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    1. Spatial-temporal characteristics and decoupling effects of China’s carbon footprint based on multi-source data
    ZHANG Yongnian, PAN Jinghu, ZHANG Yongjiao, XU Jing
    地理学报(英文版)    2021, 31 (3): 327-349.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-021-1839-7
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    In 2007, China surpassed the USA to become the largest carbon emitter in the world. China has promised a 60%-65% reduction in carbon emissions per unit GDP by 2030, compared to the baseline of 2005. Therefore, it is important to obtain accurate dynamic information on the spatial and temporal patterns of carbon emissions and carbon footprints to support formulating effective national carbon emission reduction policies. This study attempts to build a carbon emission panel data model that simulates carbon emissions in China from 2000-2013 using nighttime lighting data and carbon emission statistics data. By applying the Exploratory Spatial-Temporal Data Analysis (ESTDA) framework, this study conducted an analysis on the spatial patterns and dynamic spatial-temporal interactions of carbon footprints from 2001-2013. The improved Tapio decoupling model was adopted to investigate the levels of coupling or decoupling between the carbon emission load and economic growth in 336 prefecture-level units. The results show that, firstly, high accuracy was achieved by the model in simulating carbon emissions. Secondly, the total carbon footprints and carbon deficits across China increased with average annual growth rates of 4.82% and 5.72%, respectively. The overall carbon footprints and carbon deficits were larger in the North than that in the South. There were extremely significant spatial autocorrelation features in the carbon footprints of prefecture-level units. Thirdly, the relative lengths of the Local Indicators of Spatial Association (LISA) time paths were longer in the North than that in the South, and they increased from the coastal to the central and western regions. Lastly, the overall decoupling index was mainly a weak decoupling type, but the number of cities with this weak decoupling continued to decrease. The unsustainable development trend of China’s economic growth and carbon emission load will continue for some time.

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    2. Carbon neutrality and mitigating contribution of terrestrial carbon sink on anthropogenic climate warming in China, the United States, Russia and Canada
    CUI Yaoping, LI Nan, FU Yiming, CHEN Liangyu
    地理学报(英文版)    2021, 31 (7): 925-937.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-021-1878-0
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    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a major climate forcing factor, closely related to human activities. Quantifying the contribution of CO2 emissions to the global radiative forcing (RF) is therefore important to evaluate climate effects caused by anthropogenic and natural factors. China, the United States (USA), Russia and Canada are the largest countries by land area, at different levels of socio-economic development. In this study, we used data from the CarbonTracker CO2 assimilation model (CT2017 data set) to analyze anthropogenic CO2 emissions and terrestrial ecosystem carbon sinks from 2000 to 2016. We derived net RF contributions and showed that anthropogenic CO2 emissions had increased significantly from 2000 to 2016, at a rate of 0.125 PgC yr-1. Over the same period, carbon uptake by terrestrial ecosystems increased at a rate of 0.003 PgC yr-1. Anthropogenic CO2 emissions in China and USA accounted for 87.19% of the total, while Russian terrestrial ecosystems were the largest carbon sink and absorbed 14.69 PgC. The resulting cooling effect was -0.013 W m-2 in 2016, representing an offset of -45.06% on climate warming induced by anthropogenic CO2. This indicates that net climate warming would be significantly overestimated if terrestrial ecosystems were not included in RF budget analyses. In terms of cumulative effects, we analyzed RFs using reference atmospheres of 1750, at the start of the Industrial Revolution, and 2000, the initial year of this study. Anthropogenic CO2 emissions in the study area contributed by + 0.42 W m-2 and +0.32 W m-2 to the global RF, relative to CO2 levels of 1750 and 2000, respectively. We also evaluated correlations between global mean atmospheric temperature and net, anthropogenic and natural RFs. We found that the combined (net) RF caused by CO2 emissions accounted for 30.3% of global mean temperature variations in 2000-2016.

