oasis urban environments (OUEs) that had water supply expanding 150% faster than cities in desert urban environments (DUEs). Urban development was also constrained by terrain, with 73% of the ISA expansion occurring in relatively flat areas. Overall, the aggregated pattern of urbanization and the increase in ISA and VA in the newly urbanized lands have improved water-use efficiency and ecological services and benefited desert ecosystem protection in arid/semiarid China.

  • Research Articles
    LIU Wenhua, WANG Yizhuo, HUANG Jinku, ZHU Wenbin
    Journal of Geographical Sciences. 2023, 33(10): 1967-1988.

    Situated in the hinterland of Eurasia, Central Asia is characterized by an arid climate and sparse rainfall. The uneven spatial distribution of water and land resources across the region has pressured economic and social development. An accurate understanding of Central Asia's water resources carrying capacity (WRCC) is vital for enhancing the sustainability of water resources utilization and guiding regional economic and social activities. This study aims to facilitate the sustainability of water resources utilization by evaluating the region's WRCC from the viewpoints of economic and technological conditions and social welfare. A concise yet effective model with relatively fewer parameters was established by adopting water resources data from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and socioeconomic data from the World Bank. The results indicated that the WRCC of all five Central Asian countries showed an increasing trend with improved water use efficiency from 1995 to 2020. Kazakhstan's WRCC was significantly higher than the other four countries, reaching 54.03 million people in 2020. The water resources carrying index (WRCI) of the five Central Asian countries varied considerably, with the actual population sizes of Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan highly overloaded. Although there has been a decrease in Central Asian countries’ WRCI between 1995 and 2020, water resources utilization problems in the region remain prominent. Based on the water resources carrying capacity evaluation system, to increase available water resources and improve production water use efficiency are key to address these issues. In light of this, this study offers practical and feasible solutions at the policy level: (1) The implementation of signed multilateral agreements on transboundary water resources allocation must proceed through joint governmental efforts. (2) Investments in advancing science and technology need to be increased to improve water use efficiency in irrigation systems. (3) The output of water-intensive crops should be reduced. (4) The industrial structure could be further optimized so that non-agricultural uses are the primary drivers of gross domestic product (GDP) growth.

  • Research Articles
    SONG Yongyong, XIA Siyou, XUE Dongqian, MA Beibei, LIU Xianfeng
    Journal of Geographical Sciences. 2023, 33(6): 1245-1270.

    In this paper, we firstly constructed a theoretical framework based on major function-oriented zones (MFOZs). Then taking the Loess Plateau (LP) as the study area, we revealed the spatio-temporal differences and influencing factors of carbon emission equity by using the carbon equity model, Theil index, and Geo-detector. The results showed that: (1) From 2000 to 2017, the carbon equity of the Loess Plateau showed a downward trend, but the ecological carbon equity remained above 2.3, which was significantly higher than the economic carbon equity. (2) The ecological carbon equity in the Loess Plateau increased from the core of urban agglomeration to the periphery. The spatial pattern of economic carbon equity changed from low in the northeast and high in the southwest to low in the north and high in the south. The ecological support coefficient and economic contribution coefficient of provincial capital cities and their surrounding districts remained low since 2000. (3) The equity of carbon emissions in each function-oriented zone in the Loess Plateau was compatible with its orientation. The ecological carbon equity of the key ecological functional zones (KEFZs) was significantly higher than that of the key development zones (KDZs) and the major agricultural production zones (MAPZs), while the economic carbon equity of the KDZs was significantly higher than that of the MAPZs and the KEFZs. (4) The formation and evolution of the spatial differentiation pattern of carbon equity in the Loess Plateau was the result of the long-term interaction effects of geographic location, social economy, science and technology level, and policy system. Among them, eco-environmental protection policy, government financial support, and geographical location are the key driving factors for the spatial pattern of ecological carbon equity. Geographical location, social economic level, and science and technology level are the key factors driving the spatial pattern of economic carbon equity. According to this study, to achieving carbon equity on the Loess Plateau region, what the key approaches are to fully implement the planning of MFOZs, design differentiated regional carbon compensation mechanisms, improve energy efficiency and ecological environment capacity, and build a collaborative regional carbon emission governance system. This research can not only provide an effective framework for analysing the carbon equity, but also offer policy implication for promoting carbon emission reduction and achieving high-quality development goals in the ecologically fragile areas.

