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    Multi-scenario-based hazard analysis of high temperature extremes experienced in China during 1951-2010
    YIN Zhan’e, YIN Jie, ZHANG Xiaowei
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2013, 23 (3): 436-446.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-013-1020-z
    摘要565)      PDF (548KB)(1855)   

    China is physically and socio-economically susceptible to global warming-derived high temperature extremes because of its vast area and high urban population density. This article presents a scenario-based analysis method for high temperature extremes aimed at illustrating the latter’s hazardous potential and exposure across China. Based on probability analysis, high temperature extreme scenarios with return periods of 5, 10, 20, and 50 years were designed, with a high temperature hazard index calculated by integrating two differentially-weighted extreme temperature indices (maximum temperature and high temperature days). To perform the exposure analysis, a land use map was employed to determine the spatial distribution of susceptible human activities under the different scenarios. The results indicate that there are two heat-prone regions and a sub-hotspot occupying a relatively small land area. However, the societal and economic consequences of such an environmental impact upon the North China Plain and middle/lower Yangtze River Basin would be substantial due to the concentration of human activities in these areas.

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    Spatiotemporal patterns and characteristics of land-use change in China during 2010-2015
    Jia NING, Jiyuan LIU, Wenhui Kuang, Xinliang XU, Shuwen ZHANG, Changzhen YAN, Rendong LI, Shixin WU, Yunfeng HU, Guoming DU, Wenfeng CHI, Tao PAN, Jing NING
    地理学报(英文版)    2018, 28 (5): 547-562.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-018-1490-0
    摘要1358)   HTML453)    PDF (3130KB)(2540)   

    Land use/cover change is an important theme on the impacts of human activities on the earth systems and global environmental change. National land-use changes of China during 2010-2015 were acquired by the digital interpretation method using the high-resolution remotely sensed images, e.g. the Landsat 8 OLI, GF-2 remote sensing images. The spatiotemporal characteristics of land-use changes across China during 2010-2015 were revealed by the indexes of dynamic degree model, annual land-use changes ratio etc. The results indicated that the built-up land increased by 24.6×103 km2 while the cropland decreased by 4.9×103 km2, and the total area of woodland and grassland decreased by 16.4×103 km2. The spatial pattern of land-use changes in China during 2010-2015 was concordant with that of the period 2000-2010. Specially, new characteristics of land-use changes emerged in different regions of China in 2010-2015. The built-up land in eastern China expanded continually, and the total area of cropland decreased, both at decreasing rates. The rates of built-up land expansion and cropland shrinkage were accelerated in central China. The rates of built-up land expansion and cropland growth increased in western China, while the decreasing rate of woodland and grassland accelerated. In northeastern China, built-up land expansion slowed continually, and cropland area increased slightly accompanied by the conversions between paddy land and dry land. Besides, woodland and grassland area decreased in northeastern China. The characteristics of land-use changes in eastern China were essentially consistent with the spatial govern and control requirements of the optimal development zones and key development zones according to the Major Function-oriented Zones Planning implemented during the 12th Five-Year Plan (2011-2015). It was a serious challenge for the central government of China to effectively protect the reasonable layout of land use types dominated with the key ecological function zones and agricultural production zones in central and western China. Furthermore, the local governments should take effective measures to strengthen the management of territorial development in future.

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    China’s rural revitalization and development: Theory, technology and management
    LIU Yansui, ZANG Yuzhu, YANG Yuanyuan
    地理学报(英文版)    2020, 30 (12): 1923-1942.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-020-1819-3
    摘要258)   HTML22)    PDF (778KB)(642)   

    The urban-rural transformation from dichotomy to integration is a gradual process. Like rural areas in many countries, Chinese rural society is experiencing a decline in all spheres due to depopulation, aging, lack of economic opportunity, and so on. Aiming at solving the serious rural issues, China proposed the implementation of a rural revitalization strategy and the promotion of an integrated urban-rural development for the first time in 2017. This proposal marks the transformation of the urban-rural relationship, and the integrated urban-rural development reflects a significant conceptual change. Researches on issues of rural decline are urgently needed to determine the most effective method for rural revitalization and development from the perspective of the urban-rural dynamics. In this context, this paper focuses on studying the theory, technology and management of rural revitalization and development. We construct a theoretical framework for urban-rural integration based on population-land-industry-right between the urban and rural systems, regarding land engineering for land capacity building as the technical support and the rural land system reform and reconstruction as the policy support for management. This research will provide theoretical support for the implementation of China’s rural revitalization strategy.

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    A review on trade-off analysis of ecosystem services for sustainable land-use management
    Xiangzheng DENG, Zhihui LI, GIBSON John
    地理学报(英文版)    2016, 26 (7): 953-968.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-016-1309-9
    摘要1232)   HTML5897213)    PDF (246KB)(2820)   

    Ecosystem services are substantial elements for human society. The central challenge to meet the human needs from ecosystems while sustain the Earth’s life support systems makes it urgent to enhance efficient natural resource management for sustainable ecological and socioeconomic development. Trade-off analysis of ecosystem services can help to identify optimal decision points to balance the costs and benefits of the diverse human uses of ecosystems. In this sense, the aim of this paper is to provide key insights into ecosystem services trade-off analysis at different scales from a land use perspective, by comprehensively reviewing the trade-offs analysis tools and approaches that addressed in ecology, economics and other fields. The review will significantly contribute to future research on trade-off analysis to avoid inferior management options and offer a win-win solution based on comprehensive and efficient planning for interacting multiple ecosystem services.

