Major function oriented zoning (MFOZ hereafter) is the guideline for optimizing the spatial pattern of regional development in China, which entails both theoretical and methodological innovation in the academic field of economic geography. This study analyzes the basic features of territorial function and puts forward a spatial equilibrium model for regional development for the first time. It argues that there exists a trend of regional convergence in the average value which indicates the comprehensive development status of any region. Based on this finding, the study illustrates that the formation of functional zone should be conducive to the narrowing of regional gap and that free flow of resources between regions is the prerequisite to spatial equilibrium. It also investigates the impact of territorial functional evolution on the process of spatial equilibrium and suggests that the maximization of benefits derived from zoning proposal is interrelative with the method of regional division and the degree of understanding towards the temporal changes of territorial function. Furthermore, this study goes on to examine the scientific foundation of several issues concerning the reconciliation between contradictory functions of development and protection, the selection of indicators and the spatial and temporal features of MFOZ. It is then probes into the rationality of achieving dual goals of efficiency and equality simultaneously through three-dimensional flow and spatial equilibrium. The paper ends with discussions on the position, implementation and coordination of MFOZ from the perspective of institutional arrangements of spatial governance including law, planning and government policy.
In view of food affordability and the threshold for food security, this paper has established an integrated index for assessing the vulnerability of food security in China, which is composed mainly of the balance between food supply and demand, the reserve for food security and the economic capacity for offset food demand. Six types of food security regions are identified based on the data from county-level statistics. At regional scale, China’s food security is not optimistic. Under normal conditions without the emergence of extreme disasters and decline of grain-sown areas, China’s most vulnerable areas (Type VI) account for 30.3% of the total number of counties (cities), which are unable to meet the ends by food productivity or market based measures at subsistence levels. In China, there are only 14.5% of the counties (cities) that could guarantee well-off food security through grain production (Type I) or economic measures to meet the demand by themselves (Type III). According to the different vulnerable levels of food security and its dominant forming factors, vulnerable regions of food security in China could be classified into three categories: (1) Vulnerable regions of food security dominated by natural factors (including Type IV and Type VIa), which account for 39.4% of the total number of counties (cities), mainly located in fragile ecologic zones, i.e., farming-grazing transitional zones in the marginal areas of summer monsoon, the poor hilly areas in southern China and so on; (2) Vulnerable regions of food security dominated by low ratio of grain-sown areas (including Type VIb and Type V), which account for 16.7% of the total number of counties (cities), mostly located in the developed areas in the eastern coast of China; (3) Potential vulnerable regions of food security with underdeveloped local economies (Type II), of which 57% are the main grain-surplus regions in China, mainly located in the areas of plains and basins with favorable climate.
Based on the data from the Cost-benefit Data of Farm Produce and the China Agricultural Yearbook, this paper divided the intensity of cultivated land use into labor intensity and capital intensity, and then analyzed their temporal and spatial change at both national and provincial levels between 1980 and 2006. The results showed that: (1) At the national level, labor intensity on food produce decreased from 398.5 day/ha in 1980 to 130.25 day/ha in 2006; and a continuous decrease with a steep decline between 1980 and 1986, a slower decline from 1987 to 1996, and another steep decline from 1997 to 2006. On the contrary, capital intensity shows an increasing trend since 1980. As to the internal composition of capital intensity, the proportion of seed, chemical fertilizer and pesticide input decreased from 90.36% to 73.44% and the proportion of machinery increased from 9.64% to 26.56%. The less emphasis on yield-increasing input and more emphasis on labor-saving input are the main reasons for a slow increase of yield per unit area after 1996. (2) At the provincial level, the developed areas have lower labor intensity and higher capital intensity. The less developed ones have higher labor intensity but lower capital intensity. From the viewpoint of the internal composition of capital intensity, labor-saving input accounts for more proportion in the developed areas than that of other areas. The main reason is that in these developed areas, labor input has become a constraint factor in food production as more and more labors engaged in off-farm work. Farmers increase the labor-saving input for higher labor productivity. However, in the less developed areas, the major constraint is the shortage of capital; food production is still depending on labor and yield-increasing inputs.