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    3. Human’s digital footprints on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau: Variations during festivals and impacts on nature reserves
    DU Yunyan, TU Wenna, LIANG Fuyuan, YI Jiawei
    地理学报(英文版)    2021, 31 (2): 179-194.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-021-1841-0
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    Mobile internet and wireless communication technologies have produced unprecedented location-aware data. Such big geospatial data can be used as a proxy measure of the ‘digital footprints’ left by us on the planet and provide a valuable opportunity to understand the dynamic and short-term human disturbance on the nature at fine scales. This study investigated the spatiotemporal variations of human’s digital footprints on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau using smartphone-users-generated Tencent’s location request data. The results showed that human’s digital footprints cover less than 5% of Qinghai and Tibet, exhibiting either a U-shaped or an N-shaped temporal change pattern during the major festivals. Spatial changes of the digital footprints manifested a transition process from dispersion to concentration in Xining and Lhasa. Human disturbance assessment of seven large nature reserves on the plateau showed that the Qinghai Lake is the most disturbed one as shown by 14.6% of its area is stained with human digital footprints and the areal average of footprint intensity is 1.59, and the disturbance was significantly escalated during the National Day holiday. By contrast, the Qangtang and Hoh Xil are the least affected nature reserves with the two indices less than 1% and 0.1, respectively.

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    4. Progress and prospects of applied research on physical geography and the living environment in China over the past 70 years (1949-2019)
    CHEN Fahu, WU Shaohong, CUI Peng, CAI Yunlong, ZHANG Yili, YIN Yunhe, LIU Guobin, OUYANG Zhu, MA Wei, YANG Linsheng, WU Duo, LEI Jiaqiang, ZHANG Guoyou, ZOU Xueyong, CHEN Xiaoqing, TAN Minghong, WANG Xunming, BAO Anming, CHENG Weixin, DANG Xiaohu, WEI Binggan, WANG Guoliang, WANG Wuyi, ZHANG Xingquan, LIU Xiaochen, LI Shengyu
    地理学报(英文版)    2021, 31 (1): 3-45.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-021-1831-2
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    Physical geography is a basic research subject of natural sciences. Its research object is the natural environment which is closely related to human living and development, and China’s natural environment is complex and diverse. According to national needs and regional development, physical geographers have achieved remarkable achievements in applied basis and applied research, which also has substantially contributed to the planning of national economic growth and social development, the protection of macro ecosystems and resources, and sustainable regional development. This study summarized the practice and application of physical geography in China over the past 70 years in the following fields: regional differences in natural environments and physical regionalization; land use and land cover changes; natural hazards and risk reduction; process and prevention of desertification; upgrading of medium- and low-yield fields in the Huang-Huai-Hai region; engineering construction in permafrost areas; geochemical element anomalies and the prevention and control of endemic diseases; positioning and observation of physical geographical elements; and identification of geospatial differentiation and geographical detectors. Furthermore, we have proposed the future direction of applied research in the field of physical geography.

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    5. China’s rural revitalization and development: Theory, technology and management
    LIU Yansui, ZANG Yuzhu, YANG Yuanyuan
    地理学报(英文版)    2020, 30 (12): 1923-1942.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-020-1819-3
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    The urban-rural transformation from dichotomy to integration is a gradual process. Like rural areas in many countries, Chinese rural society is experiencing a decline in all spheres due to depopulation, aging, lack of economic opportunity, and so on. Aiming at solving the serious rural issues, China proposed the implementation of a rural revitalization strategy and the promotion of an integrated urban-rural development for the first time in 2017. This proposal marks the transformation of the urban-rural relationship, and the integrated urban-rural development reflects a significant conceptual change. Researches on issues of rural decline are urgently needed to determine the most effective method for rural revitalization and development from the perspective of the urban-rural dynamics. In this context, this paper focuses on studying the theory, technology and management of rural revitalization and development. We construct a theoretical framework for urban-rural integration based on population-land-industry-right between the urban and rural systems, regarding land engineering for land capacity building as the technical support and the rural land system reform and reconstruction as the policy support for management. This research will provide theoretical support for the implementation of China’s rural revitalization strategy.