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    Land use/land cover classification and its change detection using multi-temporal MODIS NDVI data
    USMAN M, LIEDL R, A SHAHID M, ABBAS A
    地理学报(英文版)    2015, 25 (12): 1479-1506.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-015-1247-y
    摘要2073)   HTML10629549)    PDF (2804KB)(2949)   

    Detailed analysis of Land Use/Land Cover (LULC) using remote sensing data in complex irrigated basins provides complete profile for better water resource management and planning. Using remote sensing data, this study provides detailed land use maps of the Lower Chenab Canal irrigated region of Pakistan from 2005 to 2012 for LULC change detection. Major crop types are demarcated by identifying temporal profiles of NDVI using MODIS 250 m × 250 m spatial resolution data. Wheat and rice are found to be major crops in rabi and kharif seasons, respectively. Accuracy assessment of prepared maps is performed using three different techniques: error matrix approach, comparison with ancillary data and with previous study. Producer and user accuracies for each class are calculated along with kappa coefficients (K). The average overall accuracies for rabi and kharif are 82.83% and 78.21%, respectively. Producer and user accuracies for individual class range respectively between 72.5% to 77% and 70.1% to 84.3% for rabi and 76.6% to 90.2% and 72% to 84.7% for kharif. The K values range between 0.66 to 0.77 for rabi with average of 0.73, and from 0.69 to 0.74 with average of 0.71 for kharif. LULC change detection indicates that wheat and rice have less volatility of change in comparison with both rabi and kharif fodders. Transformation between cotton and rice is less common due to their completely different cropping conditions. Results of spatial and temporal LULC distributions and their seasonal variations provide useful insights for establishing realistic LULC scenarios for hydrological studies.

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    Substrate damage and recovery after giant clam shell mining at remote coral reefs in the southern South China Sea
    ZHOU Shengnan, SHI Qi, YANG Hongqiang, ZHANG Xiyang, LIU Xiaoju, TAN Fei, YAN Pin
    地理学报(英文版)    2021, 31 (11): 1655-1674.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-021-1916-y
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    Giant clam shell mining (GCSM), a unique phenomenon occurring at remote coral reefs in the southern South China Sea (SCS), forms striking scars on the reef flats and damages the reef flat substrate. Through image analyses at three times (2004.02.02, 2014.02.26, and 2019.04.10) and in situ surveys at Ximen Reef, a representative site that has experienced GCSM, we quantified the GCSM-generated substrate damage and the corresponding recovery. GCSM was estimated to have occurred sometime between 2012 and 2014, causing reduction in live coral subarea and formation of micro-relief as trenches and mounds. GCSM-generated damage was restricted to the reef flat. After GCSM, coral and algae subarea increased, and the trenches and mounds tended to be filled and eroded, representing a natural recovery of the substrate. The legal prohibition on human disturbances at the coral reefs contributed to substrate recovery at Ximen Reef. This case also implied that recovery of the other coral reefs that suffered from GCSM is possible.

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    Rural vitalization in China: A perspective of land consolidation
    Hualou LONG, Yingnan ZHANG, Shuangshuang TU
    地理学报(英文版)    2019, 29 (4): 517-530.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-019-1599-9
    摘要429)   HTML11)    PDF (448KB)(1378)   

    The core objective of rural vitalization is to systemically establish a coupling pattern of various rural development elements including population, land and industry. As one of the prerequisites, land resources is required to be optimally allocated via land consolidation. Consequently, land consolidation contributes greatly to population agglomeration, industrial development and resources support under the context of combating rural decline. Based on the key elements affecting rural development, this paper elaborates the connotation of rural vitalization and land consolidation in the new era as well as their relationships. Furthermore, the paper analyzes the alternative paths for achieving rural vitalization via land consolidation, and discusses the future directions of land consolidation and rural vitalization. The conclusions are drawn as follows: (1) To cope with the loss and decline of the intrinsic elements in rural areas, rural vitalization is a development strategy aimed at realizing economic, political, cultural and ecological rejuvenation in rural area by reshaping socio-economic morphology and spatial pattern in rural territory. (2) From the perspective of rural vitalization, land consolidation is endowed with new connotation, which should not only target at activating the key elements of rural development, but also place emphasis on coordinating material space and spirit core as well as integrating the restructuring of the physical space and the rural governance system. (3) Land consolidation should be compatible with regional natural conditions and the current stage of socio-economic development. According to the principle of regional planning and classification strategy, the appropriate models and paths should be adopted to promote the benign interactions of population, land and industry based on engineering techniques and ecological means. (4) Under the background of national strategy of rural vitalization, it is necessary to reshape the value orientation of land consolidation based on a scientific understanding of urban-rural relations and rural territorial functions, coordinate land consolidation planning and rural vitalization planning under the unified spatial planning system, and explore the new model combining land consolidation and multifunctional agriculture.

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    Spatial distribution and influencing factors of Surface Nibble Degree index in the severe gully erosion region of China's Loess Plateau
    ZHOU Yi, YANG Caiqin, LI Fan, CHEN Rong
    地理学报(英文版)    2021, 31 (11): 1575-1597.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-021-1912-2
    摘要107)   HTML8)    PDF (13141KB)(302)   

    In China's Loess Plateau severe gully erosion (LPGE) region, the shoulder-line is the most intuitive and unique manifestation of the loess landform, which divides a landform into positive and negative terrains (PNTs*The spatial combination model of PNTs is of great significance for revealing the evolution of the loess landform. This study modeled and proposed the Surface Nibble Degree (SND), which is a new index that reflects the comparison of the areas of PNTs. Based on 5 m DEMs and matched high-resolution remote sensing images, the PNTs of 172 complete watersheds in the LPGE were extracted accurately, and the SND index was calculated. The spatial distribution trend of SND was discussed, and the relationship between SND and the factors that affect the evolution mechanism of regional landform was explored further. Results show that: (1) The SND can be calculated formally. It can quantify the development of the loess landform well*2) The SND of the LPGE has evident spatial differentiation that increases from southwest to northeast. High values appear in Shenmu of Shaanxi, Shilou of Shanxi, and northern Yanhe River, whereas the low values are mainly distributed in the southern loess tableland and the inclined elongated ridge area of Pingliang in Gansu and Guyuan in Ningxia*3) In the Wuding River and Yanhe River, the SND decreases with the increase in flow length (FL*In the North-Luohe River and Jinghe River, the SND increases with FL*4) SND is significantly correlated with gully density and sediment modulus and moderately correlated with hypsometric integral. As for the mechanism factors analysis, the relationship between loess thickness and SND is not obvious, but SND increased first and then decreased with the increase of precipitation and vegetation in each geographical division, and we found that the land use type of low coverage grassland has greater erosion potential.

