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    Energy globalization of China: Trade, investment, and embedded energy flows
    YANG Yu
    地理学报(英文版)    2022, 32 (3): 377-400.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-022-1952-2
    摘要337)   HTML39)   

    China is in a critical period of transforming from the oil and gas era to the renewable energy era. To better understand the process of energy interaction between China and the rest of the world, this study aimed to investigate the basic theoretical cognition of global energy interaction and analyze the pattern and changes of energy interaction between China and the rest of the world with the method of complex networks, multi-region input-output analysis, and other technical methods. The main findings are as follows: (1) Chinas coal-based energy production structure and the huge demand for oil and gas indicate that ensuring overseas oil and gas supply is the most direct logic of energy interaction between China and the rest of the world, and the interaction scopes are mainly concentrated in oil- and gas-rich countries and regions. (2) With the development of renewable energy, the logic of energy interaction of China with the rest of the world has changed from countries and regions rich in oil and gas to countries with global renewable energy development and installation needs for its comparative advantages for manufacturing, which forms a renewable energy trade map that covers all major countries and regions in the world. (3) The overseas energy investment target of China has expanded from a limited number of host countries to Europe, Southeast Asia, and other countries and regions. The investment business is not only limited to the oil and gas field, but also expanded to solar energy, wind energy, hydro-power, and other renewable electricity generation projects. (4) As a global manufacturing and trading power, part of the energy consumed by China is embodied in the global production network and trade network for redistribution. The scope of energy interactions between China and the world will further expand to countries with general commodity trade relations with China, forming the global “energy hub” function. This study can provide a theoretical perspective and decision-making for a deeper understanding of the energy interactions between China and the world, maintaining national energy security, and participating in global energy economic governance.

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    China’s food security situation and key questions in the new era: A perspective of farmland protection
    LIANG Xinyuan, JIN Xiaobin, HAN Bo, SUN Rui, XU Weiyi, LI Hanbing, HE Jie, LI Jin
    地理学报(英文版)    2022, 32 (6): 1001-1019.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-022-1982-9
    摘要229)   HTML13)    PDF (1273KB)(78)   

    As the world’s largest developing country, the ability of China’s agricultural resource utilization to effectively support the current and future food security goals has been affected by a variety of factors (e.g., transformed supply channels, tightening international situation and frequent emergencies) in recent years and has attracted extensive attention from the academic community subject to multiple factors. This study uses literature review, statistical analysis, and spatial analysis methods to systematically explore China’s food security situation in the context of farmland resource constraints. It is found that the demand-side pressures such as demographic changes, social class differentiation, and dietary structure adjustments derived from economic growth and rapid urbanization have placed extremely high expectations on food supply. However, the quantitative restrictions, utilization ways, and health risks of farmland resources on the supply side constitute a huge hidden concern that affects the stability of food production. Although China’s farmland protection system is undergoing a transition from focusing on quantity management to sustainable use, the matching and coordinating demand pressure and supply capacity for food security is unbalanced. Therefore, facing uncertain future development scenarios, policymakers should focus on building a resilient space for China’s farmland protection to withstand the interference of major emergencies. The existing farmland protection space policy can be integrated by establishing a national farmland strategic reserve system (based on resilient space), and further development of targeted use control measures for zoning, grading, and classification will help realize sustainable China’s farmland resources use.

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    Dynamic features and driving mechanism of coal consumption for Guangdong province in China
    WANG Changjian, WANG Fei, ZHANG Xinlin, WANG Yang, SU Yongxian, YE Yuyao, WU Qitao, ZHANG Hong’ou
    地理学报(英文版)    2022, 32 (3): 401-420.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-022-1954-0
    摘要184)   HTML22)   

    Guangdong Province, as one of China’s fast-developing regions, an important manufacturing base, and one of the national first round low-carbon pilots, still faces many challenges in controlling its total energy consumption. Coal dominates Guangdong’s energy consumption and remains the major source of CO2. Previous research on factors influencing energy consumption has lacked a systematic analysis both from supply side (factors related to scale, structure, and technologies) and demand side (investment, consumption, and trade). This paper develops the logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI) method that focuses on the supply side and the structural decomposition analysis (SDA) method that focuses on the demand side to systematically identify the key factors driving coal consumption in Guangdong. Results are as follows: (1) Supply side analysis indicates that economic growth has always been the most important factor driving coal consumption growth, while energy intensity is the most important constraining factor. Industrial structure and energy structure have different impacts on coal consumption control during different development phases. (2) Demand side analysis indicates that coal is consumed mainly for international exports, inter-provincial exports, fixed capital formation, and urban household. (3) Industries with the fastest coal consumption growth driven by final demand have experienced significant shifts. Increments in industrial sectors were mainly driven by inter-provincial exports and urban household consumption in recent years. (4) Research on energy consumption in subnational regions under China’s new development pattern of “dual circulation” should not only focus on exports in the context of economic globalization but also pay more attention to inter-provincial exports on the background of strengthened interregional connections.

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    Identification and alleviation pathways of multidimensional poverty and relative poverty in counties of China
    XU Lidan, DENG Xiangzheng, JIANG Qun’ou, MA Fengkui
    地理学报(英文版)    2021, 31 (12): 1715-1736.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-021-1919-8
    摘要163)   HTML16)    PDF (9404KB)(133)   

    To realize efficient and sustainable poverty alleviation, this study firstly investigated the identification of multidimensional poverty and relative poverty, and then explored relevant poverty alleviation pathways. Poverty levels in 31 provinces including the autonomous regions and municipalities of China were identified at the county level using the average nighttime light index (ANLI), county multidimensional development index (CMDI), and a method combining multidimensional poverty index and relative poverty standards. Poverty alleviation pathways for poverty-stricken counties were explored from the aspects of industry, education, tourism and agriculture. The results revealed that nearly 60% of counties in China were primarily under relative poverty, most of which were corresponded to light relative poverty. In terms of ANLI and CMDI, 63% and 79% of the national poverty-stricken counties, as of 2018, could be identified, suggesting that CMDI had a higher performance for identifying poverty at the county level. In terms of poverty alleviation pathways, 414, 172, 442, and 298 poverty-stricken counties were receptive to industry poverty alleviation, education poverty alleviation, tourism poverty alleviation, and agriculture poverty alleviation, and 61% of counties had more poverty-causing factors, implying that multidimensional poverty alleviation is suitable in most of the counties.

