25 December 2021, Volume 31 Issue 12 Previous Issue   
Identification and alleviation pathways of multidimensional poverty and relative poverty in counties of China
XU Lidan, DENG Xiangzheng, JIANG Qun’ou, MA Fengkui
2021, 31 (12):  1715-1736.  doi: 10.1007/s11442-021-1919-8
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To realize efficient and sustainable poverty alleviation, this study firstly investigated the identification of multidimensional poverty and relative poverty, and then explored relevant poverty alleviation pathways. Poverty levels in 31 provinces including the autonomous regions and municipalities of China were identified at the county level using the average nighttime light index (ANLI), county multidimensional development index (CMDI), and a method combining multidimensional poverty index and relative poverty standards. Poverty alleviation pathways for poverty-stricken counties were explored from the aspects of industry, education, tourism and agriculture. The results revealed that nearly 60% of counties in China were primarily under relative poverty, most of which were corresponded to light relative poverty. In terms of ANLI and CMDI, 63% and 79% of the national poverty-stricken counties, as of 2018, could be identified, suggesting that CMDI had a higher performance for identifying poverty at the county level. In terms of poverty alleviation pathways, 414, 172, 442, and 298 poverty-stricken counties were receptive to industry poverty alleviation, education poverty alleviation, tourism poverty alleviation, and agriculture poverty alleviation, and 61% of counties had more poverty-causing factors, implying that multidimensional poverty alleviation is suitable in most of the counties.

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City size and employment dynamics in China: Evidence from recruitment website data
HUANG Daquan, HE Han, LIU Tao
2021, 31 (12):  1737-1756.  doi: 10.1007/s11442-021-1920-2
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This article explored China’s urban employment dynamics with particular focus on the city size effect. Big data derived from the largest recruitment website were used to examine the direct and indirect impacts of city size on employment demand by using mediating and moderating models. We also investigated the roles of the government and location factors which have seldom been considered in literature. Results showed that the concentration degree of new jobs is higher than that of stock employment and population across cities, implying a path dependency mechanism of job creation and employment expansion. Meanwhile, numerous job posts in inland central cities are probably a symptom of more even distribution of employment in future China. Econometric models further verified the significant correlation between city size and job creation. Moreover, industrial diversity, fixed asset investment, and spatial location have heterogeneous effects on employment demand in cities of different sizes and different levels of administration. These results can not only deepen our understanding of the crucial role of city size in urban employment growth but also demonstrate the future trend of labor and population geography of China. Policy implications are then proposed for job creation in cities of China and other developing countries.

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Unraveling the multi-scalar residential segregation and socio-spatial differentiation in China: A comparative study based on Nanjing and Hangzhou
SONG Weixuan, HUANG Qinshi, GU Yue, HE Ge
2021, 31 (12):  1757-1774.  doi: 10.1007/s11442-021-1921-1
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Residential segregation is a dual process of socio-spatial differentiation in residents and spatio-temporal heterogeneity in dwelling. However, most of the existing studies are established from the single perspective of urban residents based on demographic data, which is difficult to reveal the dynamics and complex spatial reconstruction within and between cities. With the characteristics of both stability and timeliness, the rapidly changing housing market is one of the processes and results of socio-spatial reconfiguration, and it is undoubtedly a better lens to observe residential segregation. This paper adopts methods such as multi-group segregation index, multi-scalar segregation profiles, and decomposition of segregation index, with Nanjing and Hangzhou as case cities, and establishes multi-scalar segregation profiles and comparative models based on three geographical scales of census tract, block and grid, and different residential types. A quantitative study was conducted on the degree and pattern of multi-scalar residential segregation in Nanjing and Hangzhou from 2009 to 2018. The paper found that the spatial segregation index is an improvement of the non-spatial segregation index. There are differences between Nanjing and Hangzhou in the evolution process of residential segregation. Nanjing has a higher degree of spatial differentiation as a whole, among which spatial components have a more significant impact.

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Quantitative measurement of the effects of administrative division adjustments on regional development
WANG Kaiyong, FENG Rundong
2021, 31 (12):  1775-1790.  doi: 10.1007/s11442-021-1922-0
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Administrative divisions are the important foundation of national governance and social development, and the adjustment of administrative divisions is a critical way to promote regional coordinated development. Under the background of globalization and regionalization, timely adjustment of administrative divisions is a major step to reconstruct the regional development pattern. In the perspective of regional coordinated development, this paper constructs an Administrative Rank Potential Energy (ARPE) model to explore the mechanisms of administrative division adjustment (ADA) under coordinated regional development based on the theory of regional interaction, spatial field energy model and power exponential function. The results show that: (1) The development potential and influence of an administrative region are closely related to the administrative jurisdiction, administrative resources, and the potential of regional coordinated development. (2) The growth rate of ARPE in the study area from 2010 to 2015 was 20.7% compared to the period 2005 to 2010, and the potential for coordinated development increased to 3.05% from 0.21% before the “cancelling” the prefecture-level city of Chaohu. (3) The measurement results of the usefulness of ADA can not only distinguish the complex impacts brought about by social development, but also accord with real social and economic development conditions. The ARPE focuses on the both regional integrated development and individual development, thereby serving as a reference for explaining and evaluating adjustments to administrative divisions at the macro- and micro-scales.