  • Research Articles
    ZHAO Hongling, LI Hongyan, XUAN Yunqing, BAO Shanshan, CIDAN Yangzong, LIU Yingying, LI Changhai, YAO Meichu
    Journal of Geographical Sciences. 2023, 33(6): 1313-1333.

    Snowmelt runoff is a vital source of fresh water in cold regions. Accurate snowmelt runoff forecasting is crucial in supporting the integrated management of water resources in these regions. However, the performances of such forecasts are often very low as they involve many meteorological factors and complex physical processes. Aiming to improve the understanding of these influencing factors on snowmelt runoff forecast, this study investigated the time lag of various meteorological factors before identifying the key factor in snowmelt processes. The results show that solar radiation, followed by temperature, are the two critical influencing factors with time lags being 0 and 2 days, respectively. This study further quantifies the effect of the two factors in terms of their contribution rate using a set of empirical equations developed. Their contribution rates as to yearly snowmelt runoff are found to be 56% and 44%, respectively. A mid-long term snowmelt forecasting model is developed using machine learning techniques and the identified most critical influencing factor with the biggest contribution rate. It is shown that forecasting based on Supporting Vector Regression (SVR) method can meet the requirements of forecast standards.

  • Special Issue: Human-environment interactions and Ecosystems
    LI Yu, GAO Mingjun, ZHANG Zhansen, ZHANG Yuxin, PENG Simin
    Journal of Geographical Sciences. 2023, 33(8): 1569-1586.

    Spatial-temporal scales effects are general among human-nature interactions. However, the laws and mechanisms of the interaction between humans and the environment at different spatial-temporal scales remain to be identified. The Hexi Corridor in Northwest China is located in the eastern section of the Silk Road and is one of the world’s first long-distance cultural exchange centers. Here we present a comprehensive dataset of the Hexi Corridor, including changes in environments, population, wars, famines, settlements, and ancient oases from the Neolithic to the historic period. Results show that humans adapt to climate change on the millennium scale by choosing corresponding production methods. Environmental change, civilization evolution, and dynasty replacement interrelate on the decadal and centennial scales. Social crises are closely linked to extreme weather events on the interannual scale. On the basis of these results, we find similar time scale effects in the world’s major ancient civilizations. We do so by analyzing their processes of civilization evolution.

  • Research Articles
    LIN Juan, LIN Mingshui, YOU Xiaojun, WU Shiyan
    Journal of Geographical Sciences. 2023, 33(7): 1442-1460.

    The agglomeration of the rural e-commerce industry represented by Taobao villages has reshaped the existing urban and rural spatial organization and proposed a new urbanization model. This study identified the spatiotemporal characteristics of Taobao villages in Quanzhou city and built panel regression models to examine the impact of these villages on urbanization level, which is measured via nighttime light (NTL). The results show that (1) while the number of Taobao villages in Quanzhou city has increased rapidly, it has also experienced sporadic growth and monocentric agglomeration, finally forming a polycentric agglomeration pattern; (2) Taobao villages display a significant near-city tendency, and the urbanization level of towns with Taobao villages is higher than that of towns without Taobao villages; (3) the panel regression model highlights that Taobao villages have a significant positive impact on urbanization level. Taobao villages near the city exhibit a greater effect; meanwhile, those that are far away from the city cannot improve their urbanization level unless they reach a considerable degree of agglomeration. Rural e-commerce will become an important direction for the transformation of urban fringe areas, which provides a certain reference for the development of new urbanization in China.

  • Research Articles
    YU Yingjie, LYU Lachang
    Journal of Geographical Sciences. 2023, 33(6): 1161-1184.

    Knowledge innovation is a key component of urban innovation function and an important basis for modern urban development. Combining the multidisciplinary research of knowledge innovation, this paper constructs a measurement framework of urban knowledge innovation function from the perspective of urban geography and analyzes its spatial pattern and influencing factors. The conclusions are as follows: (1) The function of urban knowledge innovation refers to the tasks and roles it undertakes in the process of knowledge creation, knowledge dissemination and knowledge application, which is based on the internal knowledge stock and external practice conditions to meet the needs of human survival and development in the new era. The measurement dimensions include functional scale, functional intensity, functional scale, and functional vitality. (2) The development level of knowledge innovation functions in Chinese cities is uneven, and the cities with outstanding knowledge innovation functions are mainly concentrated in the eastern coastal areas and a few developed areas in the central and western regions, forming the diamond-shaped knowledge innovation structure with the Beijing-Tianjin, the Yangtze River Delta, the Pearl River Delta, Shaanxi-Chengdu-Chongqing as the four vertices and central Wuhan and Hefei as the center. According to the Jenks natural breakpoint method, it is divided into national-level, regional-level, local-level and knowledge-innovative development cities. (3) The spatial differentiation characteristics of urban knowledge innovation function are simultaneously affected by various natural and human factors. Among them, economic environment, opening environment, and cultural environment have the strongest interactive explanatory power with other factors, and are the dominant factors affecting the city’s knowledge innovation function. In the future, China should fully considers the status and characteristics of the city’s own knowledge economy development with corresponding policies and measures suitable for the development of the city’s knowledge economy, and strengthen the dominant position of human and social factors in the constructing the city’s knowledge innovation function.