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    Attribution of trends in meteorological drought during 1960-2016 over the Loess Plateau, China
    GUO Mengyao, SHE Dunxian, ZHANG Liping, LI Lingcheng, YANG Zong-Liang, HONG Si
    地理学报(英文版)    2021, 31 (8): 1123-1139.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-021-1888-y
    摘要51)   HTML7)    PDF (4118KB)(296)   

    This study uses two forms of the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), namely the PDSI_TH (potential evapotranspiration estimated-by the Thornthwaite equation) and the PDSI_PM (potential evapotranspiration estimated by the FAO Penman-Monteith equation), to characterize the meteorological drought trends during 1960-2016 in the Loess Plateau (LP) and its four subregions. By designing a series of numerical experiments, we mainly investigated various climatic factors' contributions to the drought trends at annual, summer, and autumn time scales. Overall, the drying trend in the PDSI_TH is much larger than that in the PDSI_PM. The former is more sensitive to air temperature than precipitation, while the latter is the most sensitive to precipitation among all meteorological factors. Increasing temperature results in a decreasing trend (drying) in the PDSI_TH, which is further aggravated by decreasing precipitation, jointly leading to a relatively severe drying trend. For the PDSI_PM that considers more comprehensive climatic factors, the drying trend is partly counteracted by the declining wind speed and solar radiation. Therefore, the PDSI_PM ultimately shows a much smaller drying trend in the past decades.

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    Influence of the variation in rural population on farmland preservation in the rapid urbanization area of China
    ZHANG Mingyu, CHEN Qiuxiao, ZHANG Kewei
    地理学报(英文版)    2021, 31 (9): 1365-1380.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-021-1901-5
    摘要82)   HTML5)    PDF (10889KB)(281)   

    In the past 40 years, cultivated land has faced the continued anthropogenic interference, which has become a significant issue for cultivated land preservation during rapid urbanization. The purpose of this research was to reveal the spatio-temporal evolutionary characteristics of cultivated land and the correlation between rural population variation and farmland change in China. Fifty county-level administrative units in Zhejiang Province were selected as the study area wherein spatio-temporal evolution comparative analysis for every 5 years from 2000 to 2015 was conducted. This study used the pool method to estimate the impacts of the rural population variation, average slope, average elevation, rural residential disposable income, primary industry proportion, and road density on farmland utilization efficiency from the spatial perspective, which is represented by landscape metrics including the mean patch size, edge density, area weighted mean shape index, and area weighted mean patch fractal dimension. This study showed that the cultivated land landscape index continued to rise after 2000 and then started decreasing after 2010, indicating a reduction in human interference after 2010. The spatial variation of rural population of all county-level administrative units decreased from 2000 to 2010, and 62% of them began to increase after 2010. The regression analysis results showed that the spatial variation of rural population was significantly and negatively correlated with the cultivated land landscape while the rural residential disposable income, average slope and primary industry proportion were all significantly and positively related to the cultivated land landscape index. The results implied that the loss of the agricultural labor force and the difficulty of sloping farmlands adapting to mechanized farming were unconducive to farmland utilization efficiency improvement, and the increase in nonagricultural activities in rural areas would increase the difficulty of cultivated land preservation. Our analysis suggests that local governments should improve the production efficiency of fragmented land or strengthen the construction control of housing and facilities in rural areas according to their regional urbanization development situation.

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    Integration of InVEST-habitat quality model with landscape pattern indexes to assess mountain plant biodiversity change: A case study of Bailongjiang watershed in Gansu Province
    Jie GONG, Yuchu XIE, Erjia CAO, Qiuyan Huang, Hongying LI
    地理学报(英文版)    2019, 29 (7): 1193-1210.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-019-1653-7
    摘要367)   HTML9)    PDF (2760KB)(1002)   

    Mountains in western China, hosted rich biodiversity and millions of people and inhabitant with vital ecosystem services, had experienced the most serious biodiversity loss with fragile ecological problems. Even though increasing attentions had been paid to this issue, we still lacked efficient methods to assess the change of plant biodiversity at medium/large scale due to the poor data and co-existing multiple habitat types. This study proposed an integrated method combining InVEST-habitat quality model, NPP and landscape pattern indexes to analyze the spatial heterogeneity of plant biodiversity and its spatiotemporal change on raster cell scale. The results indicated that plant biodiversity service was high in Bailongjiang watershed with obvious spatial pattern variations. The land area containing higher plant biodiversity were 3161 km2, which mainly distributed in the National Nature Reserve and forestry area. While the areas with lower plant biodiversity accounted for 37.67% and mainly distributed in the valleys between Zhouqu-Wudu-Wenxian County, the valley of Minjiang in Tanchang County and alpine mountain snow-covered regions. During 1990-2010, plant biodiversity level tended to increase and the higher plant biodiversity area increased from 14.13% to 17.15% due to ecological restoration and afforestation, while plant biodiversity decreased in the area with intensive human activities, such as cultivated land, urban and rural land. The results showed that combining InVEST-habitat quality model, NPP and landscape pattern indexes can effective reveal mountain plant biodiversity change. The study was useful for plant biodiversity conservation policy-making and human activity management for the disaster-impacted mountainous areas in China.

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    Theoretical basis and technical methods of cyberspace geography
    GAO Chundong, GUO Qiquan, JIANG Dong, WANG Zhenbo, FANG Chuanglin, HAO Mengmeng
    地理学报(英文版)    2019, 29 (12): 1949-1964.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-019-1698-7
    摘要810)   HTML60)    PDF (5475KB)(649)   

    Cyberspace is a new spatial realm of activities involving both humans and data, and it has become a cornerstone of the national security of every country. A scientific understanding of cyberspace is essential for analyzing cyberspace incidents, governing cyberspace and ensuring cybersecurity. Accordingly, cyberspace has become a new field of geographic research in the Information Age. Against the backdrop of fierce international competition over cyberspace, there has been an urgent need to strengthen research between the fields of geography and cybersecurity, leading to theoretical and methodological innovations that have created the sub-discipline of cyberspace geography. Cyberspace geography (CG) extends geographical research from real spaces to virtual spaces, and its theoretical basis is the evolution of the traditional geographic human-land relationship theory into a human-land-network relationship theory. CG research includes constructing mapping relationships between cyberspace and real space, redefining the traditional geographic concepts of distance and regions for cyberspace, creating a language, models and methodologies for visually representing cyberspace, drawing maps of cyberspace, and researching the principles governing the evolution of cyberspace structures and behaviors. The technical methods of CG include collecting and integrating data on elements of cyberspace, visually representing cyberspace and conducting cyberspace situational and behavioral intelligence awareness. Intelligence awareness covers cyberspace situational status assessments, network hotspot event dissemination and traceability analysis, and network event situational simulations and risk predictions. CG offers new perspectives on the scientific understanding of cyberspace, the development of disciplines such as geography and cybersecurity, and the creation of national cybersecurity prevention and control mechanisms as well as a community of common future in cyberspace.