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Intercity connections and a world city network based on international sport events: Empirical studies on the Beijing, London, and Rio de Janeiro Olympic Games
XUE Desheng, OU Yubin
2021, 31 (12):  1791-1815.  doi: 10.1007/s11442-021-1923-z
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With so many sports becoming increasingly popular, sports have come to play an important role in promoting the process of globalization and formatting the world city network (WCN). Previous studies have constructed the WCN based on the distribution of international sport federations (ISFs) and the sites of international sport events (ISEs), but there is still a lack of systematic research on the intercity connections caused by ISEs. Taking three most recent Olympic Games as cases, this paper explores intercity connections and WCN based on ISEs. The results show that (1) the Olympic WCN has city nodes around the world except in Antarctica, and the number and activity values of the cities in host countries may increase intensively during the Olympic Games. (2) A hierarchical city system with four tiers (global central cities, specialized central cities, national central cities and specialized cities) is formed by the intercity connections caused by the Olympic Games. (3) The WCN based on the Olympic Games, is made up of many subnetworks, while many differences occur due to the diverse decisions made by the Organizing Committee for the Olympic Games (OCOG), host cities or even host countries in the events associated with sponsorship activity and publicity activity. This study not only broadens the relevant fields of sports culture-oriented WCN research but also explores the instability of the WCN, which makes it an effective reference for WCN research based on ISEs.

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Impacts of traffic accessibility on ecosystem services: An integrated spatial approach
CHEN Wanxu, ZENG Yuanyuan, ZENG Jie
2021, 31 (12):  1816-1836.  doi: 10.1007/s11442-021-1924-y
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The continuous degradation of ecosystem services is an important challenge faced by the world. Improvements in transportation infrastructure have had substantial impacts on economic development and ecosystem services. Exploring the influence of traffic accessibility on ecosystem services can delay or stop their deterioration; however, studies on its impact are lacking. This study addresses this gap by analysing the impact of traffic accessibility on ecosystem services using an integrated spatial regression approach based on an evaluation of the ecosystem services value (ESV) and traffic accessibility in the Middle Reaches of the Yangtze River Urban Agglomeration (MRYRUA) in China. The results indicated that the ESV in the MRYRUA continuously decreased during the study period, and the average ESV in plain areas, areas surrounding the core cities, and areas along the main traffic routes was significantly lower than that in areas along the Yangtze River and the surrounding mountainous areas. Traffic accessibility continued to increase during the study period, and the high-value areas centred on Wuhan, Changsha, Nanchang, and Yichang were radially distributed. The global bivariate spatial autocorrelation coefficient between the average ESV and traffic accessibility was negative. The average ESV and traffic accessibility exhibited significant spatial dependence and spatial heterogeneity. Spatial regression also proved that there was a negative association between the average ESV and traffic accessibility, and scale effects were evident. The findings of this study have important policy implications for future ecological protection and transportation planning.

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Quantitative relationship between channels and bars in a tidal reach of the lower Yangtze River: Implications for river management
YANG Yunping, ZHENG Jinhai, ZHANG Wei, ZHU Yude, CHAI Yuanfang, WANG Jianjun, WEN Yuncheng
2021, 31 (12):  1837-1851.  doi: 10.1007/s11442-021-1925-x
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Deep-water navigation channels in the tidal reaches of the lower Yangtze River are affected by water and sediment fluxes that produce complex shoals and unstable channel conditions. The Fujiangsha reach is particularly difficult to manage, as it has many braided channels within the tidal fluctuation zone. In this study, hydrologic and topographic data from the Fujiangsha reach from 2012 to 2017 were used to examine the variations in deposition and erosion, flow diversion, shoals, and channel conditions. Since the Three Gorges Dam became operational and water storage was initiated, the Fujiangsha reach has shown an overall tendency toward erosion. Channels deeper than 10 m accounted for 83.7% of the total erosion of the Fujiangsha reach during 2012-2017. Moreover, the dominant channel-forming sediments have gradually changed from suspended sediments to a mixed load of suspended and bed-load sediments. Deposition volumes of these sediments has varied significantly among different channels, but has mainly occurred in the Fubei channel. Furthermore, periodic variations in the Jingjiang point bar have followed a deposition-erosion-deposition pattern, and the downstream Shuangjian shoal mid-channel bar has been scoured and shortened. Approximately 44.0% of the bed load from the upstream Fujiangsha reach is deposited within the 12.5-m deep Fubei channel. The increased erosion and river flow from the Jingjiang point bar and the Shuangjian shoal during the flood season constituted 59.3% and 40.7%, respectively, of the total amount of siltation in the Fubei channel.