  • Research Articles
    JIN Jiaxin, CAI Yulong, GUO Xi, WANG Longhao, WANG Ying, LIU Yuanbo
    Journal of Geographical Sciences. 2023, 33(11): 2159-2174.

    Transpiration (Tc) is a critical component of the global water cycle. Soil moisture (SM) and vapor pressure deficit (VPD) are key regulators of Tc, and exploring their contributions to changes in Tc can deepen our understanding of the mechanisms of water cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. However, the driving roles of VPD and SM in Tc changes remain debated because of the coupling of SM and VPD through land-atmosphere interactions which restrict the quantification of the independent effects of SM and VPD on Tc. By decoupling the correlations between SM and VPD using a novel binning approach, this study analyzed the dominant drivers of vegetation transpiration in subtropical China from 2003 to 2018 based on multi-source data, including meteorological reanalysis, remotely sensed soil moisture, transpiration, and land cover data. The results show that Tc first increased and then remained stable with an increase in SM across the study area but changed slightly with increasing VPD. Overall, the relative contribution of SM to the change in Tc was approximately five times that of VPD. The sensitivities of Tc to SM and VPD differed among vegetation types. Although the sensitivity of Tc to SM was greater than that of VPD for all four vegetation types, the thresholds of Tc in response to SM were different, with the lowest threshold (approximately 35%) for the other forests and the highest threshold (approximately 55% ) for short wood vegetation. We infer that this is associated with the differences in ecological strategies. To verify the reliability of our conclusions, we used solar- induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) data as a proxy for Tc based on the tight coupling between photosynthesis and transpiration. Consistent results were obtained by repeating the analyses. The results of this study, in which the impacts of SM and VPD on Tc were decoupled, are beneficial for further understanding the critical processes involved in water cycling in terrestrial ecosystems in response to climate change.

  • MENG Guangwen, WANG Ran, WANG Shufang
    Journal of Geographical Sciences. 2023, 33(7): 1505-1526.

    As a new mode for Chinese overseas investment and a growth pole for industrialization and urbanization of the host countries, the overseas economic and trade cooperation zone (OETCZ) or overseas free economic zone (OFEZ) of China plays an important role under the Belt and Road Initiative. With the rising attention on OETCZ, studies regarding OETCZ have also increased. However, there is a lack of studies reviewing this topic’s progress, challenges and future directions. This paper employs a systematic review to examine the literature on the OETCZ along the Belt and Road, based on domestic and overseas studies. The results show that domestic studies account for a large proportion of the collected literature, compared to overseas studies. Interdisciplinary research focus includes inductive case studies from a classification perspective, deductive studies based on cultural and institutional perspectives, trade network and bilateral trade relations based on the perspectives of international trade and regional economy, spatial planning studies from urban planning perspective, and overseas comments and earlier studies on Japan’s and Singapore’s overseas parks from the geopolitical and international political perspectives. Despite diverse research contents and dramatic progress, limitations exist in current OETCZ-related studies, including a lack of exploration of the mechanism, questions and concerns from overseas scholars, sustainable development and other problems. Future studies should broaden and deepen research insights, including the “overseas free economic zones (OFEZ)” as a general designation to cover all other types of OETCZs, studies on the primary conditions of host countries, exploration of the theoretical issues behind China’s OETCZ, comparative study of OETCZs such as management structures, profit models, environmental standards and legal systems as well as popular issues questioned internationally.

  • Research Articles
    DENG Wei, ZHANG Hao, ZHANG Shaoyao, WANG Zhanyun, HU Maogui, PENG Li
    Journal of Geographical Sciences. 2023, 33(6): 1205-1225.