The sustainability of regional rural development depends on the integrated status and the coordination between rural resources-environment conditions and rural socioeconomic development. In this paper a diagnostic indicator system is proposed to appraise four representative rural development models such as Mentougou model, Taicang model, Yueqing model and Qionghai model in the eastern coastal region of China from the integrated perspective of population, resources, environment, and development. In conclusion, the formation and evolution of these diverse rural development models are the direct response to the very different characteristics in the environment, market demand, and regional culture. These models are common in that their sustainability depends on the scientific guidance of the regional development functional positioning, strong intra-regional interactions, and self-adaptability to the external conditions.
Based on TM image data and other survey materials, this paper analyzed the spatiotemporal patterns of land use change in the Bohai Rim during 1985–2005. The findings of this study are summarized as follows: (1) Land use pattern changed dramatically during 1985–2005. Industrial and residential land in urban and rural areas increased by 643,946 hm2, of which urban construction land had the largest and fastest increase of 294,953 hm2 at an annual rate of 3.72%. (2) The outward migration of rural population did not prevent the expansion of residential land in rural areas by 184,869 hm2. This increase reveals that construction of rural residences makes seriously wasteful and inefficient use of land. (3) Arable land, woodland and grassland decreased at a rate of –0.02%, –0.12% and –1.32% annually, while unused land shrank by 157,444 hm2 at an annual rate of –1.69%. (4) The change of land use types showed marked fluctuations over the two stages (1985–1995 and 1995–2005). In particular, arable land, woodland and unused land experienced an inversed trend of change. (5) There was a significant interaction between arable land and woodland. Industrial construction land in urban and rural areas showed a net trend of increase during the earlier period, but only adjustment to its internal structure during the second period. The loss of arable land to the construction of factories, mines and residences took place mainly in the fringe areas of large and medium-sized cities, along the routes of major roads, as well as in the economically developed coastal areas in the east. Such changes are closely related to the spatial differentiation of the level of urbanization and industrialization in the region.
At present, land use optimization at small watershed scale is the key measure to control soil erosion, restore the eco-environment and improve the farmers’ living standard on the Loess Plateau, China. Based on the land use survey maps of 1966, 1988, 1997, 2003 and the digital topographic map of 1984 in Yangou watershed, and assisted by spatial techniques of GIS, the basic characteristics and driving forces of land use change in Yangou watershed are analyzed. According to the summarization of land-use optimization characteristics since 1997, and with the help of continuous monitoring data for years and farmer investigation data, this paper appraises eco-environmental benefits, economic benefits and sustainability of Yangou watershed. We have used sediment reduction benefits, coverage ratio of permanent vegetation, per capita food production and per capita income of farmers as indices. The results show that Yangou watershed project has successfully controlled the soil and water loss and the farmers’ living standard has been improved markedly by reasonable adjustment to land use structure. The benefit of sediment reduction is higher than 80% and the coverage ratio of permanent vegetation reaches 61.03%. In 2006, the per capita income increased by 1493 yuan compared with the year 1998.The successful measures and experiences of Yangou watershed are worth promoting on the Loess Plateau.