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    The poverty evolution of typical countries along the Belt and Road and implications from China’s poverty reduction experiences
    SHI Linna, WANG Yongsheng, LIU Yansui, LI Yuheng
    地理学报(英文版)    2022, 32 (3): 458-476.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-022-1953-1
    摘要154)   HTML10)   

    The world is facing a poverty crisis. Despite the great achievements that have been made in poverty alleviation over the past two decades, the extent of poverty in countries along the Belt and Road is still high. Successful poverty reduction in these countries is crucial to meeting the 2030 SDGs. Improving governance to eradicate poverty is a shortcoming that needs to be addressed urgently in poverty reduction pathways along the Belt and Road. In this study, the Standard Deviational Ellipse method was used to study the spatial trajectory of the poverty gravity center. Results showed that the poverty gravity center moved from east to west by 87.60 km annually, while the poverty population decreased by 1211.14 million along the Belt and Road from 2000 to 2020. In addition, the trajectory of the center has shifted due to the different effects of poverty reduction. Among the countries situated along the Belt and Road, China is the most significant contributor to poverty reduction. Accordingly, this study examined the implications of China’s successful poverty reduction strategies in order to understand how other countries can effectively respond to poverty. Ultimately, we propose that sustainable poverty alleviation development strategies should be established with the objectives of promoting social equity and improving the wellbeing of all people.

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    Simulation of land-cover change in Jing-Jin-Ji region under different scenarios of SSP-RCP
    FAN Zemeng
    地理学报(英文版)    2022, 32 (3): 421-440.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-022-1955-z
    摘要144)   HTML21)   

    How to simulate land-cover change, driven by climate change and human activity, is not only a hot issue in the field of land-cover research but also in the field of sustainable urbanization. A surface-modeling method of land cover scenario (SSMLC) driven by the coupling of natural and human factors was developed to overcome limitations in existing land-cover models. Based on the climatic scenario data of CMIP6 SSP1-2.6, SSP2-4.5, and SSP5-8.5 released by IPCC in 2020, which combines shared socioeconomic paths (SSPs) with typical concentration paths (RCPs), observation climatic data concerning meteorological stations, the population, GDP, transportation data, land-cover data from 2020, and related policy refences, are used to simulate scenarios of land-cover change in the Jing-Jin-Ji region using SSP1-2.6, SSP2-4.5, and SSP5-8.5 for the years 2040, 2070 and 2100, respectively. The simulation results show that the total accuracy of SSMLC in the Jing-Jin-Ji region attains 93.52%. The change intensity of land cover in the Jing-Jin-Ji region is the highest (plus 3.12% per decade) between 2020 and 2040, gradually decreasing after 2040. Built-up land has the fastest increasing rate (plus 5.07% per decade), and wetland has the fastest decreasing rate (minus 3.10% per decade) between 2020 and 2100. The change intensity of land cover under scenario SSP5-8.5 is the highest among the abovementioned three scenarios in the Jing-Jin-Ji region between 2020 and 2100. The impacts of GDP, population, transportation, and policies on land-cover change are generally greater than those on other land-cover types. The results indicate that the SSMLC method can be used to project the change trend and intensity of land cover under the different scenarios. This will help to optimize the spatial allocation and planning of land cover, and could be used to obtain key data for carrying out eco-environmental conservation measures in the Jing-Jin-Ji region in the future.

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    Dynamic evolution trend of comprehensive transportation green efficiency in China: From a spatio-temporal interaction perspective
    MA Qifei, JIA Peng, SUN Caizhi, KUANG Haibo
    地理学报(英文版)    2022, 32 (3): 477-498.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-022-1957-x
    摘要138)   HTML13)   

    It is urgent and important to explore the dynamic evolution in comprehensive transportation green efficiency (CTGE) in the context of green development. We constructed a social development index that reflects the social benefits of transportation services, and incorporated it into the comprehensive transportation efficiency evaluation framework as an expected output. Based on the panel data of 30 regions in China from 2003-2018, the CTGE in China was measured using the slacks-based measure-data envelopment analysis (SBM-DEA) model. Further, the dynamic evolution trends of CTGE were determined using the spatial Markov model and exploratory spatio-temporal data analysis (ESTDA) technique from a spatio-temporal perspective. The results showed that the CTGE shows a U-shaped change trend but with an overall low level and significant regional differences. The state transition of CTGE has a strong spatial dependence, and there exists the phenomenon of “club convergence”. Neighbourhood background has a significant impact on the CTGE transition types, and the spatial spillover effect is pronounced. The CTGE has an obvious positive correlation and spatial agglomeration characteristics. The geometric characteristics of the LISA time path show that the evolution process of local spatial structure and local spatial dependence of China’s CTGE is stable, but the integration of spatial evolution is weak. The spatio-temporal transition results of LISA indicate that the CTGE has obvious transfer inertness and has certain path-dependence and spatial locking characteristics, which will become the major difficulty in improving the CTGE.

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    Characteristics and progress of land use/cover change research during 1990-2018
    HE Chunyang, ZHANG Jinxi, LIU Zhifeng, HUANG Qingxu
    地理学报(英文版)    2022, 32 (3): 537-559.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-022-1960-2
    摘要136)   HTML3)   

    Land use/cover change (LUCC) is the foundation and frontier for integrating multiple land surface processes. This paper aims to systematically review LUCC research from 1990 to 2018. Based on qualitative and quantitative analyses, we delineated the history of LUCC research and summarized their characteristics and major progress at different stages. We also identified the main challenges and proposed future directions for LUCC research. We found that the number of publications on LUCC research and their total citations grew exponentially. The research foci shifted from the process of LUCC during 1990-2004 to the impact of LUCC during 2005-2013 and then to the sustainability of LUCC from 2014 onwards. Currently, LUCC research is facing theoretical, methodological and practical challenges ranging from integrating the framework of sustainability science, adopting emerging technologies to supporting territorial spatial planning. To move forward, LUCC research should be closely integrated with landscape sustainability science and geodesign and take the leading role in territorial spatial planning to achieve the related Sustainable Development Goals.

