Tamarix nabkha is one of the most widespread nabkhas, distributing in the arid region of China. Based on the observations outdoors and the simulation experiments in laboratories, analysis in this paper refers to the biological geomorphologic features and growth process of Tamarix nabkhas in the middle and lower reaches of the Hotan River, Xinjiang. And the results indicate that the ecological type of Tamarix in the study area is a kind of Tugaic soil habitat based on the deep soil of the Populus Diversifolia forests and shrubs. This type of habitat can be divided into three kinds of sub-habitats which demonstrate the features of ecological environment of Tamarix nabkhas during the differential developed phases. Meanwhile, the Tamarix nabkha can exert intensified disturbance current on wind-sand flow on the ground, and its root and stems not only have strong potential of sprouting but are characteristic of wind erosion-tolerance, resistance to be buried by sand and respectively tough rigid of the lignified branches, for it has a rather longer life-time. Thus, the wind speed profile influenced by the Tamarix nabkha is different from the Phragmites nabkha and Alhagi nabkha. And the structure of the wind flow is beneficial to aeolian sand accumulating in/around Tamarix shrub，which can create unique Tamarix nabkhas with higher average gradient and longer periodicity of life. Tamarix nabkha evolution in the area experienced three stages: growth stage, mature and steady stage and withering stage. In each stage, morphological features and geomorphic process of Tamarix nabkha are different due to the discrepant interaction between the nabkha and aeolian sand flow.
The sediment content of the Yellow River is resulted from the interactions of natural, economic, and social factors, so it includes some evolutive information of the Yellow River Basin system. Sediment contents from 1952 to 2007 on Toudaoguai, Tongguan, Huayuankou and Lijin sections along the river are chosen as the study time series, and correlation dimensions (D2), Kolmogorov entropies (K2), and Hurst indexes (H) of the time series were calculated. Correlation dimensions on Toudaoguai, Tongguan, Huayuankou, and Lijin sections are 3.24, 5.69, 6.57 and 7.34 respectively, and the Kolmogorov entropies are 0.13, 0.37, 0.40 and 0.38 respectively, which indicates that the systems controlled by different sections along the Yellow River are chaotic systems and the chaotic degrees increase gradually from the upper to lower section. The average predictable period of the sediment contents is 8 years on Toudaoguai section and 3 years on the other sections with the reciprocals of the Kolmogorov entropies. The more obvious the chaotic degree is, the shorter the average predictable period is. Hurst indexes on the sections are above 0.5, with the maximum of 0.86 on Tongguan section and the minimum of 0.68 on Toudaoguai section, which indicates that the time series have persistent trends in the average predictable period. Eight state variables and two control parameters are necessary to construct the dynamic model of the Yellow River Basin system.
The application of dams built upstream will change the input conditions, including water and sediment, of downstream fluvial system, and destroy previous dynamic quasi-equilibrium reached by channel streamflow, so indispensable adjustments are necessary for downstream channel to adapt to the new water and sediment supply, leading the fluvial system to restore its previous equilibrium or reach a new equilibrium. Using about 50-year-long hydrological, sedimentary and cross-sectional data, temporal response processes of Toudaoguai cross-section located in the upper Yellow River to the operation of reservoirs built upstream are analyzed. The results show that the Toudaoguai cross-section change was influenced strongly by upstream reservoir operation and downstream channel bed armoring thereafter occurred gradually and extended to the reach below Sanhuhekou gauging station. Besides, median diameter of suspended sediment load experienced a three-stage change that is characterized by an increase at first, then a decrease and an increase again finally, which reflects the process of channel bed armoring that began at Qingtongxia reservoir and then gradually developed downstream to the reach below Sanhuhekou cross-section. Since the joint operation strategy of Longyangxia, Liujiaxia and Qingtongxia reservoirs was introduced in 1986, the three-stage change trend has become less evident than that in the time period between 1969 and 1986 when only Qingtongxia and Liujiaxia reservoirs were put into operation alone. In addition, since 1987, the extent of lateral migration and thalweg elevation change at Toudaoguai cross-section has reduced dramatically, cross-sectional profile and location tended to be stable, which is beneficial to the normal living for local people.
This paper mainly analyzes the geomorphological changes of the tidal deposition in the Liaohe Estuary based on the multi-year bathymetric charts in 1990, 1996, 2002 and 2005 and Landsat TM images in 1987, 1994, 2002 and 2005. Evolution of the tidal depositional system during the past 20 years in the Liaohe River was studied on the basis of 50 boreholes drilling and 30 km shallow stratigraphic exploration from 2002 to 2005. The main tidal depositional body of the modern Liaohe River delta is located in the Shuangtaizihe Estuary. The stratum within the depth of 10 m includes tidal bank facies, tidal channel facies and neritic facies with paleo-delta facies underlying them. The sediments of tidal bank facies are mainly composed of sand and silt with siltation load and suspended load of about 50% respectively in proportion. The sediment of tidal channel facies and neritic facies is composed of clayey silt and silty clay which belongs to suspended load. The study area was a small bay between the old Daliaohe River, the old Dalinghe River and the Raoyanghe River complex delta since the Holocene to 1896. Many tidal banks formed and expanded rapidly after the Shuangtaizihe River was excavated by labor in 1896. The runoff and sediment discharge have decreased since the construction of brake at the Shuangtaizihe River in 1958.The Shuangtaizihe Estuary is in the state of deposition as a whole whose tidal bank is increasing and expanding southward, westward and northward. The maximum expansion speed is 87 to 683 m/a and the mean depositional rate is 0.189 m/a. Erosion occurred in some part of tidal bank with average erosional rate of 0.122 m/a. The tidal channel was filled up with sediment at a migration speed of 48–200 m/a. Geomorphologic changes have happened under the combined influences of runoff, ocean dynamics and human activities. The main source of sediment changes from river sediment to sediment driven by tidal current and longshore current.