Present granite landform characteristics and distribution are the integrated result of climate, tectonics and lithology. Various types of granite landforms in China signify climate zonality and differential vertical movement of earth surface, while published research results on Chinese granite landforms are very rare, especially in international journals. Based on the process analysis of chemical weathering and physical disintegration, four granite landform regions in China are classified according to the present climate regime. On the Tibetan Plateau, the cold and freezing climate induced periglacial landscapes; the northeast region is characterized by physical disintegration and low round mounds are widespread; in the northwest region controlled by arid climate, wind-carved minor landscapes are extremely prominent. The most spectacular granite landscapes in China are presented in southeast as a result of longtime chemical weathering under humid and warm conditions, as well as the differential uplift after Neogene. Correlating the weathering crust in southern China, Tibetan Plateau and India, a possible unified planation surface in Neogene is proposed. With corestones as indicators of original weathering front, the differential uplift extent of dissected planation surfaces can be estimated. At least three landforms implying uplift can be identified in southeastern China, with elevations of 300–400 m, 2000 m and 3600 m above the sea level respectively.
This paper presents a method of geomorphologic regionalization for Xinjiang, with the use of Srtm-DEM (resolution 90 m) and TM images for 1990 (resolution 30 m). After interpretation and classification of geomorphologic types, the present research focuses on the qualitative and quantitative distribution of different geomorphologic types based on geographical grid analysis. Then, by using system clustering analysis method, geomorphologic types are grouped into divisions. The resulting geomorphologic regionalization hierarchy of Xinjiang includes three levels, i.e., macro-landform divisions, medium-landform divisions, and micro-landform divisions, containing 6, 23 and 200 types, respectively. This method makes it possible to digitally delimit geomorphologic regions. Comparison and verification show that the spatial precision of the boundaries of geomorphologic subareas in Xinjiang is very high.
Jianglang Mountain is situated at the transitional zone of South China fold-system, Jiangshan–Shaoxing deep fracture zone and Baoan–Xiakou–Zhangcun fracture zone. The forming of the Xiakou basin was attributed to the pull-apart fault depression by the above fractures in earlier Cretaceous, afterward, series deposits such as Guantou formation (K1g), Chaochuan formation (K1c) and Fangyan formation (K1f) which belong to Yongkang group, the lower Cretaceous layer accumulated in the Xiakou basin. In late Cretaceous, the above fractures occurred to extrude and the basin began to uplift, meanwhile, amounts of tension fissures and joints were produced since Cenozoic, which accelerated water-dicing into bed-rock. Consequently, landform-building processing: weathering, eroding and collapsing etc. were prevalent as finally to develop the so-called Danxia landform. The Jianglang Mountain landscape zone of the Danxia landform to apply for world natural relics are relying on unique and unparalleled peak, sky-split valley with vivid stones and reviving of platform. What is more, there is significance of study at lithology, stratigraphy and paleo-biology. According to dating for specimen of ophitic vein through-crossing the Yongkang group of Yafeng Peak by K-Ar method, this article revealed the uplift age of red-bed basin to be 77.89±2.6 MaBP (K2) i.e. late Cretaceous, and it is the first chronological datum of Danxia landform research in China.
The prominent types of Danxia landform in Fangyan include enclosed valleys, mesas, peaks, stone columns and grooves etc. Their spatial combinations have regular configurations along the northwest–southeast direction: typical grooves and caves are located in the northwestern Wufengshuyuan mainly; abundant fresh collapsed stones may be observed in central Jimingfeng and Taohuafeng; stone drums and stone columns are in the southeastern Shiguliao particularly; enclosed valleys are encircling joints of peaks and plains from three directions east, west, and south. Their spatial combinations reflect that the developments of Danxia landform have undergone stages of geomorphic cyclical erosion in the form of weathering, collapse, transportation, sedimentation and other processes, together with the “sculpture” of external forces mainly as tectonic uplift. The picturesque Danxia landform began its formation at that point. Danxia landform developed mainly in the strata of Fangyan Formation (K1f) caused by the alluvial fan-braided river phase of anterior fan in the late period of the Early Cretaceous. Regular patterns of weathering of stones and features of braided alluvial phase sediments may be verified by the analysis of three groups of experimental data. Danxia landform of Fangyan is a unique representative of the “adolescent” development type in the application of the World Natural Heritages status in China, by virtue of its outstanding universal aesthetic and scientific value.