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    Model construction of urban agglomeration expansion simulation considering urban flow and hierarchical characteristics
    WANG Haijun, WU Yue, DENG Yu, XU Shan
    地理学报(英文版)    2022, 32 (3): 499-516.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-022-1958-9
    摘要135)   HTML8)   

    Since the launch of China’s reform and opening up policy, the process of urbanization in China has accelerated significantly. With the development of cities, inter-city interactions have become increasingly close, forming urban agglomerations that tend to be integrated. Urban agglomerations are regional spaces with network relationships and hierarchies, and have always been the main units for China to promote urbanization and regional coordinated development. In this paper, we comprehensively consider the network and hierarchical characteristics of an urban agglomeration, while using urban flow to describe the interactions of the inter-city networks and the hierarchical generalized linear model (HGLM) to reveal the hierarchical driving mechanism of the urban agglomeration. By coupling the HGLM with a cellular automata (CA) model, we introduced the HGLM-CA model for the simulation of the spatial expansion of an urban agglomeration, and compared the simulation results with those of the logistic-CA model and the biogeography-based optimization CA (BBO-CA) model. According to the results, we further analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of the proposed HGLM-CA model. We selected the middle reaches of the Yangtze River in China as the research area to conduct this empirical research, and simulated the spatial expansion of the urban agglomeration in 2017 on the basis of urban land-use data from 2007 and 2012. The results indicate that the spatial expansion of the urban agglomeration can be attributed to various driving factors. As a driving factor at the urban level, urban flow promotes the evolution of land use in the urban agglomeration, and also plays an important role in regulating cell-level factors, making the cell-level factors of different cities show different driving effects. The HGLM-CA model is able to obtain a higher simulation accuracy than the logistic-CA model, which indicates that the simulation results for urban agglomeration expansion considering urban flow and hierarchical characteristics are more accurate. When compared with the intelligent algorithm model, i.e., BBO-CA, the HGLM-CA model obtains a lower simulation accuracy, but it can analyze the interaction of the various driving factors from a hierarchical perspective. It also has a strong explanatory effect for the spatial expansion mechanism of urban agglomerations.

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    Spatial evolution and growth mechanism of urban networks in western China: A multi-scale perspective
    YANG Liangjie, WANG Jing, YANG Yongchun
    地理学报(英文版)    2022, 32 (3): 517-536.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-022-1959-8
    摘要128)   HTML12)   

    Globalization and informatization promote the evolution of urban spatial organization from a hierarchical structure mode to a network structure mode, forming a complex network system. This study considers the coupling of “space of flows” and “spaces of places” as the core and “embeddedness” as the link and a relevant theoretical basis; then we construct a conceptual model of urban networks and explore the internal logic of enterprise networks and city networks. Using the interlocking-affiliate network model and data from China’s top 500 listed companies, this study constructs a directed multi-valued relational matrix between cities in western China from 2005 to 2015. Using social network analysis and the multiple regression of quadratic assignment program model (MRQAP), this study adopts a “top-down” research perspective to analyze the spatio-temporal evolution and growth mechanism of the city network in western China from three nested spatial scales: large regions, intercity agglomerations, and intracity agglomerations. The results show the following: (1) Under the large regional scale, the city network has good symmetry, obvious characteristics of hierarchical diffusion, neighborhood diffusion, and cross-administrative regional connection, presenting the “core-periphery” structural pattern. (2) The network of intercity agglomerations has the characteristics of centralization, stratification, and geographical proximity. (3) The internal network of each urban agglomeration presents a variety of network structure modes, such as dual-core, single-core, and multicore modes. (4) Administrative subordination and economic system proximity have a significant positive impact on the city network in western China. The differences in internet convenience, investment in science and technology, average time distance, and economic development have negative effects on the growth and development of city networks. (5) The preferential attachment is the internal driving force of the city network development.

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    Three modes of climate change since the Last Glacial Maximum in arid and semi-arid regions of the Asian continent
    ZHANG Yuxin, LI Yu
    地理学报(英文版)    2022, 32 (2): 195-213.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-022-1942-4
    摘要127)   HTML12)    PDF (1316KB)(92)   

    The westerly winds and East Asian summer monsoon play a leading role in climate change of southwestern North America and eastern Asia since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), respectively. Their convergence in arid and semi-arid regions of the Asian continent (AAC) makes the regional climate change more complicated on the millennial-scale. There are still limitations in applying paleoclimate records and climate simulations of characteristic periods to investigate climate change patterns since the LGM in this region. In this study, we adopt two indexes indicating effective moisture and rely on a continuous simulation, a time slice simulation, and numerous paleoclimate records to comprehensively investigate the climate change modes and their driving mechanisms since the LGM in AAC. Results demonstrate a millennial-scale climate differentiation phenomenon and three climate change modes possibly occurring in AAC since the LGM. The western AAC largely controlled by the westerly winds is featured as wet climates during the LGM but relatively dry climates during the mid-Holocene (MH), coinciding with the climate change mode in southwestern North America. Conversely, dry conditions during the LGM and relatively wet conditions during the MH are reflected in eastern AAC governed by the East Asian summer monsoon, which leans to the climate change mode in eastern Asia. If climate change in central AAC is forced by the interaction of two circulations, it expresses wet conditions in both the LGM and MH, tending to a combination of the southwestern North American and eastern Asian modes. Precipitation and evaporation exert different intensities in influencing three climate modes of different periods. Furthermore, we identify the significant driving effects of greenhouse gases and ice sheets on westerly-dominated zones of AAC, while orbit-driven insolation on monsoon-dominated zones of AAC.

