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    Energy globalization of China: Trade, investment, and embedded energy flows
    YANG Yu
    地理学报(英文版)    2022, 32 (3): 377-400.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-022-1952-2
    摘要356)   HTML41)   

    China is in a critical period of transforming from the oil and gas era to the renewable energy era. To better understand the process of energy interaction between China and the rest of the world, this study aimed to investigate the basic theoretical cognition of global energy interaction and analyze the pattern and changes of energy interaction between China and the rest of the world with the method of complex networks, multi-region input-output analysis, and other technical methods. The main findings are as follows: (1) Chinas coal-based energy production structure and the huge demand for oil and gas indicate that ensuring overseas oil and gas supply is the most direct logic of energy interaction between China and the rest of the world, and the interaction scopes are mainly concentrated in oil- and gas-rich countries and regions. (2) With the development of renewable energy, the logic of energy interaction of China with the rest of the world has changed from countries and regions rich in oil and gas to countries with global renewable energy development and installation needs for its comparative advantages for manufacturing, which forms a renewable energy trade map that covers all major countries and regions in the world. (3) The overseas energy investment target of China has expanded from a limited number of host countries to Europe, Southeast Asia, and other countries and regions. The investment business is not only limited to the oil and gas field, but also expanded to solar energy, wind energy, hydro-power, and other renewable electricity generation projects. (4) As a global manufacturing and trading power, part of the energy consumed by China is embodied in the global production network and trade network for redistribution. The scope of energy interactions between China and the world will further expand to countries with general commodity trade relations with China, forming the global “energy hub” function. This study can provide a theoretical perspective and decision-making for a deeper understanding of the energy interactions between China and the world, maintaining national energy security, and participating in global energy economic governance.

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    China’s food security situation and key questions in the new era: A perspective of farmland protection
    LIANG Xinyuan, JIN Xiaobin, HAN Bo, SUN Rui, XU Weiyi, LI Hanbing, HE Jie, LI Jin
    地理学报(英文版)    2022, 32 (6): 1001-1019.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-022-1982-9
    摘要249)   HTML13)    PDF (1273KB)(104)   

    As the world’s largest developing country, the ability of China’s agricultural resource utilization to effectively support the current and future food security goals has been affected by a variety of factors (e.g., transformed supply channels, tightening international situation and frequent emergencies) in recent years and has attracted extensive attention from the academic community subject to multiple factors. This study uses literature review, statistical analysis, and spatial analysis methods to systematically explore China’s food security situation in the context of farmland resource constraints. It is found that the demand-side pressures such as demographic changes, social class differentiation, and dietary structure adjustments derived from economic growth and rapid urbanization have placed extremely high expectations on food supply. However, the quantitative restrictions, utilization ways, and health risks of farmland resources on the supply side constitute a huge hidden concern that affects the stability of food production. Although China’s farmland protection system is undergoing a transition from focusing on quantity management to sustainable use, the matching and coordinating demand pressure and supply capacity for food security is unbalanced. Therefore, facing uncertain future development scenarios, policymakers should focus on building a resilient space for China’s farmland protection to withstand the interference of major emergencies. The existing farmland protection space policy can be integrated by establishing a national farmland strategic reserve system (based on resilient space), and further development of targeted use control measures for zoning, grading, and classification will help realize sustainable China’s farmland resources use.

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    Dynamic features and driving mechanism of coal consumption for Guangdong province in China
    WANG Changjian, WANG Fei, ZHANG Xinlin, WANG Yang, SU Yongxian, YE Yuyao, WU Qitao, ZHANG Hong’ou
    地理学报(英文版)    2022, 32 (3): 401-420.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-022-1954-0
    摘要206)   HTML22)   

    Guangdong Province, as one of China’s fast-developing regions, an important manufacturing base, and one of the national first round low-carbon pilots, still faces many challenges in controlling its total energy consumption. Coal dominates Guangdong’s energy consumption and remains the major source of CO2. Previous research on factors influencing energy consumption has lacked a systematic analysis both from supply side (factors related to scale, structure, and technologies) and demand side (investment, consumption, and trade). This paper develops the logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI) method that focuses on the supply side and the structural decomposition analysis (SDA) method that focuses on the demand side to systematically identify the key factors driving coal consumption in Guangdong. Results are as follows: (1) Supply side analysis indicates that economic growth has always been the most important factor driving coal consumption growth, while energy intensity is the most important constraining factor. Industrial structure and energy structure have different impacts on coal consumption control during different development phases. (2) Demand side analysis indicates that coal is consumed mainly for international exports, inter-provincial exports, fixed capital formation, and urban household. (3) Industries with the fastest coal consumption growth driven by final demand have experienced significant shifts. Increments in industrial sectors were mainly driven by inter-provincial exports and urban household consumption in recent years. (4) Research on energy consumption in subnational regions under China’s new development pattern of “dual circulation” should not only focus on exports in the context of economic globalization but also pay more attention to inter-provincial exports on the background of strengthened interregional connections.

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    The poverty evolution of typical countries along the Belt and Road and implications from China’s poverty reduction experiences
    SHI Linna, WANG Yongsheng, LIU Yansui, LI Yuheng
    地理学报(英文版)    2022, 32 (3): 458-476.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-022-1953-1
    摘要184)   HTML10)   

    The world is facing a poverty crisis. Despite the great achievements that have been made in poverty alleviation over the past two decades, the extent of poverty in countries along the Belt and Road is still high. Successful poverty reduction in these countries is crucial to meeting the 2030 SDGs. Improving governance to eradicate poverty is a shortcoming that needs to be addressed urgently in poverty reduction pathways along the Belt and Road. In this study, the Standard Deviational Ellipse method was used to study the spatial trajectory of the poverty gravity center. Results showed that the poverty gravity center moved from east to west by 87.60 km annually, while the poverty population decreased by 1211.14 million along the Belt and Road from 2000 to 2020. In addition, the trajectory of the center has shifted due to the different effects of poverty reduction. Among the countries situated along the Belt and Road, China is the most significant contributor to poverty reduction. Accordingly, this study examined the implications of China’s successful poverty reduction strategies in order to understand how other countries can effectively respond to poverty. Ultimately, we propose that sustainable poverty alleviation development strategies should be established with the objectives of promoting social equity and improving the wellbeing of all people.