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    Spatiotemporal characteristics of Qinghai Lakeice phenology between 2000 and 2016
    Miaomiao QI, Xiaojun YAO, Xiaofeng LI, Hongyu DUAN, Yongpeng GAO, Juan LIU
    地理学报(英文版)    2019, 29 (1): 115-130.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-019-1587-0
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    Lake ice phenology is considered a sensitive indicator of regional climate change. We utilized time series information of this kind extracted from a series of multi-source remote sensing (RS) datasets including the MOD09GQ surface reflectance product, Landsat TM/ETM+ images, and meteorological records to analyze spatiotemporal variations of ice phenology of Qinghai Lake between 2000 and 2016 applying both RS and GIS technology. We also identified the climatic factors that have influenced lake ice phenology over time and draw a number of conclusions. First, data show that freeze-up start (FUS), freeze-up end (FUE), break-up start (BUS), and break-up end (BUE) on Qinghai Lake usually occurred in mid-December, early January, mid-to-late March, and early April, respectively. The average freezing duration (FD, between FUE and BUE), complete freezing duration (CFD, between FUE and BUS), ice coverage duration (ICD, between FUS and BUE), and ablation duration (AD, between BUS and BUE) were 88 days, 77 days, 108 days and 10 days, respectively. Second, while the results of this analysis reveal considerable differences in ice phenology on Qinghai Lake between 2000 and 2016, there has been relatively little variation in FUS times. Data show that FUE dates had also tended to fluctuate over time, initially advancing and then being delayed, while the opposite was the case for BUS dates as these advanced between 2012 and 2016. Overall, there was a shortening trend of Qinghai Lake’s FD in two periods, 2000-2005 and 2010-2016, which was shorter than those seen on other lakes within the hinterland of the Tibetan Plateau. Third, Qinghai Lake can be characterized by similar spatial patterns in both freeze-up (FU) and break-up (BU) processes, as parts of the surface which freeze earlier also start to melt first, distinctly different from some other lakes on the Tibetan Plateau. A further feature of Qinghai Lake ice phenology is that FU duration (between 18 days and 31 days) is about 10 days longer than BU duration (between 7 days and 20 days). Fourth, data show that negative temperature accumulated during the winter half year (between October and the following April) also plays a dominant role in ice phenology variations of Qinghai Lake. Precipitation and wind speed both also exert direct influences on the formation and melting of lake ice cover and also cannot be neglected.

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    Neighborhood impacts on household participation in payments for ecosystem services programs in a Chinese nature reserve: A methodological exploration
    ZHANG Huijie, AN Li, BILSBORROW Richard, CHUN Yongwan, YANG Shuang, DAI Jie
    地理学报(英文版)    2021, 31 (6): 899-922.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-021-1877-1
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    Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) programs have been implemented in both developing and developed countries to conserve ecosystems and the vital services they provide. These programs also often seek to maintain or improve the economic wellbeing of the populations living in the corresponding (usually rural) areas. Previous studies suggest that PES policy design, presence or absence of concurrent PES programs, and a variety of socioeconomic and demographic factors can influence decisions of households to participate or not in the PES program. However, neighborhood impacts on household participation in PES have rarely been addressed. This study explores potential neighborhood effects on villagers’ enrollment in the Grain-to-Green Program (GTGP), one of the largest PES programs in the world, using data from China’s Fanjingshan National Nature Reserve. We utilize a fixed effects logistic regression model in combination with the eigenvector spatial filtering (ESF) method to explore whether neighborhood size affects household enrollment in GTGP. By comparing the results with and without ESF, we find that the ESF method can help account for spatial autocorrelation properly and reveal neighborhood impacts that are otherwise hidden, including the effects of area of forest enrolled in a concurrent PES program, gender and household size. The method can thus uncover mechanisms previously undetected due to not taking into account neighborhood impacts and thus provides an additional way to account for neighborhood impacts in PES programs and other studies.

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    Global understanding of farmland abandonment: A review and prospects
    Shengfa LI, Xiubin LI
    地理学报(英文版)    2017, 27 (9): 1123-1150.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-017-1426-0
    摘要588)   HTML12)    PDF (506KB)(907)   

    Since the 1950s, noteworthy farmland abandonment has been occurring in many developed countries and some developing countries. This global land use phenomenon has fundamentally altered extensive rural landscapes. A review of global farmland abandonment under the headings of “land use change - driving mechanisms - impacts and consequences - policy responses” found the following: (1) Farmland abandonment has occurred primarily in developed countries in Europe and North America, but the extent of abandonment has varied significantly. (2) Changing socio-economic factors were the primary driving forces for the farmland abandonment. And land marginalization was the fundamental cause, which was due to the drastic increase of farming opportunity cost, while the direct factor for abandonment was the shrink of agricultural labor forces. (3) Whether to abandon, to what extent and its spatial distributions were finally dependent on integrated effect from the physical conditions, laborer attributes, farming and regional socio-economic conditions at the village, household and parcel scales. With the exception of Eastern Europe, farmland abandonment was more likely to occur in mountainous and hilly areas, due to their unfavorable farming conditions. (4) A study of farmland abandonment should focus on its ecological and environmental effects, while which is more positive or more negative are still in dispute. (5) Increasing agricultural subsidies will be conductive to slowing the rate of farmland abandonment, but this is not the only measure that needs to be implemented.

    Due to China’s rapid urbanization, there is a high probability that the rate of abandonment will increase in the near future. However, very little research has focused on this rapid land-use trend in China, and, as a result, there is an inadequate understanding of the dynamic mechanisms and consequences of this phenomenon. This paper concludes by suggesting some future directions for further research in China. These directions include monitoring regional and national abandonment dynamics, analyzing trends, assessing the risks and socio-economic effects of farmland abandonment, and informing policy making.