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    Spatio-temporal patterns and driving mechanism of farmland fragmentation in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain
    ZHENG Yuhan, LONG Hualou, CHEN Kunqiu
    地理学报(英文版)    2022, 32 (6): 1020-1038.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-022-1983-8
    摘要125)   HTML9)    PDF (3085KB)(32)   

    Exploring the spatio-temporal variations of farmland landscape patterns in a traditional agricultural region can provide scientific support for decision-making on sustainable rural land use and rural vitalization development. This study established a comprehensive evaluation index for farmland fragmentation with multiple aspects (dominance, integrity, aggregation, regularity, and connectivity) at the county scale. The goal was to identify the evolution of farmland fragmentation in the traditional agricultural region of the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain during 2000-2015 and investigate underlying drivers using panel data of 359 counties. Results showed an accelerating but fluctuating fragmentation pattern of the farmland landscape. The indexes of dominance, integrity, and aggregation of farmland decreased most sharply, while the index of connectivity increased. Furthermore, the evolution of the farmland fragmentation pattern showed significant spatio-temporal heterogeneity, which is similar to the trajectory of urbanization and land use transition. Farmland fragmentation in municipal districts also emerged earlier and was more severe than in county-level cities and counties. Factors influenced by advancing urbanization include the proportion of artificial land, population density, and proportion of primary industry; these factors drove the evolution of farmland fragmentation. In contrast, the increase in income of rural residents and production efficiency of farmland were the key factors contributing to the improvement in farmland connectivity.

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    Sustainable poverty alleviation and green development in China’s underdeveloped areas
    GUO Yuanzhi, LIU Yansui
    地理学报(英文版)    2022, 32 (1): 23-43.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-021-1932-y
    摘要120)   HTML9)    PDF (663KB)(94)   

    In 2020, the decisive victory of building a moderately well-off society in all aspects means that absolute poverty in rural China has been completely eliminated. Consolidating and expanding the achievements of poverty alleviation and establishing a long-term mechanism to solve relative poverty have become key issues in high-quality development of underdeveloped areas. In this study, human-earth system is employed to analyze the element composition, structural organization and functional state of underdeveloped areas. The results show that poverty in underdeveloped areas stems from the lack of the coupling and coordinating mechanism among human, economic, resource and environmental elements, which is not conducive to transforming the ecological advantages into the advantages of regional development. In the antipoverty stage, underdeveloped areas innovate the human-earth coupling and coordinating mechanism through a series of targeted measures, promote the organic combination of poverty alleviation, ecological conservation and sustainable development, and boost the transformation of regional development and the increase of farmers’ incomes. Focusing on the 14th Five-year Plan (2021-2025) and the long-term goal of 2035, governments in underdeveloped areas should make full use of the policy support to explore scientific methods of modern governance and sustainable development. In particular, it is necessary to practice the concept that “clear waters and lush mountains are invaluable assets” and take the road of the ecologicalization of industry and the industrialization of ecology by establishing a policy system of “green land”, “green people”, “green industry” and “green right”, thus building an endogenous growth mechanism of sustainable poverty alleviation and green development in China’s underdeveloped areas.

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    Spatially explicit changes of forestland in Taiwan Province from 1910 to 2010
    YANG Xuhong, JIN Xiaobin, YANG Yongke, SONG Jiani, ZHANG Tong, ZHOU Yinkang
    地理学报(英文版)    2022, 32 (3): 441-457.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-022-1956-y
    摘要111)   HTML9)   

    Reconstructing long-term changes of forest cover (FC) can provide reliable underlying data for carbon source/sink accounting and simulation of the effects of land use on the climate and environment. Historical maps contain a wealth of forest related information and can provide first-hand data for studying the changes in FC over a long time period. Taking the reconstruction of FC in Taiwan Province from 1910-2010 as the research object, we used map extraction and mining methods to extract forest distribution information from historical forest thematic survey maps, topographic and land cover maps, and reconstructed the spatiotemporal patterns of FC in Taiwan from 1910-2010. The results show that: first, the relative bias of the FC area extracted from the historical maps of Taiwan was below 8%, meaning the FC information contained in maps is highly accurate. Second, the FC of Taiwan has generally declined in the past 100 years. From 1910-2010, the forest area declined from 2.62×106 ha to 2.47×106 ha, with relatively obvious forest reduction having occurred. In stages, the forest area of Taiwan decreased by 26.39×104 ha from 1910 to 1950; and increased by 10.53×104 ha during the period 1950-2010. Forest reduction was obvious during the Japanese occupation period, while forest increase was remarkable during the Kuomintang period. Third, during the study period, the total area of patches maintained as forests was 2.17×106 ha with little change in the overall pattern, and forests were mainly distributed in the mountain regions. The loss of forest mainly occurred in the plains, with expanding forest areas mainly in the mountain regions at high elevations and on steep slopes. Fourth, land clearing for agriculture during the Japanese occupation period has been the important driver of forest reduction in Taiwan over the past century. After retreated to Taiwan, the Kuomintang government introduced effective and remarkable reforms that led to effective restoration of forest vegetation in many areas where forests had previously disappeared.

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    How is the precipitation distributed vertically in arid mountain region of Northwest China?
    YANG Yanfen, SHEN Lulu, WANG Bing
    地理学报(英文版)    2022, 32 (2): 241-258.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-022-1945-1
    摘要109)   HTML8)    PDF (1094KB)(51)   

    Precipitation in the arid region of Northwest China (NWC) shows high spatial and temporal variability, in large part because of the region's complex topography and moisture conditions. However, rain gauges in the area are sparse, and most are located at altitudes below 2000 m, which limits our understanding of precipitation at higher altitudes. Interpolated precipitation products and satellite-based datasets with high spatiotemporal resolution can potentially be a substitute for rain gauge data. In this study, the spatial and temporal properties of precipitation in the arid region of NWC were analyzed using two gridded precipitation products: SURF_CLI_CHN_PRE_DAY_GRID_0.5 (CHN) and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) 3B43. The CHN and TRMM 3B43 data showed that in summer, precipitation was more concentrated in southern Xinjiang than in northern Xinjiang, and the opposite was true in winter. The largest difference in precipitation between mountainous areas and plains appeared in summer. High-elevation areas with high precipitation showed more stable annual precipitation. Different sub-regions showed distinctive precipitation distributions with elevation, and both datasets showed that the maximum precipitation zone appeared at high altitude.