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    Simulation of land-cover change in Jing-Jin-Ji region under different scenarios of SSP-RCP
    FAN Zemeng
    地理学报(英文版)    2022, 32 (3): 421-440.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-022-1955-z
    摘要165)   HTML21)   

    How to simulate land-cover change, driven by climate change and human activity, is not only a hot issue in the field of land-cover research but also in the field of sustainable urbanization. A surface-modeling method of land cover scenario (SSMLC) driven by the coupling of natural and human factors was developed to overcome limitations in existing land-cover models. Based on the climatic scenario data of CMIP6 SSP1-2.6, SSP2-4.5, and SSP5-8.5 released by IPCC in 2020, which combines shared socioeconomic paths (SSPs) with typical concentration paths (RCPs), observation climatic data concerning meteorological stations, the population, GDP, transportation data, land-cover data from 2020, and related policy refences, are used to simulate scenarios of land-cover change in the Jing-Jin-Ji region using SSP1-2.6, SSP2-4.5, and SSP5-8.5 for the years 2040, 2070 and 2100, respectively. The simulation results show that the total accuracy of SSMLC in the Jing-Jin-Ji region attains 93.52%. The change intensity of land cover in the Jing-Jin-Ji region is the highest (plus 3.12% per decade) between 2020 and 2040, gradually decreasing after 2040. Built-up land has the fastest increasing rate (plus 5.07% per decade), and wetland has the fastest decreasing rate (minus 3.10% per decade) between 2020 and 2100. The change intensity of land cover under scenario SSP5-8.5 is the highest among the abovementioned three scenarios in the Jing-Jin-Ji region between 2020 and 2100. The impacts of GDP, population, transportation, and policies on land-cover change are generally greater than those on other land-cover types. The results indicate that the SSMLC method can be used to project the change trend and intensity of land cover under the different scenarios. This will help to optimize the spatial allocation and planning of land cover, and could be used to obtain key data for carrying out eco-environmental conservation measures in the Jing-Jin-Ji region in the future.

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    Dynamic evolution trend of comprehensive transportation green efficiency in China: From a spatio-temporal interaction perspective
    MA Qifei, JIA Peng, SUN Caizhi, KUANG Haibo
    地理学报(英文版)    2022, 32 (3): 477-498.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-022-1957-x
    摘要158)   HTML13)   

    It is urgent and important to explore the dynamic evolution in comprehensive transportation green efficiency (CTGE) in the context of green development. We constructed a social development index that reflects the social benefits of transportation services, and incorporated it into the comprehensive transportation efficiency evaluation framework as an expected output. Based on the panel data of 30 regions in China from 2003-2018, the CTGE in China was measured using the slacks-based measure-data envelopment analysis (SBM-DEA) model. Further, the dynamic evolution trends of CTGE were determined using the spatial Markov model and exploratory spatio-temporal data analysis (ESTDA) technique from a spatio-temporal perspective. The results showed that the CTGE shows a U-shaped change trend but with an overall low level and significant regional differences. The state transition of CTGE has a strong spatial dependence, and there exists the phenomenon of “club convergence”. Neighbourhood background has a significant impact on the CTGE transition types, and the spatial spillover effect is pronounced. The CTGE has an obvious positive correlation and spatial agglomeration characteristics. The geometric characteristics of the LISA time path show that the evolution process of local spatial structure and local spatial dependence of China’s CTGE is stable, but the integration of spatial evolution is weak. The spatio-temporal transition results of LISA indicate that the CTGE has obvious transfer inertness and has certain path-dependence and spatial locking characteristics, which will become the major difficulty in improving the CTGE.

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    Characteristics and progress of land use/cover change research during 1990-2018
    HE Chunyang, ZHANG Jinxi, LIU Zhifeng, HUANG Qingxu
    地理学报(英文版)    2022, 32 (3): 537-559.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-022-1960-2
    摘要156)   HTML4)   

    Land use/cover change (LUCC) is the foundation and frontier for integrating multiple land surface processes. This paper aims to systematically review LUCC research from 1990 to 2018. Based on qualitative and quantitative analyses, we delineated the history of LUCC research and summarized their characteristics and major progress at different stages. We also identified the main challenges and proposed future directions for LUCC research. We found that the number of publications on LUCC research and their total citations grew exponentially. The research foci shifted from the process of LUCC during 1990-2004 to the impact of LUCC during 2005-2013 and then to the sustainability of LUCC from 2014 onwards. Currently, LUCC research is facing theoretical, methodological and practical challenges ranging from integrating the framework of sustainability science, adopting emerging technologies to supporting territorial spatial planning. To move forward, LUCC research should be closely integrated with landscape sustainability science and geodesign and take the leading role in territorial spatial planning to achieve the related Sustainable Development Goals.

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    Model construction of urban agglomeration expansion simulation considering urban flow and hierarchical characteristics
    WANG Haijun, WU Yue, DENG Yu, XU Shan
    地理学报(英文版)    2022, 32 (3): 499-516.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-022-1958-9
    摘要153)   HTML10)   

    Since the launch of China’s reform and opening up policy, the process of urbanization in China has accelerated significantly. With the development of cities, inter-city interactions have become increasingly close, forming urban agglomerations that tend to be integrated. Urban agglomerations are regional spaces with network relationships and hierarchies, and have always been the main units for China to promote urbanization and regional coordinated development. In this paper, we comprehensively consider the network and hierarchical characteristics of an urban agglomeration, while using urban flow to describe the interactions of the inter-city networks and the hierarchical generalized linear model (HGLM) to reveal the hierarchical driving mechanism of the urban agglomeration. By coupling the HGLM with a cellular automata (CA) model, we introduced the HGLM-CA model for the simulation of the spatial expansion of an urban agglomeration, and compared the simulation results with those of the logistic-CA model and the biogeography-based optimization CA (BBO-CA) model. According to the results, we further analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of the proposed HGLM-CA model. We selected the middle reaches of the Yangtze River in China as the research area to conduct this empirical research, and simulated the spatial expansion of the urban agglomeration in 2017 on the basis of urban land-use data from 2007 and 2012. The results indicate that the spatial expansion of the urban agglomeration can be attributed to various driving factors. As a driving factor at the urban level, urban flow promotes the evolution of land use in the urban agglomeration, and also plays an important role in regulating cell-level factors, making the cell-level factors of different cities show different driving effects. The HGLM-CA model is able to obtain a higher simulation accuracy than the logistic-CA model, which indicates that the simulation results for urban agglomeration expansion considering urban flow and hierarchical characteristics are more accurate. When compared with the intelligent algorithm model, i.e., BBO-CA, the HGLM-CA model obtains a lower simulation accuracy, but it can analyze the interaction of the various driving factors from a hierarchical perspective. It also has a strong explanatory effect for the spatial expansion mechanism of urban agglomerations.