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    6. Visual method of analyzing COVID-19 case information using spatio-temporal objects with multi-granularity
    CHEN Yunhai, JIANG Nan, CAO Yibing, YANG Zhenkai, ZHAO Xinke
    地理学报(英文版)    2021, 31 (7): 1059-1081.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-021-1885-1
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    Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is continuing to spread globally and still poses a great threat to human health. Since its outbreak, it has had catastrophic effects on human society. A visual method of analyzing COVID-19 case information using spatio-temporal objects with multi-granularity is proposed based on the officially provided case information. This analysis reveals the spread of the epidemic, from the perspective of spatio-temporal objects, to provide references for related research and the formulation of epidemic prevention and control measures. The case information is abstracted, descripted, represented, and analyzed in the form of spatio-temporal objects through the construction of spatio-temporal case objects, multi-level visual expressions, and spatial correlation analysis. The rationality of the method is verified through visualization scenarios of case information statistics for China, Henan cases, and cases related to Shulan. The results show that the proposed method is helpful in the research and judgment of the development trend of the epidemic, the discovery of the transmission law, and the spatial traceability of the cases. It has a good portability and good expansion performance, so it can be used for the visual analysis of case information for other regions and can help users quickly discover the potential knowledge this information contains.

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    7. Spatiotemporal changes of land desertification sensitivity in northwest China from 2000 to 2017
    WEI Wei, GUO Zecheng, SHI Peiji, ZHOU Liang, WANG Xufeng, LI Zhenya, PANG Sufei, XIE Binbin
    地理学报(英文版)    2021, 31 (1): 46-68.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-021-1832-1
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    Sensitivity assessment is useful for monitoring land desertification. Research into how to prevent and control desertification is also important. In the arid region of northwest China, desertification is becoming worse and is a serious problem that affects local sustainable development. Based on remote-sensing and geographic information system technology, this study establishes a “soil-terrain-hydrology-climate-vegetation” desertification sensitivity comprehensive evaluation system to reflect the spatiotemporal changes of land desertification, and proposes a spatial distance model to calculate a desertification sensitivity index. The spatiotemporal change characteristics of land desertification sensitivity in northwest China are quantitatively assessed from 2000 to 2017. Moreover, the main driving factors are analyzed using the geographical detector method. The results show the following. (1) Terrain, soil, climate, vegetation and hydrology affect and restrict each other, and constitute the background conditions of the distributions and changes of sensitivity to desertification in northwest China. (2) Desertification sensitivity generally displays a low distribution characteristic on the periphery of the area and a high one in the interior. The low-sensitivity regions are mainly in the five major mountain ranges (Altai Mountains, Tianshan Mountains, Kunlun Mountains, Altun Mountains and Qilian Mountains), while the high-sensitivity regions are mainly in regions such as the Junggar Basin, the Tarim Basin and the Inner Mongolia Plateau, as well as the Taklimakan Desert, Badain Jaran Desert and Tengger Desert. The spatial distribution of desertification sensitivity is obviously regional, and the high- and low-sensitivity regions have clear boundaries and a concentrated distribution. (3) With regard to spatiotemporal evolution, changes in desertification sensitivity since 2000 have been predominantly stable, and the overall sensitivity has displayed a slowly decreasing trend, indicating that potential desertification regions are decreasing annually and that some achievements have been made in the control of regional desertification. (4) Soil and climate play a direct role in the driving factors of desertification in northwest China, and these have been found to be the most important influential factors. Vegetation is the most active and basic factor in changing the sensitivity. In addition, topography and hydrology play a role in restricting desertification changes. Socio-economic factors are the most rapid factors affecting regional desertification sensitivity, and their impacts tend to be gradually increasing. In general, desertification has been effectively controlled in northwest China, and positive results have been achieved in such control. However, against the backdrop of intensified global climate change, increasingly prominent human activities and new normals of socio-economic development, the monitoring, assessment and control of desertification in China still have a long way to go.