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    Method for UAV-based 3D topography reconstruction of tidal creeks
    ZHANG Xuhui, LI Huan, GONG Zheng, ZHOU Zeng, DAI Weiqi, WANG Lizhu, Samuel DARAMOLA
    地理学报(英文版)    2021, 31 (12): 1852-1872.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-021-1926-9
    摘要107)   HTML1)    PDF (17156KB)(76)   

    It is common to obtain the topography of tidal flats by the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) photogrammetry, but this method is not applicable in tidal creeks. The residual water will lead to inaccurate depth inversion results, and the topography of tidal creeks mainly depends on manual survey. The present study took the tidal creek of Chuandong port in Jiangsu Province, China, as the research area and used UAV oblique photogrammetry to reconstruct the topography of the exposed part above the water after the ebb tide. It also proposed a Trend Prediction Fitting (TPF) method for the topography of the unexposed part below the water to obtain a complete 3D topography. The topography above the water measured by UAV has the vertical precision of 12 cm. When the TPF method is used, the cross-section should be perpendicular the central axis of the tidal creek. A polynomial function can be adapted to most shape of sections, while a Fourier function obtains better results in asymmetrical sections. Compared with the two-order function, the three-order function lends itself to more complex sections. Generally, the TPF method is more suitable for small, straight tidal creeks with clear texture and no vegetation cover.

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    City size and employment dynamics in China: Evidence from recruitment website data
    HUANG Daquan, HE Han, LIU Tao
    地理学报(英文版)    2021, 31 (12): 1737-1756.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-021-1920-2
    摘要105)   HTML8)    PDF (856KB)(78)   

    This article explored China’s urban employment dynamics with particular focus on the city size effect. Big data derived from the largest recruitment website were used to examine the direct and indirect impacts of city size on employment demand by using mediating and moderating models. We also investigated the roles of the government and location factors which have seldom been considered in literature. Results showed that the concentration degree of new jobs is higher than that of stock employment and population across cities, implying a path dependency mechanism of job creation and employment expansion. Meanwhile, numerous job posts in inland central cities are probably a symptom of more even distribution of employment in future China. Econometric models further verified the significant correlation between city size and job creation. Moreover, industrial diversity, fixed asset investment, and spatial location have heterogeneous effects on employment demand in cities of different sizes and different levels of administration. These results can not only deepen our understanding of the crucial role of city size in urban employment growth but also demonstrate the future trend of labor and population geography of China. Policy implications are then proposed for job creation in cities of China and other developing countries.

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    An influencing mechanism for ecological asset gains and losses and its optimization and promotion pathways in China
    LI Jiahui, HUANG Lin, CAO Wei
    地理学报(英文版)    2022, 32 (10): 1867-1885.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-022-2027-0
    摘要105)   HTML0)    PDF (10080KB)(0)   

    Accounting for the gains and losses of ecological assets holds scientific significance in sustaining human well-being. Based on related research on ecological assets, we established a county-scale ecological asset accounting technology system by analyzing the temporal and spatial variations of county-level ecological assets in China from 1990 to 2018 and clarified the factors which caused the gains and losses of ecological assets. On these bases, optimization and promotion pathways were proposed. The results show that the number of counties dominated by farmland and forest ecological resources accounted for about 45% and 37% of the total counties, respectively. From 1990 to 2018, the quality of county-level ecological stock assets showed an increasing trend, while the water conservation volume decreased in nearly 70% of the counties. The number of counties with the gains (47%) and losses (37%) of ecological flow assets demonstrated spatial patterns which showed the same segmentation characteristics as the “Hu Huanyong Line”, that is, the counties in the vastness of northwest China experienced significant gains, while decreases were widespread in eastern and southern China. The change of ecological assets in more than 70% of the counties was driven by climate change and human activities. The average degree of impact of human activities driving the ecological asset gains in counties was about 80%, while that of climate change causing the ecological asset losses was about 60%. According to various ecological resource types, gain and loss status, and its driving factors, counties in China can be classified into five types: climate change mitigation, climate change adaptation, ecological resources restoration, ecological resources protection, and ecological resources management. Our results indicate that differentiated optimization and promotion pathways can be adopted to achieve desired ecological asset gains.

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    Unraveling the multi-scalar residential segregation and socio-spatial differentiation in China: A comparative study based on Nanjing and Hangzhou
    SONG Weixuan, HUANG Qinshi, GU Yue, HE Ge
    地理学报(英文版)    2021, 31 (12): 1757-1774.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-021-1921-1
    摘要102)   HTML11)    PDF (8180KB)(181)   

    Residential segregation is a dual process of socio-spatial differentiation in residents and spatio-temporal heterogeneity in dwelling. However, most of the existing studies are established from the single perspective of urban residents based on demographic data, which is difficult to reveal the dynamics and complex spatial reconstruction within and between cities. With the characteristics of both stability and timeliness, the rapidly changing housing market is one of the processes and results of socio-spatial reconfiguration, and it is undoubtedly a better lens to observe residential segregation. This paper adopts methods such as multi-group segregation index, multi-scalar segregation profiles, and decomposition of segregation index, with Nanjing and Hangzhou as case cities, and establishes multi-scalar segregation profiles and comparative models based on three geographical scales of census tract, block and grid, and different residential types. A quantitative study was conducted on the degree and pattern of multi-scalar residential segregation in Nanjing and Hangzhou from 2009 to 2018. The paper found that the spatial segregation index is an improvement of the non-spatial segregation index. There are differences between Nanjing and Hangzhou in the evolution process of residential segregation. Nanjing has a higher degree of spatial differentiation as a whole, among which spatial components have a more significant impact.