Five diagnostic experiments with a 3D baroclinic hydrodynamic and sediment transport model ECOMSED in couple with the third generation wave model SWAN and the Grant–Madsen bottom boundary layer model driven by the monthly sediment load of the Yellow River, were conducted to separately diagnose effects of different hydrodynamic factors on transport of suspended sediment discharged from the Yellow River in the Bohai Sea. Both transport and spatio-temporal distribution of suspended sediment concentration in the Bohai Sea were numerially simulated. It could be concluded that suspended sediment discharged from the Yellow River cannot be delivered in long distance under the condition of tidal current. Almost all of sediments from the Yellow River are deposited outside the delta under the condition of wind-driven current, and only very small of them are transported faraway. On the basis of wind forcing, sediments from the Yellow River are mainly transported north-northwestward, and others which are first delivered to the Laizhou Bay are continuously moved northward. An obvious 3D structure characteristic of sediment transport is produced in the wind-driven and tide-induced residual circulation condition. Transport patterns at all layers are generally consistent with circulation structure, but there is apparent deviation between the depth-averaged sediment flux and the circulation structure. The phase of temporal variation of sediment concentration is consistent with that of the bottom shear stress, both of which are proved to have a ten-day cycle in wave and current condition.
The Loess positive and negative terrains (P–N terrains), which are widely distributed on the Loess Plateau, are discussed for the first time by introducing its characteristic, demarcation as well as extraction method from high-resolution Digital Elevation Models. Using 5 m-resolution DEMs as original test data, P–N terrains of 48 geomorphological units in different parts of Shaanxi Loess Plateau are extracted accurately. Then six indicators for depicting the geomorphologic landscape and spatial configuration characteristic of P–N terrains are proposed. The spatial distribution rules of these indicators and the relationship between the P–N terrains and Loess relief are discussed for further understanding of Loess landforms. Finally, with the integration of P–N terrains and traditional terrain indices, a series of un-supervised classification methods are applied to make a proper landform classification in northern Shaanxi. Results show that P–N terrains are an effect clue to reveal energy and substance distribution rules on the Loess Plateau. A continuous change of P–N terrains from south to north in Shaanxi Loess Plateau shows an obvious spatial difference of Loess landforms and the positive terrain area only accounted for 60.5% in this region. The P–N terrains participant landform classification method increases validity of the result, especially in the Loess tableland, Loess tableland-ridge and the Loess low-hill area. This research is significant on the study of Loess landforms with the Digital Terrains Analysis methods.
There are 71 surface sediment samples collected from the eastern Beibu Gulf. The moment parameters (i.e. mean size, sorting and skewness) were obtained after applying grain size analysis. The geostatistical analysis was then applied to study the spatial autocorrelation for these parameters; while range, a parameter in the semivariogram that meters the scale of spatial autocorrelation, was estimated. The results indicated that the range for sorting coefficient was physically meaningful. The trend vectors calculated from grain size trend analysis model were consistent with the annual ocean circulation patterns and sediment transport rates according to previous studies. Therefore the range derived from the semivariogram of mean size can be used as the characteristic distance in the grain size trend analysis, which may remove the bias caused by the traditional way of basing on experiences or testing methods to get the characteristic distance. Hence the results from geostatistical analysis can also offer useful information for the determination of sediment sampling density in the future field work.
Seven cores were collected from different sediment zones of tidal flats at Xinyanggang in north Jiangsu province in August 2007. Sediment grain-size distribution and radioisotopes of 137Cs and 210Pb analysis were carried out for these cores. Sediment rates of the cores and radioisotopes distribution in surface sediment in different zones of the tidal flat were calculated from the 137Cs and 210Pb activities in sediments cores. The results indicated that each tidal zone had experienced different evolution phases, hydrological dynamics in the tidal flats made the grain-size of the surface sediment change gradually. 137Cs and 210Pb activities on the superficial layer of the cores varied spatially and the reason was discussed. On tidal flats, the fluctuation of 137Cs and 210Pb activities in the cores reflected the special sedimentary characteristics. Vegetation affects the grain-size distribution and the vertical profiles of 137Cs and 210Pb in the upper depths. 137Cs and 210Pb chronology got the comparable average sediment rates on the tidal flat. The characteristics of 137Cs and 210Pb in the cores reflected various depositional dynamical environments in different tidal zones and gave information on the different evolvement phases of the tidal zones. Based on the information of grain-size distribution, texture of the cores, sediment rates and topography, the evolution lines of the tidal flat were reconstructed.