    The coupling of humans and nature differs in terms of distribution and intensity, thus producing a gradient of synthetic geographical environments. Within this variety of gradients, the transitional zone represents a complex space where dynamic processes and unstable conditions are observed. Based on the concepts of ecotone and transitional zone, we propose a conceptual framework for the transitional geospace of coupled human and natural systems and a quantitative identification method for the zone. Taking the Sichuan Basin as an example, this study defined the strength and direction of the coupling of the natural ecosystem and socioeconomic system and divided different types of transitional geospace. The transitional geo- space of the strong coupling type accounted for approximately 16.7% of the study area. Nine of the ten counties with the largest proportion of the type were formerly nationally poor counties in the study area. In the strong coupling type, human and nature jointly explained a high proportion of the variance in transitional stability (e.g., in Shifang city, with an unexplained proportion of 1.7%). The discovery and characterization of the transitional geospace types is crucial for facilitating more effective land use planning and sustainable balance among the population, resources, and environment.

  • Research Articles
    ZHANG Mingyu, ZHANG Zhengyong, LIU Lin, ZHANG Xueying, KANG Ziwei, CHEN Hongjin, GAO Yu, WANG Tongxia, YU Fengchen
    Journal of Geographical Sciences. 2023, 33(10): 2031-2051.

    The mass elevation effect (MEE) is a thermal effect, in which heating produced by long wave radiation on a mountain surface generates atmospheric uplift, which has a profound impact on the hydrothermal conditions and natural geographical processes in mountainous areas. Based on multi-source remote sensing data and field observations, a spatial downscaling inversion of temperature in the Tianshan Mountains in China was conducted, and the MEE was estimated and a spatio-temporal analysis was conducted. The GeoDetector model (GDM) and a geographically weighted regression (GWR) model were applied to explore the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of the study area. Four key results can be obtained. (1) The temperature pattern is complex and diverse, and the overall temperature presented a pattern of high in the south and east, but low in the north and west. There were clear zonal features of temperature that were negatively correlated with altitude, and the temperature difference between the internal and external areas of the mountains. (2) The warming effect of mountains was prominent, and the temperature at the same altitude increased in steps from west to east and north to south. Geomorphological units, such as large valleys and intermontane basins, weakened the latitudinal zonality and altitudinal dependence of temperature at the same altitude, with the warming effect of mountains in the southern Tianshan Mountains. (3) The dominant factors affecting the overall pattern of the MEE were topography and location, among which the difference between the internal and external areas of the mountains, and the absolute elevation played a prominent role. The interaction between factors had a greater influence on the spatial differentiation of mountain effects than single factors, and there was a strong interaction between terrain and climate, precipitation, the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and other factors. (4) There was a spatial heterogeneity in the direction and intensity of the spatial variation of the MEE. Absolute elevation was significantly positively correlated with the change of MEE, while precipitation and the NDVI were dominated by negative feedback. In general, topography had the largest effect on the macroscopic control of MEE, and coupled with precipitation, the underlying surface, and other factors to form a unique mountain circulation system and climate characteristics, which in turn enhanced the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of the MEE. The results of this study will be useful in the further analysis of the causes of MEE and its ecological effects.

  • Special Issue: Human-environment interactions and Ecosystems
    SHAO Quanqin, LIU Shuchao, NING Jia, LIU Guobo, YANG Fan, ZHANG Xiongyi, NIU Linan, HUANG Haibo, FAN Jiangwen, LIU Jiyuan
    Journal of Geographical Sciences. 2023, 33(8): 1587-1613.

    We propose a theoretical framework for assessing the ecological benefits provided by key national ecological projects in China over the past 20 years. A dataset consisting of six primary indicators and nine secondary indicators of ecosystem structure, ecosystem quality, and ecosystem services for 2000-2019 was generated using ground survey and remote sensing data. Ecological benefits were quantitatively evaluated following the implementation of these projects in China. Areas with medium, relatively high, and high degrees of ecological restoration accounted for 24.1%, 11.9%, and 1.7% of the national land, respectively. Degrees of ecological restoration were higher in areas with greater numbers of ecological projects. Areas with relatively and absolutely high degrees of ecological restoration were mainly concentrated in the Loess Plateau, the farming-pastoral zone of northern China, the Northeast China Plain, and an area spanning the borders of Sichuan, Yunnan, Guizhou, Chongqing, and Hunan. The relative contributions of climatic factors and ecological projects to changes in vegetation net primary productivity were 85.4% and 14.6%, respectively, and the relative contributions of climatic factors and ecological projects to changes in water erosion modulus were 69.5% and 30.5%, respectively. The restoration potential of national vegetation coverage was 20%, and the restoration potential percentage of forest and grassland vegetation coverage was 6.4% and 23%, respectively. Climatic conditions can inhibit ecological restoration. Areas with relatively high and high degrees of ecological restoration were mainly distributed in areas with an average annual temperature greater than 0°C and annual precipitation greater than 300 mm. Therefore, the limitations associated with climate conditions require consideration during the implementation of national ecological projects. The implementation of combined measures should be emphasized, and the benefits of ecological investment funds should be maximized.