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    Quantitative measurement of the effects of administrative division adjustments on regional development
    WANG Kaiyong, FENG Rundong
    地理学报(英文版)    2021, 31 (12): 1775-1790.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-021-1922-0
    摘要98)   HTML7)    PDF (1813KB)(181)   

    Administrative divisions are the important foundation of national governance and social development, and the adjustment of administrative divisions is a critical way to promote regional coordinated development. Under the background of globalization and regionalization, timely adjustment of administrative divisions is a major step to reconstruct the regional development pattern. In the perspective of regional coordinated development, this paper constructs an Administrative Rank Potential Energy (ARPE) model to explore the mechanisms of administrative division adjustment (ADA) under coordinated regional development based on the theory of regional interaction, spatial field energy model and power exponential function. The results show that: (1) The development potential and influence of an administrative region are closely related to the administrative jurisdiction, administrative resources, and the potential of regional coordinated development. (2) The growth rate of ARPE in the study area from 2010 to 2015 was 20.7% compared to the period 2005 to 2010, and the potential for coordinated development increased to 3.05% from 0.21% before the “cancelling” the prefecture-level city of Chaohu. (3) The measurement results of the usefulness of ADA can not only distinguish the complex impacts brought about by social development, but also accord with real social and economic development conditions. The ARPE focuses on the both regional integrated development and individual development, thereby serving as a reference for explaining and evaluating adjustments to administrative divisions at the macro- and micro-scales.

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    A review of the balance of regional development in China from the perspective of development geography
    DENG Xiangzheng, LIANG Li, WU Feng, WANG Zhenbo, HE Shujin
    地理学报(英文版)    2022, 32 (1): 3-22.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-021-1930-0
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    Large regional differences and uneven regional development are fundamental challenges for China. Balanced regional development is an important issue in research on development geography. This study reviews the course of balanced regional development in China and summarizes its characteristics in each period. The results show that inter-regional development in China has undergone successive periods of balanced and unbalanced development. Each period has enhanced social development and contributed to a more balanced regional development. This paper discusses the scientific connotation of balanced regional development, and invokes sustainable development theory to argue that we should pay attention to the differences in resource endowments among regions, and solves the imbalance among the economy, humans, and nature to promote the spatial balance of regional development and green development for better coordination between economy and ecology. The balanced promotion of the well-being of people in each region is the ultimate goal of balanced regional development. We then use concepts from development geography to examine China’s path of balanced regional development from the three perspectives of society, the economy, and ecology. Suggestions are also provided for the balanced development of China’s regions and the improvement of public well-being.

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    Impacts of traffic accessibility on ecosystem services: An integrated spatial approach
    CHEN Wanxu, ZENG Yuanyuan, ZENG Jie
    地理学报(英文版)    2021, 31 (12): 1816-1836.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-021-1924-y
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    The continuous degradation of ecosystem services is an important challenge faced by the world. Improvements in transportation infrastructure have had substantial impacts on economic development and ecosystem services. Exploring the influence of traffic accessibility on ecosystem services can delay or stop their deterioration; however, studies on its impact are lacking. This study addresses this gap by analysing the impact of traffic accessibility on ecosystem services using an integrated spatial regression approach based on an evaluation of the ecosystem services value (ESV) and traffic accessibility in the Middle Reaches of the Yangtze River Urban Agglomeration (MRYRUA) in China. The results indicated that the ESV in the MRYRUA continuously decreased during the study period, and the average ESV in plain areas, areas surrounding the core cities, and areas along the main traffic routes was significantly lower than that in areas along the Yangtze River and the surrounding mountainous areas. Traffic accessibility continued to increase during the study period, and the high-value areas centred on Wuhan, Changsha, Nanchang, and Yichang were radially distributed. The global bivariate spatial autocorrelation coefficient between the average ESV and traffic accessibility was negative. The average ESV and traffic accessibility exhibited significant spatial dependence and spatial heterogeneity. Spatial regression also proved that there was a negative association between the average ESV and traffic accessibility, and scale effects were evident. The findings of this study have important policy implications for future ecological protection and transportation planning.

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    Ecological changes and the tradeoff and synergy of ecosystem services in western China
    NIU Linan, SHAO Quanqin, NING Jia, HUANG Haibo
    地理学报(英文版)    2022, 32 (6): 1059-1075.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-022-1985-6
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    Since the implementation of the Development of Western Regions in 2000, a series of major ecological construction projects have been implemented, leading to a series of changes in the ecological conditions and ecological services of western China. This study calculated the amount of ecosystem services in total in the western region from 2000 to 2019, and analyzed ecological changes and the characteristics of spatio-temporal variations in ecological services. A relevant analysis method was applied to explore the tradeoff and synergy of service. It was found that the area of settlements and wetland ecosystems in the western region increased significantly from 2000 to 2015, whereas grassland showed a downward trend year by year. The vegetation fraction showed a decreasing belt-like distribution from south to north. It showed a fluctuating increase during 2000 to 2019, with inter-annual and large spatial differences. The water conservation service (WCS) had a slight downward trend from 2000 to 2019, and the main decreasing areas were distributed in southeastern Tibet, the western part of the Three Rivers Source region, and the karst rocky desertification area. The soil conservation service (SCS) showed an increasing but fluctuating trend, with the greatest increases observed in the Loess Plateau region, western Sichuan and Yunnan, northwest Tibet, and southeast Tibet. The windbreak and sand fixation service (SFS) showed a downward trend, and the sharp decline was mainly in the central and western parts of Inner Mongolia, Tibet and parts of northern Xinjiang. Ecosystem supply and WCS, and SCS were mainly synergistic, which were found in areas north of the Qinling Mountains-Huaihe River (QM-HR) line, especially in Ningxia and Inner Mongolia. Ecosystem supply was mainly tradeoffs with SFS, and it was found in the agriculture-pastoral transition zone. The synergistic degree of ecosystem services in areas subjected to ecological engineering policy was greater than that in non-engineering areas. Quantitative assessment of ecosystem service changes and their tradeoffs is helpful for scientific ecological management and maximizing ecological benefits.