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    Spatial evolution and growth mechanism of urban networks in western China: A multi-scale perspective
    YANG Liangjie, WANG Jing, YANG Yongchun
    地理学报(英文版)    2022, 32 (3): 517-536.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-022-1959-8
    摘要153)   HTML12)   

    Globalization and informatization promote the evolution of urban spatial organization from a hierarchical structure mode to a network structure mode, forming a complex network system. This study considers the coupling of “space of flows” and “spaces of places” as the core and “embeddedness” as the link and a relevant theoretical basis; then we construct a conceptual model of urban networks and explore the internal logic of enterprise networks and city networks. Using the interlocking-affiliate network model and data from China’s top 500 listed companies, this study constructs a directed multi-valued relational matrix between cities in western China from 2005 to 2015. Using social network analysis and the multiple regression of quadratic assignment program model (MRQAP), this study adopts a “top-down” research perspective to analyze the spatio-temporal evolution and growth mechanism of the city network in western China from three nested spatial scales: large regions, intercity agglomerations, and intracity agglomerations. The results show the following: (1) Under the large regional scale, the city network has good symmetry, obvious characteristics of hierarchical diffusion, neighborhood diffusion, and cross-administrative regional connection, presenting the “core-periphery” structural pattern. (2) The network of intercity agglomerations has the characteristics of centralization, stratification, and geographical proximity. (3) The internal network of each urban agglomeration presents a variety of network structure modes, such as dual-core, single-core, and multicore modes. (4) Administrative subordination and economic system proximity have a significant positive impact on the city network in western China. The differences in internet convenience, investment in science and technology, average time distance, and economic development have negative effects on the growth and development of city networks. (5) The preferential attachment is the internal driving force of the city network development.

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    Spatio-temporal patterns and driving mechanism of farmland fragmentation in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain
    ZHENG Yuhan, LONG Hualou, CHEN Kunqiu
    地理学报(英文版)    2022, 32 (6): 1020-1038.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-022-1983-8
    摘要146)   HTML9)    PDF (3085KB)(39)   

    Exploring the spatio-temporal variations of farmland landscape patterns in a traditional agricultural region can provide scientific support for decision-making on sustainable rural land use and rural vitalization development. This study established a comprehensive evaluation index for farmland fragmentation with multiple aspects (dominance, integrity, aggregation, regularity, and connectivity) at the county scale. The goal was to identify the evolution of farmland fragmentation in the traditional agricultural region of the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain during 2000-2015 and investigate underlying drivers using panel data of 359 counties. Results showed an accelerating but fluctuating fragmentation pattern of the farmland landscape. The indexes of dominance, integrity, and aggregation of farmland decreased most sharply, while the index of connectivity increased. Furthermore, the evolution of the farmland fragmentation pattern showed significant spatio-temporal heterogeneity, which is similar to the trajectory of urbanization and land use transition. Farmland fragmentation in municipal districts also emerged earlier and was more severe than in county-level cities and counties. Factors influenced by advancing urbanization include the proportion of artificial land, population density, and proportion of primary industry; these factors drove the evolution of farmland fragmentation. In contrast, the increase in income of rural residents and production efficiency of farmland were the key factors contributing to the improvement in farmland connectivity.

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    An influencing mechanism for ecological asset gains and losses and its optimization and promotion pathways in China
    LI Jiahui, HUANG Lin, CAO Wei
    地理学报(英文版)    2022, 32 (10): 1867-1885.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-022-2027-0
    摘要140)   HTML2)    PDF (10080KB)(10)   

    Accounting for the gains and losses of ecological assets holds scientific significance in sustaining human well-being. Based on related research on ecological assets, we established a county-scale ecological asset accounting technology system by analyzing the temporal and spatial variations of county-level ecological assets in China from 1990 to 2018 and clarified the factors which caused the gains and losses of ecological assets. On these bases, optimization and promotion pathways were proposed. The results show that the number of counties dominated by farmland and forest ecological resources accounted for about 45% and 37% of the total counties, respectively. From 1990 to 2018, the quality of county-level ecological stock assets showed an increasing trend, while the water conservation volume decreased in nearly 70% of the counties. The number of counties with the gains (47%) and losses (37%) of ecological flow assets demonstrated spatial patterns which showed the same segmentation characteristics as the “Hu Huanyong Line”, that is, the counties in the vastness of northwest China experienced significant gains, while decreases were widespread in eastern and southern China. The change of ecological assets in more than 70% of the counties was driven by climate change and human activities. The average degree of impact of human activities driving the ecological asset gains in counties was about 80%, while that of climate change causing the ecological asset losses was about 60%. According to various ecological resource types, gain and loss status, and its driving factors, counties in China can be classified into five types: climate change mitigation, climate change adaptation, ecological resources restoration, ecological resources protection, and ecological resources management. Our results indicate that differentiated optimization and promotion pathways can be adopted to achieve desired ecological asset gains.