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    Agricultural drought monitoring:Progress, challenges, and prospects
    Xianfeng LIU, Xiufang ZHU, Yaozhong PAN, Shuangshuang LI, Yanxu LIU, Yuqi MA
    地理学报(英文版)    2016, 26 (6): 750-767.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-016-1297-9
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    In this paper, we compared the concept of agricultural drought and its relationship with other types of droughts and reviewed the progress of research on agricultural drought monitoring indices on the basis of station data and remote sensing. Applicability and limitations of different drought monitoring indices were also compared. Meanwhile, development history and the latest progress in agricultural drought monitoring were evaluated through statistics and document comparison, suggesting a transformation in agricultural drought monitoring from traditional single meteorological monitoring indices to meteorology and remote sensing-integrated monitoring indices. Finally, an analysis of current challenges in agricultural drought monitoring revealed future research prospects for agricultural drought monitoring, such as investigating the mechanism underlying agricultural drought, identifying factors that influence agricultural drought, developing multi-spatiotemporal scales models for agricultural drought monitoring, coupling qualitative and quantitative agricultural drought evaluation models, and improving the application levels of remote sensing data in agricultural drought monitoring.

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    The heritage and cultural values of ancient Chinese maps
    Lili JIANG, Qizhang LIANG, Qingwen QI, Yanjun YE, Xun LIANG
    地理学报(英文版)    2017, 27 (12): 1521-1540.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-017-1450-0
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    Ancient Chinese cartography dates back to the Western Jin Dynasty in the third century. Cartography was initiated during this period by Pei Xiu, a minister and cartographic expert, who suggested six principles of cartography. Pei Xiu, who is known as the father of Chinese cartography, oversaw the completion of the “Yu Gong Regional Maps”, along with 18 articles and the “Terrain Fangzhang Map” (AD 224-271). This led to a number of subsequent cartographic initiatives including the “Wooden Fangzhang Map” (an administrative map) which was completed by Xie Zhuang, a minister during the Southern Dynasties (AD 502-557), “Haineihuayi Tu” (Map of China and its neighbouring countries) (AD 730-805), drawn by Jia Dan, a cartographer of the Tang Dynasty, and “Shouling Tu” (an administrative map, AD 1031-1095), drawn by Shen Kuo, a scientist during the Northern Song Dynasty. Throughout the 16th century, ancient Chinese cartography developed continuously and cumulatively, and formed the specific characteristics of China ancient cartography. Although Western latitude-based and longitude-based mapping techniques introduced to China in AD 1460, the theories and methods of Chinese and Western mapping systems co-existed for over 400 years. The cultural heritage of Chinese cartography can be seen in many famous ancient Chinese maps, including astronomical figures and atlases (world, Chinese, regional, military, water conservancy, historical, and educational maps), charts, and maps of scenic spots. These have hitherto been kept in well-known archives and institutions across the world. They form an important part of the global cultural heritage of ancient maps and cartography. Given their high cultural value, these maps remain an important point of study. This paper provides a preliminary discussion on the rarity, application, and the historical, scientific, and artistic value of ancient Chinese maps.

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    Climate change and multi-dimensional sustainable urbanization
    CHEN Mingxing, XIAN Yue, WANG Pengling, DING Zijin
    地理学报(英文版)    2021, 31 (9): 1328-1348.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-021-1895-z
    摘要124)   HTML10)    PDF (1783KB)(220)   

    Global large-scale urbanization and climate change have become indisputable scientific facts yet are unresolved issues, and are a common concern for mankind. The relationship between these two topics is unclear and it is not known how to deal appropriately at the scientific level with climate change in the process of urbanization. Further exploration of the science, management and practice, are needed to achieve global and regional sustainable development. This paper first considers the basic facts concerning mass urbanization and climate change and summarizes the interactions and possible mechanisms of urbanization and climate change. Urbanization leads to the heat island effect, an uneven distribution of precipitation and extreme weather, together with a local-regional-global multi-scale superposition effect, which aggravates the consequences of global climate change. The impact of climate change on urbanization is mainly manifested in aspects such as changes of energy consumption, mortality, and the spread of infectious diseases, sea level rise, extreme weather damage to infrastructure, and water shortages. This paper also briefly reviews relevant international research programs and action coalitions and puts forward an analysis framework of multi-dimensional sustainable urbanization which can adapt to and mitigate climate change, from the perspective of the four key dimensions—population, land use, economy, and society. It is imperative that we strengthen the interdisciplinary activities involving the natural and social sciences, take urbanization and other human activities into consideration of the land - atmosphere system, and explore the human-land-atmosphere coupling process. The adaptation and mitigation from the perspective of human activities, as represented by urbanization, might be the most critical and realistic way to deal with climate change.

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    Spatio-temporal analysis of cropland change in the Guanzhong area, China, from 1650 to 2016
    WEI Xueqiong, LI Yuanfang, GUO Yu, CHEN Tiexi, LI Beibei
    地理学报(英文版)    2021, 31 (9): 1381-1400.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-021-1902-4
    摘要97)   HTML5)    PDF (7274KB)(214)   

    As one of the most critical impact factors of global change, historical land-use change is an indispensable input in climate and environment simulations. To better understand the cropland change in the Guanzhong area, gazetteers, statistics, and survey data were collected as data sources. Methods of registered tax-paying cropland data collection, selection of time points, and data interpolation and calibration were used to reconstruct changes in the cropland area. The cropland area data at the county level were allocated to 1 km×1 km grid cells. The total cropland area in the Guanzhong area was influenced by changes in population, wars, natural disasters, and land-use types, and it fluctuated from 1650 to 2016. From 1780 to 1830, the cropland expanded in the northern and western parts of Guanzhong area, and the cropland in the north of Qinling Mountains increased slightly. The spatial pattern of cropland reached its maximum range in 1980, and the cropland area declined in the whole study area, especially in the cities of Xi’an and Xianyang in 2016. The comparison between HYDE 3.2 and the data obtained in this study showed that the grid cells of HYDE 3.2 exhibit lower values of cropland area fractions in the Guanzhong Basin and higher values in high-altitude areas around the Guanzhong Basin as compared to those in this study.