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    8. North-south vegetation transition in the eastern Qinling-Daba Mountains
    ZHANG Xinghang, ZHANG Baiping, WANG Jing, YU Fuqin, ZHAO Chao, YAO Yonghui
    地理学报(英文版)    2021, 31 (3): 350-368.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-021-1840-1
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    The Qinling-Daba Mountains are the main body of China’s North-South Transitional Zone. Analysis of the north-south gradual variation of vegetation components is significant for understanding the structural diversity and complexity of this transitional zone. In this study, based on survey data of plant communities, the eastern Qinling-Daba Mountains is divided into four geographic units: the north flank of eastern Qinling Mts., south flank of eastern Qinling Mts., north flank of eastern Daba Mts. and south flank of eastern Daba Mts. We also explore division of regional climate according to areal differentiation of plant-species, community structure and species-richness, respectively. The results show that, (1) at plant-species level, there are mainly northern plants in north flank of eastern Qinling Mts. with evergreen species and fewer northern plants in south flank of eastern Qinling Mts.; there are mainly southern plants in eastern Daba Mts. (2) At community structure level, there are 4 formations (3 northern formations and 1 widespread formation) in north flank of eastern Qinling, 6 formations (3 northern formations, 1 southern formation, and 2 widespread formations) in south flank of eastern Qinling, 4 formations (2 southern formations and 2 widespread formations) in north flank of eastern Daba Mts., and 3 formations (3 southern formations) in south flank of eastern Daba Mts. In terms of the numbers and properties of formations, there is a mixture of northern and southern formations only in the south flank of eastern Qinling Mts. (3) At species-richness level, the diversity of families, genera and species decreased with increasing latitude, but the mixing of northern plants and the southern plants began to occur in south flank of eastern Qinling Mts. This means that the south flank of the eastern Qinling Mts. serves more suitably as the dividing line between China’s warm temperate and subtropical zones.

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    9. Population migration across the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau: Spatiotemporal patterns and driving factors
    WANG Nan, WANG Huimeng, DU Yunyan, YI Jiawei, LIU Zhang, TU Wenna
    地理学报(英文版)    2021, 31 (2): 195-214.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-021-1842-z
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    Developing a comprehensive understanding of inter-city interactions is crucial for regional planning. We therefore examined spatiotemporal patterns of population migration across the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) using migration big data from Tencent for the period between 2015 and 2019. We initially used decomposition and breakpoint detection methods to examine time-series migration data and to identify the two seasons with the strongest and weakest population migration levels, between June 18th and August 18th and between October 8th and February 15th, respectively. Population migration within the former period was 2.03 times that seen in the latter. We then used a variety of network analysis methods to examine population flow directions as well as the importance of each individual city in migration. The two capital cities on the QTP, Lhasa and Xining, form centers for population migration and are also transfer hubs through which migrants from other cities off the plateau enter and leave this region. Data show that these two cities contribute more than 35% of total population migration. The majority of migrants tend to move within the province, particularly during the weakest migration season. We also utilized interactive relationship force and radiation models to examine the interaction strength and the radiating energy of each individual city. Results show that Lhasa and Xining exhibit the strongest interactions with other cities and have the largest radiating energies. Indeed, the radiating energy of the QTP cities correlates with their gross domestic product (GDP) (Pearson correlation coefficient: 0.754 in the weakest migration season, WMS versus 0.737 in the strongest migration season, SMS), while changes in radiating energy correlate with the tourism-related revenue (Pearson correlation coefficient: 0.685). These outcomes suggest that level of economic development and level of tourism are the two most important factors driving the QTP population migration. The results of this analysis provide critical clarification guidance regarding huge QTP development differences.