  • Special Issue: Human-environment interactions and Ecosystems
    WANG Peng, XU Mingxiang
    Journal of Geographical Sciences. 2023, 33(8): 1681-1701.

    Climate change and human activities have profoundly altered ecosystem services in the Yellow River Basin (YRB) since the Grain for Green project was implemented, but have not been accurately revealed on a year-by-year scale. This study combined the InVEST model to reveal the year-by-year changes in the water-related ecosystem services (WRESs) in YRB during 1990-2020, including water yield, soil conservation and water purification services. The trade-off/synergy of WRESs and impacts of land management measures on WRESs were assessed fully. The results showed that from 1990 to 2020, cropland and barren land were considerably converted to forest and grassland in YRB. WRESs were continuously improved as a result of increase of water yield and reductions of soil export and nitrogen export, at rates of +1.11 mm·yr-1, -0.23 t·km-2·yr-1 and -1.01 kg·km-2·yr-1, respectively. We found that in YRB water purification service showed trade-off relationships with soil conservation and water yield services in recent decades, and water yield and soil conservation maintained a synergitic effect. Additionally, the revegetation measures showed a potential of enhancing soil conservation and water purification, but reducing water yield. This study provided a thorough understanding of WRESs dynamics and a valuable reference for the ecological restoration practices.

  • Research Articles
    CUI Xiao, DENG Xiyue, WANG Yongsheng
    Journal of Geographical Sciences. 2023, 33(10): 1989-2010.

    Rural decline is a global issue accompanied by the regional imbalanced development and dysfunction in rural areas. Coordinated interaction among production, living, and ecological functions is essential for the sustainability of rural regional systems. Based on the framework of “element-structure-function”, an indicator system was constructed to explore the evolution characteristics and driving factors of rural regional functions in the farming-pastoral ecotone of northern China (FPENC) using the models of entropy-based TOPSIS (Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution), revised vertical and horizontal comparison, and GeoDetector. The results indicated a gradual synergy of rural production, living, and ecological functions during the period 2000-2020. Improvements were observed in production and living functions, and higher ecological function was found in Hebei, Inner Mongolia, Liaoning, and Shaanxi. However, conflicts between ecological function and production and living functions were evident in Shanxi, Gansu, and Ningxia. The spatial structure played a dominant role in determining rural production, living, and ecological functions, with ratios of 38%, 56%, and 84%, respectively. Land and industry emerged as the main driving factors influencing the evolution of rural regional functions. Notably, combined interactions of rural permanent population and primary industry output (0.73), grassland area and tertiary industry output (0.58), and forest area and tertiary industry output (0.72) were responsible for the changes observed in rural production, living, and ecological functions, respectively. The findings suggest that achieving coordinated development of rural regional functions can be accomplished by establishing differentiated rural sustainable development strategies that consider the coupling of population, land, and industry in FPENC.

  • Research Articles
    ZHANG Tao, ZUO Shuangying, YU Bo, ZHENG Kexun, CHEN Shiwan, HUANG Lin
    Journal of Geographical Sciences. 2023, 33(10): 2052-2076.

    Karst depressions are common negative topographic landforms formed by the intense dissolution of soluble rocks and are widely developed in Guizhou province. In this work, an inventory of karst depressions in Guizhou was established, and a total of approximately 256,400 karst depressions were extracted and found to be spatially clustered based on multidistance spatial cluster analysis with Ripley's K function. The kernel density (KD) can transform the position data of the depressions into a smooth trend surface, and five different depression concentration areas were established based on the KD values. The results indicated that the karst depressions are clustered and developed in the south and west of Guizhou, while some areas in the southeast, east and north have poorly developed or no clustering. Additionally, the random forest (RF) model was used to rank the importance of factors affecting the distribution of karst depressions, and the results showed that the influence of lithology on the spatial distribution of karst depressions is absolutely dominant, followed by that of fault tectonics and hydrological conditions. The research results will contribute to the resource investigation of karst depressions and provide theoretical support for resource evaluation and sustainable utilization.

  • Research Articles
    LI Xuhong, LIU Yansui, GUO Yuanzhi
    Journal of Geographical Sciences. 2023, 33(11): 2257-2277.