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    Three modes of climate change since the Last Glacial Maximum in arid and semi-arid regions of the Asian continent
    ZHANG Yuxin, LI Yu
    地理学报(英文版)    2022, 32 (2): 195-213.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-022-1942-4
    摘要138)   HTML12)    PDF (1316KB)(93)   

    The westerly winds and East Asian summer monsoon play a leading role in climate change of southwestern North America and eastern Asia since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), respectively. Their convergence in arid and semi-arid regions of the Asian continent (AAC) makes the regional climate change more complicated on the millennial-scale. There are still limitations in applying paleoclimate records and climate simulations of characteristic periods to investigate climate change patterns since the LGM in this region. In this study, we adopt two indexes indicating effective moisture and rely on a continuous simulation, a time slice simulation, and numerous paleoclimate records to comprehensively investigate the climate change modes and their driving mechanisms since the LGM in AAC. Results demonstrate a millennial-scale climate differentiation phenomenon and three climate change modes possibly occurring in AAC since the LGM. The western AAC largely controlled by the westerly winds is featured as wet climates during the LGM but relatively dry climates during the mid-Holocene (MH), coinciding with the climate change mode in southwestern North America. Conversely, dry conditions during the LGM and relatively wet conditions during the MH are reflected in eastern AAC governed by the East Asian summer monsoon, which leans to the climate change mode in eastern Asia. If climate change in central AAC is forced by the interaction of two circulations, it expresses wet conditions in both the LGM and MH, tending to a combination of the southwestern North American and eastern Asian modes. Precipitation and evaporation exert different intensities in influencing three climate modes of different periods. Furthermore, we identify the significant driving effects of greenhouse gases and ice sheets on westerly-dominated zones of AAC, while orbit-driven insolation on monsoon-dominated zones of AAC.

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    How is the precipitation distributed vertically in arid mountain region of Northwest China?
    YANG Yanfen, SHEN Lulu, WANG Bing
    地理学报(英文版)    2022, 32 (2): 241-258.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-022-1945-1
    摘要129)   HTML9)    PDF (1094KB)(53)   

    Precipitation in the arid region of Northwest China (NWC) shows high spatial and temporal variability, in large part because of the region's complex topography and moisture conditions. However, rain gauges in the area are sparse, and most are located at altitudes below 2000 m, which limits our understanding of precipitation at higher altitudes. Interpolated precipitation products and satellite-based datasets with high spatiotemporal resolution can potentially be a substitute for rain gauge data. In this study, the spatial and temporal properties of precipitation in the arid region of NWC were analyzed using two gridded precipitation products: SURF_CLI_CHN_PRE_DAY_GRID_0.5 (CHN) and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) 3B43. The CHN and TRMM 3B43 data showed that in summer, precipitation was more concentrated in southern Xinjiang than in northern Xinjiang, and the opposite was true in winter. The largest difference in precipitation between mountainous areas and plains appeared in summer. High-elevation areas with high precipitation showed more stable annual precipitation. Different sub-regions showed distinctive precipitation distributions with elevation, and both datasets showed that the maximum precipitation zone appeared at high altitude.

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    Spatially explicit changes of forestland in Taiwan Province from 1910 to 2010
    YANG Xuhong, JIN Xiaobin, YANG Yongke, SONG Jiani, ZHANG Tong, ZHOU Yinkang
    地理学报(英文版)    2022, 32 (3): 441-457.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-022-1956-y
    摘要128)   HTML11)   

    Reconstructing long-term changes of forest cover (FC) can provide reliable underlying data for carbon source/sink accounting and simulation of the effects of land use on the climate and environment. Historical maps contain a wealth of forest related information and can provide first-hand data for studying the changes in FC over a long time period. Taking the reconstruction of FC in Taiwan Province from 1910-2010 as the research object, we used map extraction and mining methods to extract forest distribution information from historical forest thematic survey maps, topographic and land cover maps, and reconstructed the spatiotemporal patterns of FC in Taiwan from 1910-2010. The results show that: first, the relative bias of the FC area extracted from the historical maps of Taiwan was below 8%, meaning the FC information contained in maps is highly accurate. Second, the FC of Taiwan has generally declined in the past 100 years. From 1910-2010, the forest area declined from 2.62×106 ha to 2.47×106 ha, with relatively obvious forest reduction having occurred. In stages, the forest area of Taiwan decreased by 26.39×104 ha from 1910 to 1950; and increased by 10.53×104 ha during the period 1950-2010. Forest reduction was obvious during the Japanese occupation period, while forest increase was remarkable during the Kuomintang period. Third, during the study period, the total area of patches maintained as forests was 2.17×106 ha with little change in the overall pattern, and forests were mainly distributed in the mountain regions. The loss of forest mainly occurred in the plains, with expanding forest areas mainly in the mountain regions at high elevations and on steep slopes. Fourth, land clearing for agriculture during the Japanese occupation period has been the important driver of forest reduction in Taiwan over the past century. After retreated to Taiwan, the Kuomintang government introduced effective and remarkable reforms that led to effective restoration of forest vegetation in many areas where forests had previously disappeared.

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    Ecological changes and the tradeoff and synergy of ecosystem services in western China
    NIU Linan, SHAO Quanqin, NING Jia, HUANG Haibo
    地理学报(英文版)    2022, 32 (6): 1059-1075.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-022-1985-6
    摘要114)   HTML5)    PDF (1364KB)(24)   

    Since the implementation of the Development of Western Regions in 2000, a series of major ecological construction projects have been implemented, leading to a series of changes in the ecological conditions and ecological services of western China. This study calculated the amount of ecosystem services in total in the western region from 2000 to 2019, and analyzed ecological changes and the characteristics of spatio-temporal variations in ecological services. A relevant analysis method was applied to explore the tradeoff and synergy of service. It was found that the area of settlements and wetland ecosystems in the western region increased significantly from 2000 to 2015, whereas grassland showed a downward trend year by year. The vegetation fraction showed a decreasing belt-like distribution from south to north. It showed a fluctuating increase during 2000 to 2019, with inter-annual and large spatial differences. The water conservation service (WCS) had a slight downward trend from 2000 to 2019, and the main decreasing areas were distributed in southeastern Tibet, the western part of the Three Rivers Source region, and the karst rocky desertification area. The soil conservation service (SCS) showed an increasing but fluctuating trend, with the greatest increases observed in the Loess Plateau region, western Sichuan and Yunnan, northwest Tibet, and southeast Tibet. The windbreak and sand fixation service (SFS) showed a downward trend, and the sharp decline was mainly in the central and western parts of Inner Mongolia, Tibet and parts of northern Xinjiang. Ecosystem supply and WCS, and SCS were mainly synergistic, which were found in areas north of the Qinling Mountains-Huaihe River (QM-HR) line, especially in Ningxia and Inner Mongolia. Ecosystem supply was mainly tradeoffs with SFS, and it was found in the agriculture-pastoral transition zone. The synergistic degree of ecosystem services in areas subjected to ecological engineering policy was greater than that in non-engineering areas. Quantitative assessment of ecosystem service changes and their tradeoffs is helpful for scientific ecological management and maximizing ecological benefits.