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    10. 2020 Top 10 Research Achievements of Chinese Geography Unveiled
    地理学报(英文版)    2021, 31 (7): 1082-1083.  
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    11. Evaluating changes in ecological land and effect of protecting important ecological spaces in China
    GAO Jixi, LIU Xiaoman, WANG Chao, WANG Yong, FU Zhuo, HOU Peng, LYU Na
    地理学报(英文版)    2021, 31 (9): 1245-1260.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-021-1896-y
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    It is important to quantitatively analyze the effects of protection of important ecological spaces in China to ensure national ecological security. By considering changes in the ecological land, this study examines the effects of protecting three types of important natural ecological spaces in China from 1980 to 2018. Moreover, considering important ecological spaces and their surroundings yields differences in the effects of protection between internal and external spaces, where this can provide a scientific basis for the categorization and zoning of China’s land. The results show the following: (1) In 2018, the ratio of ecological land to important natural ecological spaces accounted for 92.64%. This land had a good ecological background that reflects the developmental orientation of important ecological spaces. (2) From 1980 to 2018, the area of ecological land in important ecological spaces shrank but the rate of reduction was lower than the national average, which shows the positive effect of regulating construction in natural ecological spaces. The restorative effects of ecological projects to convert farmland into forests and grasslands have been prominent. The expanded ecological land is mainly distributed in areas where such projects have been implemented, and the reduced area is concentrated in grain-producing areas of the Northeast China Plain and agricultural oases of Xinjiang. In the future, the government should focus on strengthening the management and control of these areas. (3) The area ratio of ecological land was the highest in national nature reserves. The rate of reduction in its area was the lowest and the trend of reduction was the smallest in national nature reserves, which reflects differences in the status of ecological protection among different spaces. (4) The ratio of ecological land to important ecological spaces was higher than that in the surrounding external space, and the rate of reduction in it was lower. Thus, the effects of internal and external protection had clear differences in terms of gradient.

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    12. Heterogeneity of water-retention capacity of forest and its influencing factors based on meta-analysis in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region
    SHI Xiaoli, DU Chenliang, GUO Xudong, SHI Wenjiao
    地理学报(英文版)    2021, 31 (1): 69-90.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-021-1833-0
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    Water retention is important in forest ecosystem services. The heterogeneity analysis of water-retention capacity and its influencing factors is of great significance for the construction of water-retention functional areas, restoration of vegetation, and the protection of forest ecosystems in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. A total of 1366 records concerning water-retention capacity in the canopy layer, litter layer, and soil layer of forest ecosystem in this region were obtained from 193 literature published from 1980 to 2017. The influencing factors of water-retention capacity in each layer were analyzed, and path analysis was used to investigate the contribution of the factors to the water-retention capacity of the three layers. The results showed that mixed forests had the highest water-retention capacity, followed by broad-leaved forests, coniferous forests, and shrub forests. In addition, no matter the forest type, the ranking of the water-retention capacity was soil layer, canopy layer, and litter layer from high to low. The main influencing factors of water-retention capacity in forest canopy were leaf area index and maximum daily precipitation (R 2=0.49), and the influencing coefficients were 0.34 and 0.30, respectively. The main influencing factors of water-retention capacity in the litter layer were semi-decomposed litter (R 2=0.51), and the influencing coefficient was 0.51. The main influencing factors of water-retention capacity in the soil layer were non-capillary porosity and soil depth (R 2=0.61), the influencing coefficients were 0.60 and 0.38, respectively. This study verifies the simulation of the water balance model or inversion of remote sensing of the water-retention capacity at the site scale, and provides scientific basis for further study of the impact of global change on water retention.

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    13. Spatiotemporal analysis of COVID-19 risk in Guangdong Province based on population migration
    YE Yuyao, WANG Changjian, ZHANG Hong’ou, YANG Ji, LIU Zhengqian, WU Kangmin, DENG Yingbin
    地理学报(英文版)    2020, 30 (12): 1985-2001.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-020-1823-7
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    Population migration, especially population inflow from epidemic areas, is a key source of the risk related to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic. This paper selects Guangdong Province, China, for a case study. It utilizes big data on population migration and the geospatial analysis technique to develop a model to achieve spatiotemporal analysis of COVID-19 risk. The model takes into consideration the risk differential between the source cities of population migration as well as the heterogeneity in the socioeconomic characteristics of the destination cities of population migration. It further incorporates a time-lag process based on the time distribution of the onset of the imported cases. In theory, the model will be able to predict the evolutional trend and spatial distribution of the COVID-19 risk for a certain time period in the future and provide support for advanced planning and targeted prevention measures. The research findings indicate the following: (1) The COVID-19 epidemic in Guangdong Province reached a turning point on January 29, 2020, after which it showed a gradual decreasing trend. (2) Based on the time-lag analysis of the onset of the imported cases, it is common for a time interval to exist between case importation and illness onset, and the proportion of the cases with an interval of 1-14 days is relatively high. (3) There is evident spatial heterogeneity in the epidemic risk; the risk varies significantly between different areas based on their imported risk, susceptibility risk, and ability to prevent the spread. (4) The degree of connectedness and the scale of population migration between Guangdong’s prefecture-level cities and their counterparts in the source regions of the epidemic, as well as the transportation and location factors of the cities in Guangdong, have a significant impact on the risk classification of the cities in Guangdong. The first-tier cities - Shenzhen and Guangzhou - are high-risk regions. The cities in the Pearl River Delta that are adjacent to Shenzhen and Guangzhou, including Dongguan, Foshan, Huizhou, Zhuhai, Zhongshan, are medium-risk cities. The eastern, northern, and western parts of Guangdong, which are outside of the metropolitan areas of the Pearl River Delta, are considered to have low risks. Therefore, the government should develop prevention and control measures that are specific to different regions based on their risk classification to enable targeted prevention and ensure the smooth operation of society.