    Exploring the coupling coordinated level of rural population-land-industry (PLI) and its underlying driving mechanism contributes to the scientific decision-making on rural sustainable development. This study assessed the coupling coordinated level of PLI based on an improved evaluation index system and then revealed the regional differentiation and driving mechanism in China’s rural areas in 2020. The results showed that the rural PLI coupling coordinated degree was 0.4694, and thus was in the stage of approximate incoordination. In addition, China’s rural PLI coupling coordinated degree formed a spatially heterogeneous pattern with high levels in the northeast, eastern and central regions, and the intragroup difference contributed more than 80% to the total difference. The rural PLI coupling coordinated level was influenced by the combined effects of rural kernel and peripheral systems, but the rural kernel system mostly determined the differentiation. In the future, rural areas should first exploit population quality improvement projects, land consolidation projects and industrial integration development strategies to promote benign mutual feedback of PLI. Second, driving factors should be comprehensively regulated by implementing a “one village, one product” strategy, breaking the urban-rural dual system, improving agricultural machinery subsidies policy, and promoting urban-rural integrated development.

  • Research Articles
    WANG Jianjun, YANG Yunping, ZHANG Mingjin, ZHU Lingling, LI Shaowu, WEN Yuncheng
    Journal of Geographical Sciences. 2023, 33(6): 1334-1358.

    The evolution of point bars in changing sections of a downstream tidal current limit is periodic. Accordingly, assessing the critical morphology and hydrodynamic characteristics of point bar scour and the sediment transport process of scour sediment bodies can support river regulation and waterway maintenance. The frequent scour of point bars in changing sections of tidal current limits within the Yangtze River directly restricts waterway stability. This study examined the Fujiangsha reach of the Yangtze River, hydrological data on sediment transport, and riverbed topography from 1950. The Jingjiang bank tail exhibited an evolutionary cycle (siltation>scour>siltation), with a primary period ranging from 3-6 years. Additionally, certain morphological and dynamic conditions were necessary for scour. The Datong station flow (Q) ranged from 20,000-40,000 m3·s-1 for ≥180 days·yr-1, enabling the bank silt layers to widen. Scour occurred during flooding and was concentrated in areas 5.0-7.5 km downstream from Ebizui. When Q≥40,000 m3·s-1, scouring occurred in the bank middle and lower reaches, whereas Q≥50,000 m3·s-1 for >50 consecutive days, scour occurred at the tail as well. Moreover, the volume of the scour shoals increased with the number of high-flow days (≥60,000 m3·s-1). Bottom sand transport mainly occurred in the low-bank zone. Before the project’s second phase, the longitudinal transport of the scouring sand bodies occurred as follows: Jingjiang bank > low bank on the north side of Shuangjiansha > Fubei anabranch. During the second phase, the longitudinal transport route changed to Jingjiang bank > Fubei anabranch. The Jingjiang bank volume was also reduced; thus, its development was controlled. Owing to changes in the longitudinal transport routes, dredging should be conducted in areas where scouring sand bodies are separately transported from the tail, thereby reducing the load of dredging and maintenance for the Fubei anabranch during dry years.

  • LIU Sheng, GE Jian, YE Xinyue, WU Chao, BAI Ming
    Journal of Geographical Sciences. 2023, 33(7): 1482-1504.

    The number of urban vitality assessment studies is rising continuously, owing to the emergence of geographic data. The current literature focuses primarily on evaluation, rather than implementation, of urban vitality. Hence, a scoping review and research agenda are needed for urban vitality research to be more practical. This study aims to fill the research gap by exploring the content and methods of vitality assessment that can make urban vitality research more compatible with policy, planning, and design practice. We chose the neighborhood scale, which is the most practical initiative unit for vitality enhancement. We discovered that the gaps between the current research and practice primarily lie in the diversity of research subjects, the authenticity and comprehensiveness of vitality measurement, and the multi-domain of impact factor analysis. On this basis, we classified the following expandable aspects: (1) multi-type, multi-dimensional, multi-temporal, and implementation-adaptive vitality evaluation; (2) methods reflecting high-quality social interactions and the perceptions of vulnerable groups; (3) how design and urban management impacts vitality; and (4) the synergistic effects of multiple indicators on vitality. Overall, the research content and methodology presented in this paper can help neighborhood-scale vitality assessment to provide more meaningful insights for policy makers and practitioners.