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    Dynamic changes and transitions of agricultural landscape patterns in mountainous areas: A case study from the hinterland of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area
    HUANG Mengqin, LI Yangbing, RAN Caihong, LI Mingzhen
    地理学报(英文版)    2022, 32 (6): 1039-1058.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-022-1984-7
    摘要108)   HTML8)    PDF (15104KB)(37)   

    Analyzing the agricultural landscape patterns in mountainous areas is critical to clarify the dynamic changes and development direction of agricultural landscapes. This also plays a significant role in the rational planning and management of agricultural land. A theoretical framework for agricultural landscape pattern transitions in mountainous areas is proposed to fill the gap of current research with an empirical study in the Caotangxi Watershed, Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA), China. The transition characteristics of agricultural landscape patterns from 2000 to 2018 as represented by sloping farmland, abandoned land, and orchards are analyzed from a holistic-local perspective. The results indicate that the orchards expanded along river valleys, and abandoned land expanded at high elevations, which led to reduced sloping farmland. This phenomenon gives regional landscape differences at the holistic and local levels. Namely, it enhances the region’s holistic landscape diversity but causes fragmentation and aggregation of landscape patches in local areas. The agricultural landscape pattern transitions within the farming range in the study area are manifested primarily in four modes: sloping farmland-orchard conversion type (FOCT), comprehensive conversion type (CCT), partially abandoned type (PAT), and wholly abandoned type (WAT). Each transition mode reveals different development stages of the mountainous agricultural landscape patterns. In general, the agricultural landscape pattern transition is driven by socioeconomic factors in mountainous areas of the TGRA and is bidirectional. This attribute is expressed as the transition from the traditional grain-planting landscape with an even distribution to the eco-economic win-win orchard in valleys and transitions from sloping farmland to abandoned land in high-elevation areas. Overall, the results of this study reveal the uniqueness of agricultural landscape pattern evolutions in China’s mountainous areas in recent decades, which has enlightened the in-depth understandings of rural land use and agricultural ecosystems in mountainous areas of the TGRA, as well as improvements in rural developments and ecological environments.

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    Developing socio-hydrology: Research progress, opportunities and challenges
    XIA Jun, DONG Yi, ZOU Lei
    地理学报(英文版)    2022, 32 (11): 2131-2146.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-022-2040-3
    摘要105)   HTML0)    PDF (1403KB)(1)   

    The development of industrialization and urbanization has intensified the coupling of human activities and hydrological processes and promoted the emergence of socio-hydrology. This paper addresses the issue of socio-hydrology due to new development and social demand for hydrological sciences and sustainable development. Four key scientific issues are identified through systematic analysis and summary of the relative research and international progress, i.e., (1) the long-term dynamic process of socio-hydrological system evolution; (2) quantitative description and driving mechanism analysis of socio-hydrological coupling system; (3) prediction of the trajectories of socio-hydrological system co-evolution, and (4) integrated water resource management from the perspective of water systems. Moreover, opportunities and challenges for developing socio-hydrology are emphasized, including (1) strengthening the research of interdisciplinary theoretical systems; (2) improving and broadening socio-hydrological research technical methods, and (3) supporting integrated water resources management (IWRM) for sustainable utilization goals (SDGs). The review is expected to provide a reference for the future development of socio-hydrology discipline.

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    Literature review of accessibility measures and models used in land use and transportation planning in last 5 years
    Aviral MARWAL, Elisabete SILVA
    地理学报(英文版)    2022, 32 (3): 560-584.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-022-1961-1
    摘要99)   HTML8)   

    Since its inception accessibility has undergone various changes in the way it is defined, measured, and modeled. The paper reviews the recent advancements made in the accessibility measures along with the models used in different applications of accessibility related to land use and transportation. The measures of accessibility are grouped under infrastructure-based, location-based, and person-based measures. The paper finds that although the person-based measures are statistically robust and theoretically sound, they are less preferred than the location-based measure in the accessibility measurement. The review finds recent development such as web based mapping and use of location based data; image mapping through convolutional neural networks; and activity-time constraints modeling in the measures of accessibility. Further, the paper reviews literature from the last five years that have used accessibility to study travel mode choices and household location choices and finds the use of three types of modeling framework - Statistical, Neural Network, and Agent Based models. Based on the literature review, this paper suggests the inclusion of environmental sustainability and gender equity in the accessibility measurement framework and a shift towards model synthesis to enhance the model accuracy and to reduce the present complexities in model building.

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    Tree-ring-based drought variability in northern China over the past three centuries
    ZENG Xueli, LIU Yu, SONG Huiming, LI Qiang, CAI Qiufang, FANG Congxi, SUN Changfeng, REN Meng
    地理学报(英文版)    2022, 32 (2): 214-224.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-022-1943-3
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    Droughts are the most frequent natural disaster in regions at the margins of the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM), which pose threats to agriculture, the economy, and human lives. However, the limitations of only approximately 60 years of meteorological observations hamper our understanding of the characteristics and mechanisms of local hydroclimate. Trees growing in the marginal region of the EASM are usually sensitive to moisture variations and have played important roles in past hydroclimatic reconstructions. Here, a 303-year tree-ring-width chronology of Pinus tabulaeformis from Mt. Lama, which is located in the junction of the Liaoning Province and Inner Mongolia, China, was used to reconstruct the May-August Palmer drought severity index (PDSI) in the marginal region of the EASM. The transfer function explains 48.0% (or 47.2% after adjusting for the loss of the degrees of freedom) of the variance over the calibration period from 1946 to 2012. A spatial correlation analysis demonstrates that our PDSI reconstruction can represent the drought variability on the northernmost margin of the EASM. The winter Asian polar vortex area index showed a delayed impact on the summer EASM precipitation in the following year.