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    14. Predicting and assessing changes in NPP based on multi-scenario land use and cover simulations on the Loess Plateau
    JIANG Xiaowei, BAI Jianjun
    地理学报(英文版)    2021, 31 (7): 977-996.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-021-1881-5
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    Land use/cover change (LUCC) is a major factor affecting net primary production (NPP). According to the LUCC of the Loess Plateau from 2005 to 2015, the LUCC patterns in 2025 in three scenarios were predicted by using the Future Land Use Simulation (FLUS) model. Furthermore, taking the average NPP of various land use/cover types in 16 years as the reference scale, the changes in NPP in multi-scenario simulations are predicted and analyzed, and the impact of different land use/cover transfers on NPP is quantified. The results are as follows: (1) The land use/cover changes greatly in the baseline and fast development scenarios, and changes relatively little in the ecological protection scenarios. (2) The changes in NPP in different scenarios reflected the significant difference in the ecological protection effect. All the three scenarios promote an NPP increase, but the ecological protection scenario can promote NPP increases the most. (3) The changes in NPP caused by LUCC in the three scenarios reflected the significant difference in the various land use/cover types protection effect. Analyzing and predicting NPP changes in multi-scenario LUCC simulations in the future can provide a theoretical basis for decision makers to judge the future changes in ecological environments and ecological protection effects against different policy backgrounds.

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    15. Exploring temporal heterogeneity in an intercity travel network: A comparative study between weekdays and holidays in China
    LI Tao, WANG Jiaoe, HUANG Jie, GAO Xingchuan
    地理学报(英文版)    2020, 30 (12): 1943-1962.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-020-1821-9
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    A largely unexplored application of “Big Data” in urban contexts is using human mobility data to study temporal heterogeneity in intercity travel networks. Hence, this paper explores China’s intercity travel patterns and their dynamics, with a comparison between weekdays and holidays, to contribute to our understanding of these phenomena. Using passenger travel data inferred from Tencent Location Big Data during weekdays (April 11-15, 2016) and National Golden Week (October 1-7, 2016), we compare the spatial patterns of Chinese intercity travel on weekdays and during Golden Week. The results show that the average daily intercity travel during Golden Week is significantly higher than that during weekdays, but the travel distance and degree of network clustering are significantly lower. This indicates temporal heterogeneity in mapping the intercity travel network. On weekdays, the three major cities of Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou take prominent core positions, while cities that are tourism destinations or transportation hubs are more attractive during Golden Week. The reasons behind these findings can be explained by geographical proximity, administrative division (proximity of cultural and policy systems), travel distance, and travel purposes.