  • CHEN Wanxu, PAN Sipei, YE Xinyue
    Journal of Geographical Sciences. 2023, 33(7): 1527-1552.

    Under the framework of ecological civilisation, the formulation of territorial spatial planning (TSP) and improvement of spatial governance systems are of great practical significance. Since the founding of the People’s Republic of China, land-use planning (LUP) has experienced profound changes, and tremendous research efforts have been made in that field. However, systematic studies on LUP history are scarce. To bridge the existing gap, this study traced back to the emergence of LUP, described its practice stages, and analysed the evolution of its classification system and methods. Further, the three rounds of general LUP practice and the current TSP over the past 40 years of the reform and opening-up have been discussed. The evolution of LUP was found to be closely related to economic development and could be broadly divided into four stages. The development of land-use classification in China has been slow and can be divided into five stages according to the evolution of the land classification system and important historical events. The development of LUP methods can be divided into two stages, before and after 1978. Since the economic reform, China has successively conducted three rounds of general LUP under different institutional and policy backgrounds. Future development should aim to innovate the theories and methods of TSP with Chinese characteristics and promote the study of village planning and the construction of TSP systems to achieve rural revitalisation and ecological civilisation.

  • Special Issue: Human-environment interactions and Ecosystems
    CHEN Xin, CAI Anning, GUO Renjie, LIANG Chuanzhuang, LI Yingying
    Journal of Geographical Sciences. 2023, 33(8): 1747-1764.

    The leaf area index (LAI) shows a significant increasing trend from global to regional scales, which is known as greening. Greening will further enhance photosynthesis, but it is unclear whether the contribution of greening has exceeded the CO2 fertilization effect and become the dominant factor in the gross primary productivity (GPP) variation. We took the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) of China, where cropland and natural vegetation are significantly greening, as an example. Based on the boreal ecosystem productivity simulator (BEPS) and Revised-EC-LUE models, the GPP in the YRD from 2001 to 2020 was simulated, and attribution analysis of the interannual variation in GPP was performed. In addition, the reliability of the GPP simulated by the dynamic global vegetation model (DGVM) in the area was further investigated. The research results showed that GPP in the YRD had three significant characteristics consistent with LAI: (1) GPP showed a significant increasing trend; (2) the multiyear mean and trend of natural vegetation GPP were higher than those of cropland GPP; and (3) cropland GPP showed double-high peak characteristics. The BEPS and Revised-EC-LUE models agreed that the effect of LAI variation (4.29 Tg C yr-1 for BEPS and 2.73 Tg C yr-1 for the Revised-EC-LUE model) determined the interannual variation in GPP, which was much higher than the CO2 fertilization effect (2.29 Tg C yr-1 for BEPS and 0.67 Tg C yr-1 for the Revised-EC-LUE model). The GPP simulated by the 7 DGVMs showed a huge inconsistency with the GPP estimated by remote sensing models. The deviation of LAI simulated by DGVM might be a potential cause for this phenomenon. Our study highlights that in significant greening areas, LAI has dominated GPP variation, both spatially and temporally, and DGVM can correctly simulate GPP only if it accurately simulates LAI variation.

  • Research Articles
    WANG Shaobo, LUO Xiaolong, TANG Mi
    Journal of Geographical Sciences. 2023, 33(7): 1461-1481.

    Under the wave of globalization, some cities in China, especially the so-called “megacities” are entering or have already entered the stage of post-suburbanization. The study places Shanghai suburbs in the post-suburbanization landscape and takes Qingpu New Town as an example to systematically analyze the development and formation mechanism of post-suburbanization spaces. This study reveals the features of the post-suburbanization in China as follows. Firstly, In China, post-suburbanization is achieved based on industrialization as well as on the promotion of urbanization. Although urbanization has strengthened other functions of suburban spaces aside from living and production, the production attributes of suburbs remain stable. Secondly, post-suburbanization space with the new town as the development model is an important path for a new round of suburban space growth, it has expanded the space for capital accumulation in metropolitan areas, thus promoting the possibility of reorganizing economic activities within metropolitan areas. At the same time, it focuses on the integration of industries and cities, and the simultaneous development of urbanization and industrialization. In turn, this promotes the accumulation of capital centered on the urban environment and manufacturing production. Furthermore, China’s special institutional circumstance enables its government to organize various actors to form a growth alliance, which will act together in the production of post-suburbanization space.

  • Special Issue: Human-environment interactions and Ecosystems
    GU Changjun, LIU Linshan, ZHANG Yili, WEI Bo, CUI Bohao, GONG Dianqing
    Journal of Geographical Sciences. 2023, 33(8): 1660-1680.