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    Effects of vegetation restoration on local microclimate on the Loess Plateau
    WANG Chenxi, LIANG Wei, YAN Jianwu, JIN Zhao, ZHANG Weibin, LI Xiaofei
    地理学报(英文版)    2022, 32 (2): 291-316.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-022-1948-y
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    With the implementation of the Grain for Green Project, vegetation cover has experienced great changes throughout the Loess Plateau (LP). These changes substantially influence the intensity of evapotranspiration (ET), thereby regulating the local microclimate. In this study, we estimated ET based on the Penman-Monteith (PM) method and Priestley-Taylor Jet Propulsion Laboratory (PT-JPL) model and quantitatively estimated the mass of water vapor and heat absorption on the LP. We analyzed the regulatory effect of vegetation restoration on local microclimate from 2000 to 2015 and found the following: (1) Both the leaf area index (LAI) value and actual ET increased significantly across the region during the study period, and there was a significant positive correlation between them in spatial patterns and temporal trends. (2) Vegetation regulated the local microclimate through ET, which increased the absolute humidity by 2.76-3.29 g m?3, increased the relative humidity by 15.43%-19.31% and reduced the temperature by 5.38-6.43°C per day from June to September. (3) The cooling and humidifying effects of vegetation were also affected by the temperature on the LP. (4) Correlation analysis showed that LAI was significantly correlated with temperature at the monthly scale, and the response of vegetation growth to temperature had no time-lag effect. This paper presents new insights into quantitatively assessing the regulatory effect of vegetation on the local microclimate through ET and helps to objectively evaluate the ecological effects of the Grain for Green Project on the LP.

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    Spatio-temporal variations and influencing factors of energy-related carbon emissions for Xinjiang cities in China based on time-series nighttime light data
    ZHANG Li, LEI Jun, WANG Changjian, WANG Fei, GENG Zhifei, ZHOU Xiaoli
    地理学报(英文版)    2022, 32 (10): 1886-1910.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-022-2028-z
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    This essay combines the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program Operational Linescan System (DMSP-OLS) nighttime light data and the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) nighttime light data into a “synthetic DMSP” dataset, from 1992 to 2020, to retrieve the spatio-temporal variations in energy-related carbon emissions in Xinjiang, China. Then, this paper analyzes several influencing factors for spatial differentiation of carbon emissions in Xinjiang with the application of geographical detector technique. Results reveal that (1) total carbon emissions continued to grow, while the growth rate slowed down in the past five years. (2) Large regional differences exist in total carbon emissions across various regions. Total carbon emissions of these regions in descending order are the northern slope of the Tianshan (Mountains) > the southern slope of the Tianshan > the three prefectures in southern Xinjiang > the northern part of Xinjiang. (3) Economic growth, population size, and energy consumption intensity are the most important factors of spatial differentiation of carbon emissions. The interaction between economic growth and population size as well as between economic growth and energy consumption intensity also enhances the explanatory power of carbon emissions’ spatial differentiation. This paper aims to help formulate differentiated carbon reduction targets and strategies for cities in different economic development stages and those with different carbon intensities so as to achieve the carbon peak goals in different steps.

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    Mechanism and effects of the increase in winter temperatures in the Arctic region on cold winters in Heilongjiang Province, Northeast China for the period 1961-2018
    WANG Xiaodi, LI Yongsheng, ZHANG Lijuan, SONG Shuaifeng, PAN Tao, REN Chong, TAN Yulong
    地理学报(英文版)    2022, 32 (2): 225-240.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-022-1944-2
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    With the advent of climate change, winter temperatures have been steadily increasing in the middle-to-high latitudes of the world. However, we have not found a corresponding decrease in the number of extremely cold winters. This paper, based on Climatic Research Unit (CRU) re-analysis data, and methods of trend analysis, mutation analysis, correlation analysis, reports on the effects of Arctic warming on winter temperatures in Heilongjiang Province, Northeast China. The results show that: (1) during the period 1961- 2018, winter temperatures in the Arctic increased considerably, that is, 3.5 times those of the Equator, which has led to an increasing temperature gradient between the Arctic and the Equator. An abrupt change in winter temperatures in the Arctic was observed in 2000. (2) Due to the global warming, an extremely significant warming occurred in Heilongjiang in winter, in particular, after the Arctic mutation in 2000, although there were two warm winters, more cold winters were observed and the interannual variability of winter temperature also increased. (3) Affected by the warming trend in the Arctic, the Siberian High has intensified, and both the Arctic Vortex and the Eurasian Zonal Circulation Index has weakened. This explains the decrease in winter temperatures in Heilongjiang, and why cold winters still dominate. Moreover, the increase in temperature difference between the Arctic and the Equator is another reason for the decrease in winter temperatures in Heilongjiang.

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    Spatial non-stationary characteristics between grass yield and its influencing factors in the Ningxia temperate grasslands based on a mixed geographically weighted regression model
    SONG Xiaolong, MI Nan, MI Wenbao, LI Longtang
    地理学报(英文版)    2022, 32 (6): 1076-1102.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-022-1986-5
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    Spatial models are effective in obtaining local details on grassland biomass, and their accuracy has important practical significance for the stable management of grasses and livestock. To this end, the present study utilized measured quadrat data of grass yield across different regions in the main growing season of temperate grasslands in Ningxia of China (August 2020), combined with hydrometeorology, elevation, net primary productivity (NPP), and other auxiliary data over the same period. Accordingly, non-stationary characteristics of the spatial scale, and the effects of influencing factors on grass yield were analyzed using a mixed geographically weighted regression (MGWR) model. The results showed that the model was suitable for correlation analysis. The spatial scale of ratio resident-area index (PRI) was the largest, followed by the digital elevation model, NPP, distance from gully, distance from river, average July rainfall, and daily temperature range; whereas the spatial scales of night light, distance from roads, and relative humidity (RH) were the most limited. All influencing factors maintained positive and negative effects on grass yield, save for the strictly negative effect of RH. The regression results revealed a multiscale differential spatial response regularity of different influencing factors on grass yield. Regression parameters revealed that the results of Ordinary least squares (OLS) (Adjusted R2 = 0.642) and geographically weighted regression (GWR) (Adjusted R2 = 0.797) models were worse than those of MGWR (Adjusted R2 = 0.889) models. Based on the results of the RMSE and radius index, the simulation effect also was MGWR > GWR > OLS models. Ultimately, the MGWR model held the strongest prediction performance (R2 = 0.8306). Spatially, the grass yield was high in the south and west, and low in the north and east of the study area. The results of this study provide a new technical support for rapid and accurate estimation of grassland yield to dynamically adjust grazing decision in the semi-arid loess hilly region.