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    Features of the long-term transformation of the Krasnodar reservoir, near the mouth of the Kuban River, Russia
    POGORELOV Anatoly, LAGUTA Andrey, KISELEV Evgeny, LIPILIN Dmitry
    地理学报(英文版)    2021, 31 (12): 1895-1904.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-021-1928-7
    摘要89)   HTML3)    PDF (4498KB)(91)   

    The article considers the long-term (1941-2018) transformation of the Krasnodar valley reservoir, the largest in the North Caucasus. The main functions of the Krasnodar reservoir are irrigation of rice systems and flood protection of land in the Krasnodar reservoir region and the Republic of Adygea. According to topographic maps, Landsat satellite images (1974-2018) and field observations (2016-2018), four stages of transformation of the floodplain reservoir are identified. The selected stages are characterized by both natural causes (the transformation of the filling deltas into the extended deltas, etc.) and man-made causes (runoff diversions in the delta areas, etc.). The key factor of transformation is the formation of deltas of rivers flowing into the reservoir. Each of the selected stages, against the background of a gradual reduction in the area and volume of the reservoir, is characterized by the peculiarities of the formation of river deltas with the formation of genetically homogeneous sections of delta regions. During the period of operation of the reservoir, the delta of the main Kuban River moved up to 32.4 km and took away an area of 35.4 km2 of the reservoir. During the formation of the deltas of the Kuban and Belaya rivers, a bridge was formed on the Krasnodar reservoir. The evolution of the delta regions led to the division of the reservoir into two autonomous reservoirs. The total area of the delta regions was 85.9 km2 by 2018, i.e., 21% of the initial area of the reservoir. The transformation of the Krasnodar reservoir leads to a decrease in its regulated volume and gradual degradation.

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    Dynamic changes and transitions of agricultural landscape patterns in mountainous areas: A case study from the hinterland of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area
    HUANG Mengqin, LI Yangbing, RAN Caihong, LI Mingzhen
    地理学报(英文版)    2022, 32 (6): 1039-1058.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-022-1984-7
    摘要87)   HTML7)    PDF (15104KB)(34)   

    Analyzing the agricultural landscape patterns in mountainous areas is critical to clarify the dynamic changes and development direction of agricultural landscapes. This also plays a significant role in the rational planning and management of agricultural land. A theoretical framework for agricultural landscape pattern transitions in mountainous areas is proposed to fill the gap of current research with an empirical study in the Caotangxi Watershed, Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA), China. The transition characteristics of agricultural landscape patterns from 2000 to 2018 as represented by sloping farmland, abandoned land, and orchards are analyzed from a holistic-local perspective. The results indicate that the orchards expanded along river valleys, and abandoned land expanded at high elevations, which led to reduced sloping farmland. This phenomenon gives regional landscape differences at the holistic and local levels. Namely, it enhances the region’s holistic landscape diversity but causes fragmentation and aggregation of landscape patches in local areas. The agricultural landscape pattern transitions within the farming range in the study area are manifested primarily in four modes: sloping farmland-orchard conversion type (FOCT), comprehensive conversion type (CCT), partially abandoned type (PAT), and wholly abandoned type (WAT). Each transition mode reveals different development stages of the mountainous agricultural landscape patterns. In general, the agricultural landscape pattern transition is driven by socioeconomic factors in mountainous areas of the TGRA and is bidirectional. This attribute is expressed as the transition from the traditional grain-planting landscape with an even distribution to the eco-economic win-win orchard in valleys and transitions from sloping farmland to abandoned land in high-elevation areas. Overall, the results of this study reveal the uniqueness of agricultural landscape pattern evolutions in China’s mountainous areas in recent decades, which has enlightened the in-depth understandings of rural land use and agricultural ecosystems in mountainous areas of the TGRA, as well as improvements in rural developments and ecological environments.

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    Literature review of accessibility measures and models used in land use and transportation planning in last 5 years
    Aviral MARWAL, Elisabete SILVA
    地理学报(英文版)    2022, 32 (3): 560-584.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-022-1961-1
    摘要84)   HTML8)   

    Since its inception accessibility has undergone various changes in the way it is defined, measured, and modeled. The paper reviews the recent advancements made in the accessibility measures along with the models used in different applications of accessibility related to land use and transportation. The measures of accessibility are grouped under infrastructure-based, location-based, and person-based measures. The paper finds that although the person-based measures are statistically robust and theoretically sound, they are less preferred than the location-based measure in the accessibility measurement. The review finds recent development such as web based mapping and use of location based data; image mapping through convolutional neural networks; and activity-time constraints modeling in the measures of accessibility. Further, the paper reviews literature from the last five years that have used accessibility to study travel mode choices and household location choices and finds the use of three types of modeling framework - Statistical, Neural Network, and Agent Based models. Based on the literature review, this paper suggests the inclusion of environmental sustainability and gender equity in the accessibility measurement framework and a shift towards model synthesis to enhance the model accuracy and to reduce the present complexities in model building.