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    Explicating the mechanisms of land cover change in the New Eurasian Continental Bridge Economic Corridor region in the 21st century
    FAN Zemeng, LI Saibo, FANG Haiyan
    地理学报(英文版)    2021, 31 (10): 1403-1418.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-021-1903-3
    摘要163)   HTML6)    PDF (1806KB)(212)   

    Land cover change has presented clear spatial differences in the New Eurasian Continental Bridge Economic Corridor (NECBEC) region in the 21st century. A spatiotemporal dynamic probability model and a driving force analysis model of land cover change were developed to analyze explicitly the dynamics and driving forces of land cover change in the NECBEC region. The results show that the areas of grassland, cropland and built-up land increased by 114.57 million ha, 8.41 million ha and 3.96 million ha, and the areas of woodland, other land, and water bodies and wetlands decreased by 74.09 million ha, 6.26 million ha, and 46.59 million ha in the NECBEC region between 2001 and 2017, respectively. Woodland and other land were mainly transformed to grassland, and grassland was mainly transformed to woodland and cropland. Built-up land had the largest annual rate of increase and 50% of this originated from cropland. Moreover, since the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) commenced in 2013, there has been a greater change in the dynamics of land cover change, and the gaps in the socio-economic development level have gradually decreased. The index of socio-economic development was the highest in western Europe, and the lowest in northern Central Asia. The impacts of socio-economic development on cropland and built-up land were greater than those for other land cover types. In general, in the context of rapid socio-economic development, the rate of land cover change in the NECBEC has clearly shown an accelerating trend since 2001, especially after the launch of the BRI in 2013.

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    Embedded technology transfer from an institution and culture nexus perspective: Experiences from the Mombasa-Nairobi Standard-Gauge Railway
    WANG Jiaoe, DU Fangye, WU Mingquan, LIU Weidong
    地理学报(英文版)    2021, 31 (5): 681-698.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-021-1865-5
    摘要95)   HTML1)    PDF (1368KB)(285)   

    Modern railway projects, characterized by “natural monopoly”, large investment, and far-reaching influences, are highly dependent on the institutional and cultural environments in China. The countries along the Belt and Road are characterized by weak institutions, unstable politics, and poor technology foundations, which are largely different from China. These factors are severe obstacles to international technology transfer. By summarizing the experiences from the Mombasa-Nairobi Standard-Gauge Railway (SGR) project, this study proposes a framework for embedded technology transfer with a technology-institution-culture nexus. The results indicate that technology localization, including technology standards, management mode, and industrial chain, should be realized in the process of technology transfer. Then, the host government ought to overhaul its institutional and policy framework to support the infrastructure projects. Moreover, the cultural conflicts between the transferor and transferee should be taken seriously. This experience could provide references for other international infrastructure technology transfers.

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    China's agricultural land use change and its underlying drivers: A literature review
    WANG Xue, LI Xiubin
    地理学报(英文版)    2021, 31 (8): 1222-1242.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-021-1894-0
    摘要63)   HTML11)    PDF (2067KB)(219)   

    Understanding the manifestations and underlying drivers of agricultural land use change in China is of great importance for both domestic and global food security. However, little is known about the holistic pattern of agricultural land use change across China, especially from the perspective of intensity since the evidence has been gathered mainly through case studies at local levels. This study conducts a systemic review of agricultural land use change and its underlying drivers in China by aggregating 169 relevant case studies from 123 publications. The cases related to intensification and disintensification, which are the two types of agricultural land use change, are generally equal, accounting for 50% of the total number of cases. Intensification and disintensification can be further divided into the same three categories: expansion/contraction of agricultural land, changes in agricultural land use activities and changes in land management intensity. Demographic, economic, technological, and institutional drivers, together with location factors, are frequently noted as significant underlying drivers, while sociocultural drivers and farm(er) characteristics are less frequently recognized. Finally, three major land use change trajectories are summarized mainly concerning rising labor costs and the concomitant increase in off-farm employment, the ecological improvement policy, and advances in agricultural technology.

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    Recent advances on reconstruction of climate and extreme events in China for the past 2000 years
    Quansheng GE, Jingyun *ZHENG, Zhixin HAO, Yang LIU, Mingqi LI
    地理学报(英文版)    2016, 26 (7): 827-854.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-016-1301-4
    摘要1041)   HTML184)    PDF (2778KB)(1336)   

    China is distinguished by a prominent monsoonal climate in the east of the country, a continental arid climate in the northwest and a highland cold climate on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Because of the long history of Chinese civilization, there are abundant and well-dated documentary records for climate variation over the whole of the country as well as many natural archives (e.g., tree-rings, ice cores, stalagmites, varved lake sediments and corals) that enable high-resolution paleoclimatic reconstruction. In this paper, we review recent advances in the reconstruction of climate and extreme events over the last 2000 years in China. In the last 10 years, many new reconstructions, based on multi-proxies with wide spatial coverage, have been published in China. These reconstructions enable us to understand the characteristics of climate change across the country as well as the uncertainties of regional reconstructions. Synthesized reconstructed temperature results show that warm intervals over the last 2000 years occurred in AD 1-200, AD 551-760, AD 951-1320, and after AD 1921, and also show that cold intervals were in AD 201-350, AD 441-530, AD 781-950, and AD 1321-1920. Extreme cold winters, seen between 1500 and 1900, were more frequent than those after 1950. The intensity of regional heat waves, in the context of recent global warming, may not in fact exceed natural climate variability seen over the last 2000 years. In the eastern monsoonal region of China, decadal, multi-decadal and centennial oscillations are seen in rainfall variability. While the ensemble mean for drought/flood spatial patterns across all cold periods shows a meridional distribution, there is a tri-pole pattern with respect to droughts south of 25°N, floods between 25° and 30°N, and droughts north of 30°N for all warm periods. Data show that extreme drought events were most frequent in the periods AD 301-400, AD 751-800, AD 1051-1150, AD 1501-1550, and AD 1601-1650, while extreme flood events were frequent in the periods AD 101-150, AD 251-300, AD 951-1000, AD 1701-1750, AD 1801-1850, and AD 1901-1950. Between AD 1551-1600, extreme droughts and flood events occurred frequently. In arid northwest China, climate was characterized by dry conditions in AD 1000-1350, wet conditions in AD 1500-1850, and has tended to be wet over recent decades. On the northeastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, centennial-scale oscillations in precipitation have occurred over the last 1000 years, interrupted by several multi- decadal-scale severe drought events. Of these, the most severe were in the 1480s and 1710s. In southwest China, extreme droughts as severe as those seen in Sichuan and Chongqing in 2006 are known to have occurred during historical times.