    Elucidating the distribution of the grazing pressure requires an understanding of the grazing activities. In this study, we analyzed the grazing behavior of yaks in Three-River- Source Region (TRSR) and identified the main factors influencing the distribution of grazing intensity (GI) using trajectory data and remote sensing datasets. Our results revealed that a semi-resident transhumance strategy is employed in this region. The average grazing time (GT) of four GPS collars over the year was 11.84 h/day (N6), 11.01 h/day (N11), 9.25 h/day (N18), and 11.61 h/day (N24). GT was generally higher in warm seasons (summer and autumn) than in cold seasons (spring and winter). The average daily moving speed was found to be closely related to the pasture size of different herders and the seasons. Geodetector analysis identified the distance to camp (DOC) as the most important single factor influencing the distribution of GI, explaining up to 52% of the GI variations. However, relying solely on this factor may not accurately depict the actual GI distribution. When pairwise factors interacted, the explanatory power of the model increased, ranging from 34.55% to 63.26%. Our study highlights the importance of considering multiple factors when predicting grazing intensity, as grazing activities tend to cluster near settlements, but other factors may also be influential.

  • Research Articles
    XU Yong, WANG Lijia, YANG Hua
    Journal of Geographical Sciences. 2023, 33(7): 1397-1418.

    The current suitability evaluation methods for land resources human activity in China suffer from theoretical deficiencies related to fundamental data accuracy, elevation and slope classification, and suitability class judgment. Empirical application of these methods is also hindered by excessive evaluation indicators, data acquisition difficulties, and limited applicability to high altitude regions. To address these issues, this paper proposes a technical evaluation framework for the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) that employs selected key parameters varying with elevation and slope to establish grid-scale evaluation models for construction land suitability (CLS) and arable land suitability (ALS). A generalized algorithm is then proposed for key parameters such as air density, air temperature, slope suitability for construction, and soil erosion resistance of sloping arable land. Empirical research is conducted using Milin County in southeast Tibet as a case study, with interval measurements of 100 m in elevation and 1° in slope. The evaluation model is tested using grid accuracies of 30 m, 50 m, 100 m, 250 m, 500 m, and 1000 m. The results reveal that: Firstly, the CLS and ALS can be categorized into five classes: highly suitable, suitable, moderately suitable, marginally suitable, and unsuitable, with varying area ratios under different grid accuracies. Secondly, existing construction lands in Milin County are mainly distributed in suitable, highly suitable, and moderately suitable CLS classes, accounting for over 94% of the total area studied under different grid accuracies. While arable land is mainly distributed in suitable, highly suitable, and moderately suitable ALS classes, accounting for over 96%. Thirdly, the empirical research in Milin County indicates that the evaluation method, quantitative model, and parameters algorithm for evaluating human activity suitability of land resources on the QTP are feasible and applicable, with a recommended grid accuracy within 100 m and a maximum of 250 m. Fourthly, the paper establishes a correspondence between land suitability (including construction land and arable land) and topographic factors (elevation and slope) that can be applied to the QTP. Finally, some professional defects in the evaluation methods of available land resources in Major Function Zoning and “Double Evaluations” of Territorial Spatial Planning in China when applied to the QTP are identified.

  • Special Issue: Human-environment interactions and Ecosystems
    WEN Xinyuan, LIU Dianfeng, QIU Mingli, WANG Yinjie, NIU Jiqiang, LIU Yaolin
    Journal of Geographical Sciences. 2023, 33(8): 1725-1746.

    Yield forecasting can give early warning of food risks and provide solid support for food security planning. Climate change and land use change have direct influence on regional yield and planting area of maize, but few studies have examined their synergistic impact on maize production. In this study, we propose an analysis framework based on the integration of system dynamic (SD), future land use simulation (FLUS) and a statistical crop model to predict future maize yield variation in response to climate change and land use change in a phaeozem region of central Jilin province, China. The results show that the cultivated land is likely to reduce by 862.84 km2 from 2030 to 2050. Nevertheless, the total maize yield is expected to increase under all four RCP scenarios due to the promotion of per hectare maize yield. Among the scenarios, RCP4.5 is the most beneficial to maize production, with a doubled total yield in 2050. Notably, the yield gap between different counties will be further widened, which necessitates the differentiated policies of agricultural production and farmland protection, e.g., strengthening cultivated land protection and crop management in low-yield areas, and taking adaptation and mitigation measures to coordinate climate change and production.