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    Spatiotemporal variation and hotspots of climate change in the Yangtze River Watershed during 1958-2017
    CHENG Guowei, LIU Yong, CHEN Yan, GAO Wei
    地理学报(英文版)    2022, 32 (1): 141-155.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-022-1940-6
    摘要82)   HTML4)    PDF (3071KB)(109)   

    The Yangtze River Watershed in China is a climate change hotspot featuring strong spatial and temporal variability; hence, it poses a certain threat to social development. Identifying the characteristics of and regions vulnerable to climate change is significantly important for formulating adaptive countermeasures. However, with regard to the Yangtze River Watershed, there is currently a lack of research on these aspects from the perspective of natural and anthropogenic factors. To address this issue, in this study, based on the temperature and precipitation records from 717 meteorological stations, the RClimDex and random forest models were used to assess the spatiotemporal characteristics of climate change and identify mainly the natural and anthropogenic factors influencing climate change hotspots in the Yangtze River Watershed for the period 1958-2017. The results indicated a significant increasing trend in temperature, a trend of wet and dry polarization in the annual precipitation, and that the number of temperature indices with significant variations was 2.8 times greater than that of precipitation indices. Significant differences were also noted in the responses of the climate change characteristics of the sub-basins to anthropogenic and natural factors; the delta plain of the Yangtze River estuary exhibited the most significant climate changes, where 88.89% of the extreme climate indices varied considerably. Furthermore, the characteristics that were similar among the identified hotpots, including human activities (higher Gross Domestic Product and construction land proportions) and natural factors (high altitudes and large proportions of grassland and water bodies), were positively correlated with the rapid climate warming.

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    Effects of vegetation restoration on local microclimate on the Loess Plateau
    WANG Chenxi, LIANG Wei, YAN Jianwu, JIN Zhao, ZHANG Weibin, LI Xiaofei
    地理学报(英文版)    2022, 32 (2): 291-316.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-022-1948-y
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    With the implementation of the Grain for Green Project, vegetation cover has experienced great changes throughout the Loess Plateau (LP). These changes substantially influence the intensity of evapotranspiration (ET), thereby regulating the local microclimate. In this study, we estimated ET based on the Penman-Monteith (PM) method and Priestley-Taylor Jet Propulsion Laboratory (PT-JPL) model and quantitatively estimated the mass of water vapor and heat absorption on the LP. We analyzed the regulatory effect of vegetation restoration on local microclimate from 2000 to 2015 and found the following: (1) Both the leaf area index (LAI) value and actual ET increased significantly across the region during the study period, and there was a significant positive correlation between them in spatial patterns and temporal trends. (2) Vegetation regulated the local microclimate through ET, which increased the absolute humidity by 2.76-3.29 g m?3, increased the relative humidity by 15.43%-19.31% and reduced the temperature by 5.38-6.43°C per day from June to September. (3) The cooling and humidifying effects of vegetation were also affected by the temperature on the LP. (4) Correlation analysis showed that LAI was significantly correlated with temperature at the monthly scale, and the response of vegetation growth to temperature had no time-lag effect. This paper presents new insights into quantitatively assessing the regulatory effect of vegetation on the local microclimate through ET and helps to objectively evaluate the ecological effects of the Grain for Green Project on the LP.

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    Spatio-temporal variations and influencing factors of energy-related carbon emissions for Xinjiang cities in China based on time-series nighttime light data
    ZHANG Li, LEI Jun, WANG Changjian, WANG Fei, GENG Zhifei, ZHOU Xiaoli
    地理学报(英文版)    2022, 32 (10): 1886-1910.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-022-2028-z
    摘要81)   HTML0)    PDF (6062KB)(0)   

    This essay combines the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program Operational Linescan System (DMSP-OLS) nighttime light data and the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) nighttime light data into a “synthetic DMSP” dataset, from 1992 to 2020, to retrieve the spatio-temporal variations in energy-related carbon emissions in Xinjiang, China. Then, this paper analyzes several influencing factors for spatial differentiation of carbon emissions in Xinjiang with the application of geographical detector technique. Results reveal that (1) total carbon emissions continued to grow, while the growth rate slowed down in the past five years. (2) Large regional differences exist in total carbon emissions across various regions. Total carbon emissions of these regions in descending order are the northern slope of the Tianshan (Mountains) > the southern slope of the Tianshan > the three prefectures in southern Xinjiang > the northern part of Xinjiang. (3) Economic growth, population size, and energy consumption intensity are the most important factors of spatial differentiation of carbon emissions. The interaction between economic growth and population size as well as between economic growth and energy consumption intensity also enhances the explanatory power of carbon emissions’ spatial differentiation. This paper aims to help formulate differentiated carbon reduction targets and strategies for cities in different economic development stages and those with different carbon intensities so as to achieve the carbon peak goals in different steps.

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    Quantitative relationship between channels and bars in a tidal reach of the lower Yangtze River: Implications for river management
    YANG Yunping, ZHENG Jinhai, ZHANG Wei, ZHU Yude, CHAI Yuanfang, WANG Jianjun, WEN Yuncheng
    地理学报(英文版)    2021, 31 (12): 1837-1851.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-021-1925-x
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    Deep-water navigation channels in the tidal reaches of the lower Yangtze River are affected by water and sediment fluxes that produce complex shoals and unstable channel conditions. The Fujiangsha reach is particularly difficult to manage, as it has many braided channels within the tidal fluctuation zone. In this study, hydrologic and topographic data from the Fujiangsha reach from 2012 to 2017 were used to examine the variations in deposition and erosion, flow diversion, shoals, and channel conditions. Since the Three Gorges Dam became operational and water storage was initiated, the Fujiangsha reach has shown an overall tendency toward erosion. Channels deeper than 10 m accounted for 83.7% of the total erosion of the Fujiangsha reach during 2012-2017. Moreover, the dominant channel-forming sediments have gradually changed from suspended sediments to a mixed load of suspended and bed-load sediments. Deposition volumes of these sediments has varied significantly among different channels, but has mainly occurred in the Fubei channel. Furthermore, periodic variations in the Jingjiang point bar have followed a deposition-erosion-deposition pattern, and the downstream Shuangjian shoal mid-channel bar has been scoured and shortened. Approximately 44.0% of the bed load from the upstream Fujiangsha reach is deposited within the 12.5-m deep Fubei channel. The increased erosion and river flow from the Jingjiang point bar and the Shuangjian shoal during the flood season constituted 59.3% and 40.7%, respectively, of the total amount of siltation in the Fubei channel.

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