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    A comprehensive assessment of urban vulnerability and its spatial differentiation in China
    Chuanglin FANG, Yan *WANG, Jiawen FANG
    地理学报(英文版)    2016, 26 (2): 153-170.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-016-1260-9
    摘要463)   HTML3)    PDF (2519KB)(1138)   

    The urban vulnerability poses a serious challenge to achieving sustainable development. With the concentration of the population and the economy, cities must manage the higher frequencies and risks of various hazards and are becoming more vulnerable. Research on the assessment and regulatory control of urban vulnerability is of great significance for both urbanization quality improvement and sustainable development in China or other countries in the world. Because of the complexity of cities and vulnerability concepts, existing studies have focused on different aspects of urban vulnerability. And the research content of urban vulnerability is scattered and relatively independent, leading to a lack of comparability among the research data and resulting in tremendous difficulties in summarizing the conclusions through comparison of independent research data. Therefore the goal of this study was to construct urban vulnerability index (UVI) from the perspective of sustainable development that could assess urban vulnerability comprehensively. In this study, we selected 10 subindexes involving 36 specific parameters from four aspects (resources, eco-environmental systems, economics, and social development) to construct a comprehensive index system. We also established the standard values of measurements. Then we take 288 prefecture-level cities in China as a study area and evaluate its overall urban vulnerability and its spatial differentiation. Results indicate that urban vulnerability of China has a remarkable spatial differentiation of both “gradient distribution” and “clustered distribution”; the extent of urban vulnerability corresponds to city size, the bigger the city, the lower its vulnerability; resource-based cities are more vulnerable than comprehensive cities; a city’s economic growth rate does not reflect the extent of its urban vulnerability. Further, we offer a few suggestions to cope with urban vulnerability in China.

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    Potential promoted productivity and spatial patterns of medium- and low-yield cropland land in China
    Huimin YAN, Yongzan JI, Jiyuan LIU, Fang LIU, Yunfeng HU, Wenhui KUANG
    地理学报(英文版)    2016, 26 (3): 259-271.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-016-1267-2
    摘要511)   HTML5)    PDF (1186KB)(696)   

    With a continuously increasing population and better food consumption levels, improving the efficiency of arable land use and increasing its productivity have become fundamental strategies to meet the growing food security needs in China. A spatial distribution map of medium- and low-yield cropland is necessary to implement plans for cropland improvement. In this study, we developed a new method to identify high-, medium-, and low-yield cropland from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data at a spatial resolution of 500 m. The method could be used to reflect the regional heterogeneity of cropland productivity because the classification standard was based on the regionalization of cropping systems in China. The results showed that the proportion of high-, medium-, and low-yield cropland in China was 21%, 39%, and 40%, respectively. About 75% of the low-yield cropland was located in hilly and mountainous areas, and about 53% of the high-yield cropland was located in plain areas. The five provinces with the largest area of high-yield cropland were all located in the Huang-Huai-Hai region, and the area amounted to 42% of the national high-yield cropland area. Meanwhile, the proportion of high-yield cropland was lower than 15% in Heilongjiang, Sichuan, and Inner Mongolia, which had the largest area allocated to cropland in China. If all the medium-yield cropland could be improved to the productive level of high-yield cropland and the low-yield cropland could be improved to the level of medium-yield cropland, the total productivity of the land would increase 19% and 24%, respectively.

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    Review on carbon emissions, energy consumption and low-carbon economy in China from a perspective of global climate change
    Lei SHEN, Yanzhi *SUN
    地理学报(英文版)    2016, 26 (7): 855-870.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-016-1302-3
    摘要999)   HTML188)    PDF (871KB)(1506)   

    Accompanying the rapid growth of China’s population and economy, energy consumption and carbon emission increased significantly from 1978 to 2012. China is now the largest energy consumer and CO2 emitter of the world, leading to much interest in researches on the nexus between energy consumption, carbon emissions and low-carbon economy. This article presents the domestic Chinese studies on this hotpot issue, and we obtain the following findings. First, most research fields involve geography, ecology and resource economics, and research contents contained some analysis of current situation, factors decomposition, predictive analysis and the introduction of methods and models. Second, there exists an inverted “U-shaped” curve connection between carbon emission, energy consumption and economic development. Energy consumption in China will be in a low-speed growth after 2035 and it is expected to peak between 6.19-12.13 billion TCE in 2050. China’s carbon emissions are expected to peak in 2035, or during 2020 to 2045, and the optimal range of carbon emissions is between 2.4-3.3 PgC/year (1 PgC=1 billion tons C) in 2050. Third, future research should be focused on global carbon trading, regional carbon flows, reforming the current energy structure, reducing energy consumption and innovating the low-carbon economic theory, as well as establishing a comprehensive theoretical system of energy consumption, carbon emissions and low-carbon economy.

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    A discursive construction of the Belt and Road Initiative: From neo-liberal to inclusive globalization
    Weidong LIU, DUNFORD Michael, Boyang GAO
    地理学报(英文版)    2018, 28 (9): 1199-1214.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-018-1520-y
    摘要174)   HTML3)    PDF (393KB)(747)   

    An international consensus is emerging around the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) proposed by the Chinese government, with a growing number of countries seeing it as a way of jointly exploring new international economic governance mechanisms. Meanwhile, with the crisis of neo-liberalism, economic globalization has arrived at a crossroad. In particular, incessant voices speak out against globalization, making the quest for a new way of promoting global development a major challenge. In this context, more and more political elites and scholars consider that the BRI opens up a possible new globalization path, amongst which inclusive globalization warrants exploration. On the basis of a brief analysis of the course and mechanism of global economic expansion and the limitations of neo-liberal globalization, along with the putting into practice of the BRI, this paper outlines some of the core features of inclusive globalization, i.e., inclusive growth with effective and efficient government regulation; inclusive infrastructure development; inclusive development paths chosen nationally that suit national conditions; inclusive participation; and cultural inclusiveness. Although these features are not sufficient to characterize fully inclusive globalization, they do identify some directions for future research, and provide elements of a discursive construction of the BRI.