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    Spatiotemporal distribution of sea-island prehistoric dune sites, Holocene sea levels, and aeolian sand activities in Fujian Province, China
    JIN Jianhui, LING Zhiyong, LI Zhizhong, ZUO Xinxin, FAN Xuechun, HUANG Yunming, WANG Xiaoyang, WEI Changfu, REN Yongqing, QIU Junjie
    地理学报(英文版)    2022, 32 (6): 1157-1176.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-022-1990-9
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    The lower reaches of the Minjiang River and its adjacent areas were among the most active prehistoric archaeological areas in Fujian Province. The accumulation types of Neolithic archaeological strata are roughly divided into dune sites and dune/shell mound sites. The sites can also be roughly divided into estuarine, coastal, and sea-island sites based on their geomorphic features. The cultural development of these prehistoric sites is of great significance for understanding the migration and spread of Austronesian civilization. Based on luminescence dating of typical Neolithic sites on Haitan Island, their quartz-OSL (optically stimulated luminecesence) burial ages were determined. Synthesizing previously published results, the temporospatial distribution characteristics of the sea-island sites on Haitan Island are discussed, and the relationship between Neolithic human activities and regional geomorphic processes is analyzed. The results show that: (1) the spatial and temporal distribution of the Haitan Island Neolithic sites are closely related to small-scale geomorphic features and are controlled by mesoscale geomorphic processes. The sites were mainly distributed in the foothills of two high hills along an NNE-SSW trend. With an increase in altitude, the features were distributed as “single site (I) - superimposed site - single site (II)” and appear successively. Single type sites (I) mainly appeared at low sea level, whereas single type sites (II) mainly appeared at high sea level. Superimposed sites were not subject to sea level changes. The relative elevation of the superimposed sites in the study area indicates the optimal residential area for human activities in the region. The single site with an elevation lower than the optimal residential area was mainly restricted by the lowest residential area, whereas the single site at a higher elevation than the optimal residential area was mainly affected by livelihood patterns. (2) High sea level caused by the “backwater effect” in low latitude areas in the southern hemisphere, and coastal aeolian sand activity influenced by sea level fluctuations in the middle Holocene correspond well with human activities recorded in the cultural stratigraphy of sea-island type sites. The altitude of coastal aeolian sand accumulation can be used as an indirect index to estimate the age of coastal dunes.

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    The response of key ecosystem services to land use and climate change in Chongqing: Time, space, and altitude
    GAO Jie, BIAN Hongyan, ZHU Chongjing, TANG Shuang
    地理学报(英文版)    2022, 32 (2): 317-332.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-022-1949-x
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    Mountainous landscapes are particularly vulnerable and sensitive to climate change and human activities, and a clear understanding of how ecosystem services (ES) and their relationships continuously change over time, across space, and along altitude is therefore essential for ecosystem management. Chongqing, a typical mountainous region, was selected to assess the long-term changes in its key ES and their relationships. From 1992 to 2018, the temporal variation in water yield (WY) revealed that the maximum and minimum WYs occurred in 1998 and 2006, which coincided with El Niño-Southern Oscillation and severe drought events, respectively. Soil export (SE) and WY were consistent with precipitation, which reached their highest values in 1998. During this period, carbon storage (CS) and habitat quality (HQ) both decreased significantly. ES in Chongqing showed large variations in altitude. Generally, WY and SE decreased with increasing altitude, while CS and HQ increased. For spatial distribution, WY and SE showed positive trends in the west and negative trends in the east. In regard to CS and HQ, negative trends dominated the area. Persistent tradeoffs between WY and soil conservation (SC) were found at all altitude gradients. The strong synergies between CS and HQ were maintained over time.

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    Water sources for typical desert vegetation in the Ebinur Lake basin
    HAO Shuai, LI Fadong
    地理学报(英文版)    2022, 32 (6): 1103-1118.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-022-1987-4
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    In arid and semi-arid environments, desert vegetation plays an important role in preventing soil erosion by wind and helps maintain the stability of desert and oasis ecosystems. Four types of typical desert vegetation, namely Populus euphratica, Haloxylon ammodendron, Nitraria sibirica, and Halostachs caspica, corresponding to different habitats (i.e., river bank, sand dune, desert, and salt marsh) were chosen as the model vegetation in this research. The δ2H and δ18O for rainwater, soil water, and plant water were applied to identify the water sources and quantify the proportions of different water sources used over the entire plant growth period (from March to October). The results showed that the precipitation δ2H and δ18O in the Ebinur Lake basin varied from -142.5‰ to -0.6‰ and from -20.16‰ to 1.20‰, respectively. The largest δ2H and δ18O values occurred in summer and the smallest in winter. The soil water δ2H and δ18O of the four habitats decreased gradually with increasing depth. The δ2H and δ18O values of water extracted from the stems of the four plants had similar variation trends, that is, the maximum was observed in spring and the minimum in summer. Among the four plants, H. caspica had the highest stable isotopic values in the stem water, followed by N. sibirica, H. ammodendron, and P. euphratica. The water sources and utilization ratios of desert vegetation varied across different growth stages. Throughout the growing period, H. ammodendron mainly used groundwater, whereas the water source proportions used by N. sibirica varied greatly throughout the growing season. In spring, plants mainly relied on surface soil water, with a contribution rate of 80%-94%. However, in summer, the proportion of deep soil water used was 31%-36%; and in autumn, the proportion of middle soil water used was 33%-36%. H. caspica mainly relied on topsoil water in spring and autumn, and the proportion of soil water in the middle layer slightly increased to 20%-36% in summer. P. euphratica mainly used intermediate soil water in spring with a utilization rate of 53%-54%. In summer, groundwater was the main source, with a utilization rate of 72%-88%, and only 2%-5% came from river water, whereas in autumn, the river water utilization rate rose to 11%-21%. The results indicated that there were significant differences in water use sources during the growing period for desert vegetation in arid areas. This research provides a theoretical basis for understanding water use mechanisms, water adaptation strategies, and vegetation restoration and management in arid areas.