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Method for UAV-based 3D topography reconstruction of tidal creeks
ZHANG Xuhui, LI Huan, GONG Zheng, ZHOU Zeng, DAI Weiqi, WANG Lizhu, Samuel DARAMOLA
2021, 31 (12):  1852-1872.  doi: 10.1007/s11442-021-1926-9
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It is common to obtain the topography of tidal flats by the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) photogrammetry, but this method is not applicable in tidal creeks. The residual water will lead to inaccurate depth inversion results, and the topography of tidal creeks mainly depends on manual survey. The present study took the tidal creek of Chuandong port in Jiangsu Province, China, as the research area and used UAV oblique photogrammetry to reconstruct the topography of the exposed part above the water after the ebb tide. It also proposed a Trend Prediction Fitting (TPF) method for the topography of the unexposed part below the water to obtain a complete 3D topography. The topography above the water measured by UAV has the vertical precision of 12 cm. When the TPF method is used, the cross-section should be perpendicular the central axis of the tidal creek. A polynomial function can be adapted to most shape of sections, while a Fourier function obtains better results in asymmetrical sections. Compared with the two-order function, the three-order function lends itself to more complex sections. Generally, the TPF method is more suitable for small, straight tidal creeks with clear texture and no vegetation cover.

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An optimized baseflow separation method for assessment of seasonal and spatial variability of baseflow and the driving factors
SUN Jiaqi, WANG Xiaojun, Shamsuddin SHAHID, LI Hongyan
2021, 31 (12):  1873-1894.  doi: 10.1007/s11442-021-1927-8
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Baseflow is an important component of river or streamflow. It plays a vital role in water utilization and management. An improved Eckhardt recursive digital filter (IERDF) is proposed in this study. The key filter parameter and maximum baseflow index (BFImax) were estimated using the minimum smoothing method to improve baseflow estimation accuracy. The generally considered BFImax of 0.80, 0.50 and 0.25 according to the drainage basin’s predominant geological characteristics often leads to significant errors in the regions that have complex subsurface and hydrologic conditions. The IERDF improved baseflow estimation accuracy by avoiding arbitrary parameter values. The proposed method was applied for baseflow separation in the upstream of Yitong River, a tributary of the Second Songhua River, and its performance was evaluated by comparing the results obtained using isotope-tracer data. The performance of IERDF was also compared with nine baseflow separation techniques belonging to filter, BFI and HYSEP methods. The IERDF was also applied for baseflow separation and calculation of rainfall infiltration recharge coefficient at different locations along the Second Songhua River’s mainstream for the period 2000-2016. The results showed that the minimum smoothing method significantly improved BFImax estimation accuracy. The baseflow process line obtained using IEDRF method was consistent with that obtained using isotope 18O. The IERDF estimated baseflow also showed stability and reliability when applied in the mainstream of the Second Songhua River. The BFI alone in the river showed an increase from the upstream to the downstream. The proportion of baseflow to total flow showed a decrease with time. The intra-annual variability of BFI was different at different locations of the river due to varying climatic conditions and subsurface characteristics. The highest BFI was observed at the middle reaches of the river in summer due to a water surplus from power generation. The research provided valuable information on baseflow characteristics and runoff mode determination, which can be used for water resources assessment and optimization of economic activity distribution in the region.

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Features of the long-term transformation of the Krasnodar reservoir, near the mouth of the Kuban River, Russia
POGORELOV Anatoly, LAGUTA Andrey, KISELEV Evgeny, LIPILIN Dmitry
2021, 31 (12):  1895-1904.  doi: 10.1007/s11442-021-1928-7
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The article considers the long-term (1941-2018) transformation of the Krasnodar valley reservoir, the largest in the North Caucasus. The main functions of the Krasnodar reservoir are irrigation of rice systems and flood protection of land in the Krasnodar reservoir region and the Republic of Adygea. According to topographic maps, Landsat satellite images (1974-2018) and field observations (2016-2018), four stages of transformation of the floodplain reservoir are identified. The selected stages are characterized by both natural causes (the transformation of the filling deltas into the extended deltas, etc.) and man-made causes (runoff diversions in the delta areas, etc.). The key factor of transformation is the formation of deltas of rivers flowing into the reservoir. Each of the selected stages, against the background of a gradual reduction in the area and volume of the reservoir, is characterized by the peculiarities of the formation of river deltas with the formation of genetically homogeneous sections of delta regions. During the period of operation of the reservoir, the delta of the main Kuban River moved up to 32.4 km and took away an area of 35.4 km2 of the reservoir. During the formation of the deltas of the Kuban and Belaya rivers, a bridge was formed on the Krasnodar reservoir. The evolution of the delta regions led to the division of the reservoir into two autonomous reservoirs. The total area of the delta regions was 85.9 km2 by 2018, i.e., 21% of the initial area of the reservoir. The transformation of the Krasnodar reservoir leads to a decrease in its regulated volume and gradual degradation.

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