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    Multidimensional measurement of poverty and its spatio-temporal dynamics in China from the perspective of development geography
    DONG Yin, JIN Gui, DENG Xiangzheng, WU Feng
    地理学报(英文版)    2021, 31 (1): 130-148.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-021-1836-x
    摘要103)   HTML12)    PDF (1391KB)(357)   

    Exploring the spatio-temporal dynamics of poverty is important for research on sustainable poverty reduction in China. Based on the perspective of development geography, this paper proposes a panel vector autoregressive (PVAR) model that combines the human development approach with the global indicator framework for Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) to identify the poverty-causing and the poverty-reducing factors in China. The aim is to measure the multidimensional poverty index (MPI) of China’s provinces from 2007 to 2017, and use the exploratory spatio-temporal data analysis (ESTDA) method to reveal the characteristics of the spatio-temporal dynamics of multidimensional poverty. The results show the following: (1) The poverty-causing factors in China include the high social gross dependency ratio and crop-to-disaster ratio, and the poverty-reducing factors include the high per capita GDP, per capita social security expenditure, per capita public health expenditure, number of hospitals per 10,000 people, rate of participation in the new rural cooperative medical scheme, vegetation coverage, per capita education expenditure, number of universities, per capita research and development (R&D) expenditure, and funding per capita for cultural undertakings. (2) From 2007 to 2017, provincial income poverty (IP), health poverty (HP), cultural poverty (CP), and multidimensional poverty have been significantly reduced in China, and the overall national poverty has dropped by 5.67% annually. there is a differentiation in poverty along different dimensions in certain provinces. (3) During the study period, the local spatial pattern of multidimensional poverty between provinces showed strong spatial dynamics, and a trend of increase from the eastern to the central and western regions was noted. The MPI among provinces exhibited a strong spatial dependence over time to form a pattern of decrease from northwestern and northeastern China to the surrounding areas. (4) The spatio-temporal networks of multidimensional poverty in adjacent provinces were mainly negatively correlated, with only Shaanxi and Henan, Shaanxi and Ningxia, Qinghai and Gansu, Hubei and Anhui, Sichuan and Guizhou, and Hainan and Guangdong forming spatially strong cooperative poverty reduction relationships. These results have important reference value for the implementation of China’s poverty alleviation strategy.

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    Model construction of urban agglomeration expansion simulation considering urban flow and hierarchical characteristics
    WANG Haijun, WU Yue, DENG Yu, XU Shan
    地理学报(英文版)    2022, 32 (3): 499-516.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-022-1958-9
    摘要135)   HTML8)   

    Since the launch of China’s reform and opening up policy, the process of urbanization in China has accelerated significantly. With the development of cities, inter-city interactions have become increasingly close, forming urban agglomerations that tend to be integrated. Urban agglomerations are regional spaces with network relationships and hierarchies, and have always been the main units for China to promote urbanization and regional coordinated development. In this paper, we comprehensively consider the network and hierarchical characteristics of an urban agglomeration, while using urban flow to describe the interactions of the inter-city networks and the hierarchical generalized linear model (HGLM) to reveal the hierarchical driving mechanism of the urban agglomeration. By coupling the HGLM with a cellular automata (CA) model, we introduced the HGLM-CA model for the simulation of the spatial expansion of an urban agglomeration, and compared the simulation results with those of the logistic-CA model and the biogeography-based optimization CA (BBO-CA) model. According to the results, we further analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of the proposed HGLM-CA model. We selected the middle reaches of the Yangtze River in China as the research area to conduct this empirical research, and simulated the spatial expansion of the urban agglomeration in 2017 on the basis of urban land-use data from 2007 and 2012. The results indicate that the spatial expansion of the urban agglomeration can be attributed to various driving factors. As a driving factor at the urban level, urban flow promotes the evolution of land use in the urban agglomeration, and also plays an important role in regulating cell-level factors, making the cell-level factors of different cities show different driving effects. The HGLM-CA model is able to obtain a higher simulation accuracy than the logistic-CA model, which indicates that the simulation results for urban agglomeration expansion considering urban flow and hierarchical characteristics are more accurate. When compared with the intelligent algorithm model, i.e., BBO-CA, the HGLM-CA model obtains a lower simulation accuracy, but it can analyze the interaction of the various driving factors from a hierarchical perspective. It also has a strong explanatory effect for the spatial expansion mechanism of urban agglomerations.

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    Vulnerability of glacier change in the Tianshan Mountains region of China
    CAI Xingran, LI Zhongqin, ZHANG Hui, XU Chunhai
    地理学报(英文版)    2021, 31 (10): 1469-1489.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-021-1907-z
    摘要94)   HTML2)    PDF (2855KB)(197)   

    The glacier is a crucial freshwater resource in arid and semiarid regions, and the vulnerability of the glacier change is intimately linked to regional ecological services and socio-economic sustainability. Taking the Tianshan Mountains region in China as an example, a basic framework for studying the vulnerability of glacier change was constructed so as to address factors such as physical geography, population status, socio-economic level, agricultural development, and social services. The framework was based on key dimensions, that is, exposure, sensitivity, and adaptability, and this constituted a targeted evaluation index system. We examined the spatial structure and spatial autocorrelation of the glacier change vulnerability using ArcGIS and GeoDa software. The influence and interaction of natural, social, economic, population and other factors on glacier change adaptability was examined using the GeoDetector model. The results suggested the following: (1) The vulnerability level decreased from the western region to the eastern region with significant differences between the two regions. The eastern region had the lowest vulnerability, followed by the central region, and then western region which had the highest vulnerability. (2) Significant positive and negative correlations were found between exposure, sensitivity, and adaptability, indicating that the areas with high exposure and high sensitivity to glacier change tended to have a low adaptive capacity, which led to high vulnerability, and vice versa. (3) The spatial heterogeneity regarding the ability to cope with glacier change reflected the combined effects of the natural, social, economic, and demographic factors. Among them, factors such as the production value of secondary and tertiary industries, the urban population, urban fixed-asset investment, and the number of employees played major roles regarding the spatial heterogeneity of glacier change.

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