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    Glacier changes in the Sanjiangyuan Nature Reserve of China during 2000-2018
    ZHANG Yuan, YAO Xiaojun, ZHOU Sugang, ZHANG Dahong
    地理学报(英文版)    2022, 32 (2): 259-279.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-022-1946-0
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    The glaciers in the Sanjiangyuan Nature Reserve of China (SNRC) are a significant water resource for the Yangtze, Yellow, and Mekong rivers. Based on Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM)/ Operational Land Imager (OLI) images acquired in 2000, 2010, and 2018, the outlines of glaciers in the SNRC were obtained by combining band ratio method with manual interpretation. There were 1714 glaciers in the SNRC in 2018, with an area of 2331.15±54.84 km2, an ice volume of 188.90±6.41 km3, and an average length of 1475.4±15 m. During 2000-2018, the corresponding values of glaciers decreased by 69, 271.95±132.06 km2, 18.59±8.83 km3, and 84.75±34 m, respectively. Glaciers in the Yangtze River source area witnessed the largest area loss (-154.45 km2), whereas glaciers in the Mekong River source area experienced the fastest area loss (-2.02%·a-1) and the maximum reduction of the average length (-125.82 m). Overall, the retreat of glaciers in the SNRC exhibited an accelerating trend. Especially, the loss rate of glacier area in the Yellow River source area in 2010-2018 was more than twice that in 2000-2010. The glacier change is primarily attributed to the significant rise in temperature during the ablation period. Some other factors including the size, orientation and terminus elevation of glaciers also contributed to the heterogeneity of glacier change.

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    Erosions on the southern Tibetan Plateau: Evidence from in-situ cosmogenic nuclides 10Be and 26Al in fluvial sediments
    ZHANG Xiaolong, XU Sheng, CUI Lifeng, ZHANG Maoliang, ZHAO Zhiqi, LIU Congqiang
    地理学报(英文版)    2022, 32 (2): 333-357.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-022-1950-4
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    Investigating topographic and climatic controls on erosion at variable spatial and temporal scales is essential to our understanding of the topographic evolution of the orogen. In this work, we quantified millennial-scale erosion rates deduced from cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al concentrations in 15 fluvial sediments from the mainstream and major tributaries of the Yarlung Zangbo River draining the southern Tibetan Plateau (TP). The measured ratios of 26Al/10Be range from 6.33 ± 0.29 to 8.96 ± 0.37, suggesting steady-state erosion processes. The resulted erosion rates vary from 20.60 ± 1.79 to 154.00 ± 13.60 m Myr-1, being spatially low in the upstream areas of the Gyaca knickpoint and high in the downstream areas. By examining the relationships between the erosion rate and topographic or climatic indices, we found that both topography and climate play significant roles in the erosion process for basins in the upstream areas of the Gyaca knickpoint. However, topography dominantly controls the erosion processes in the downstream areas of the Gyaca knickpoint, whereas variations in precipitation have only a second-order control. The marginal Himalayas and the Yarlung Zangbo River Basin (YZRB) yielded significantly higher erosion rates than the central plateau, which indicated that the landscape of the central plateau surface is remarkably stable and is being intensively consumed at its boundaries through river headward erosion. In addition, our 10Be erosion rates are comparable to present-day hydrologic erosion rates in most cases, suggesting either weak human activities or long-term steady-state erosion in this area.

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    Examining spatio-temporal variations in carbon budget and carbon compensation zoning in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration based on major functional zones
    XIA Siyou, YANG Yu
    地理学报(英文版)    2022, 32 (10): 1911-1934.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-022-2029-y
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    Research on the carbon budget and zoning for carbon compensation in major functional zones (MFZs) is important for formulating strategies for low-carbon development for each functional zone, promoting the collaborative governance of the regional ecological environment, and achieving high-quality development. Such work can also contribute to achieving peak emissions and carbon neutrality. This paper constructs a theoretical framework for the carbon budget and carbon compensation from the perspective of the MFZ, uses 157 county-level units of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration (BTHUA) as the study area, and introduces the concentration index, normalized revealed comparative advantage index, and Self Organizing Mapping-K-means (SOM-K-means) model to examine spatio-temporal variations in the carbon budget and carbon compensation zoning for the BTHUA from the perspective of MFZs. The authors propose a scheme for the spatial minimization of carbon emissions as oriented by low-carbon development. The results show that: (1) From 2000 to 2017, the carbon budget exhibited an upward trend of volatility, its centralization index was higher than the “warning line” of 0.4, and large regional differences in it were noted on the whole. (2) There were significant regional differences in the carbon budget, and carbon emissions exhibited a core-periphery spatial pattern, with a high-value center at Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan that gradually decreased as it moved outward. However, the spatial pattern of carbon absorption tended to be stable, showing an inverted “U-shaped” pattern. It was high in the east, north, and west, and was low in the middle and the south. (3) The carbon budget was consistent with the strategic positioning of the MFZ, and the optimized development zone and key development zone were the main pressure-bearing areas for carbon emissions, while the key ecological functional zone was the dominant zone of carbon absorption. The difference in the centralization index of carbon absorption among the functional zones was smaller than that in the centralization index of carbon emissions. (4) There were 53 payment areas, 64 balanced areas, and 40 obtaining areas in the study area. Nine types of carbon compensation zones were finally formed in light of the strategic objectives of the MFZ, and directions and strategies for low-carbon development are proposed for each type. (5) It is important to strengthen research on the carbon balance and horizontal carbon compensation at a microscopic scale, enrich the theoretical framework of regional carbon compensation, integrate it into the carbon trading market, and explore diversified paths for achieving peak emissions and carbon neutrality.

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    Scientific attributes and expression methods of geographical boundary
    TANG Guoan, LI Jilong, XIONG Liyang, NA Jiaming
    地理学报(英文版)    2022, 32 (6): 1119-1135.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-022-1988-3
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    A scientific delineation of geographical boundaries reflects the cognitive level of scientific abstraction and systematic analysis of the spatial variation of geographical objects and is a basic scientific issue of geography. From the perspective of earth system science, this study first explicates the core issues (e.g., basic concepts, scientific contents, and basic properties) of geographical boundaries. Based on the principles of scientificity and systematicness, we then classify geographical boundaries in terms of intrinsic mechanisms, extrinsic appearance and scientific attributes. Furthermore, this paper analyzes the mathematical connotation and representation methods of geographical boundaries, discusses the characteristics of and differences between traditional and modern methods for geographical boundary delineation. Finally, we present a framework for a “geographical boundary model” with an integration of qualitative, quantitative, and positioning methods. Focusing on geographical boundary (a basic theoretical problem in geography), this study engaged in concept definition and method analysis, with the findings enriching the theory and methodology of geographical information science.

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