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    16. Research progress and prospect on development geography
    DENG Xiangzheng, JIN Gui, HE Shujin, WANG Chengxin, LI Zhaohua, WANG Zhanqi, SONG Malin, YANG Qingyuan, ZHANG Anlu, CHEN Jiancheng
    地理学报(英文版)    2021, 31 (3): 437-455.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-021-1852-x
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    In this paper, we review the research progress in development geography since the 20th century, focusing on its connotation and theory, fields, methods, and development trends. Specifically, we systematically review the research and applications of development geography, comprising fields such as the convergence of underdeveloped countries and regions, and the convergence of the process of improving the quality of life in developed countries and regions. Then, based on an analysis of research progress in development geography in foreign countries, we examine the development conditions and disciplinary advantages of development geography in China. Further, we highlight that future development geography research in China should focus on the latest international academic research and China’s national macro-strategic needs. Future research in development geography should be guided by the theory of sustainable development, the core of which is to improve sustainable livelihood capacity and regional green development levels in underdeveloped regions. This core includes the construction of industrial policy and development geography theory, as well as an interdisciplinary integrated research system. The focus must be placed on researching the spatial patterns, diffusion characteristics, and the convergence mechanism of regional development. Such a focus will facilitate exploration of the regulatory policies and scientific paths that serve regional economic construction and industrial development.

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    17. Geomorphology-oriented digital terrain analysis: Progress and perspectives
    XIONG Liyang, TANG Guoan, YANG Xin, LI Fayuan
    地理学报(英文版)    2021, 31 (3): 456-476.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-021-1853-9
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    Digital terrain analysis (DTA) is one of the most important contents in the research of geographical information science (GIS). However, on the basis of the digital elevation model (DEM), many problems exist in the current research of DTA in geomorphological studies. For instance, the current DTA research appears to be focused more on morphology, phenomenon, and modern surface rather than mechanism, process, and underlying terrain. The current DTA research needs to be urgently transformed from the study of landform morphology to one focusing on landform process and mechanism. On this basis, this study summarizes the current research status of geomorphology-oriented DTA and systematically reviews and analyzes the research about the knowledge of geomorphological ontology, terrain modeling, terrain derivative calculation, and terrain analytical methods. With the help of DEM data, DTA research has the advantage of carrying out geomorphological studies from the perspective of surface morphology. However, the study of DTA has inherent defects in terms of data expression and analytic patterns. Thus, breakthroughs in basic theories and key technologies are necessary. Moreover, scholars need to realize that DTA research must be transformed from phenomenon to mechanism, from morphology to process, and from terrain to landform. At present, the research development of earth science has reached the critical stage in which the DTA research should focus more on geomorphological ontology. Consequently, this study proposes several prospects of geomorphology-oriented DTA from the aspects of value-added DEM data model, terrain derivatives and their spatial relations, and macro-terrain analysis. The study of DTA based on DEM is at a critical period along with the issue on whether the current GIS technology can truly support the development of geography. The research idea of geomorphology-oriented DTA is expected to be an important exploration and practice in the field of GIS.

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    18. Spatial pattern and driving factors of migrants on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau: Insights from short-distance and long-distance population migrants
    QI Wei, YI Jiawei
    地理学报(英文版)    2021, 31 (2): 215-230.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-021-1843-y
    摘要68)   HTML7)    PDF (873KB)(172)   

    As one of the most ecologically sensitive issues in the world, migration now plays an important role in population growth on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. To promote sustainable development in the world’s third pole, it is necessary to investigate population migration on the Plateau. Using 2010 census data, a spatial database of county-level migrants on the Plateau was constructed, and migrants were divided into short-distance and long-distance migrants according to the hukou-registered origins. Measuring migration intensity allowed the spatial pattern of population migration on the Plateau to be ascertained. The driving factors were identified using spatial regression models, and the main conclusions are as follows: (1) In 2010, there were 1.23 million inter-county migrants on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, and the overall migration intensity reached 10.50%. There existed significant spatial differences in population migration intensity on the Plateau at that time, and the provincial or prefectural capitals were attractive destinations for migrants. Northwestern Qinghai, which boasted mining industries, constituted a significant spatial cluster with a relatively high migration intensity. However, most areas on the Plateau attracted relatively few migrants, especially in western and northern parts of Tibet, which were sparsely populated and uninhabitable. (2) There were 0.95 million short-distance migrants and 0.28 million long-distance migrants. The short-distance migration intensity was 8.14%, while the long-distance migration intensity was only 2.36%. Short-distance migration was the main form of population migration, with a pattern similar to the layout of overall population migration intensity. Only a few county-level units strongly attracted long-distance migrants, which were mostly distributed in northwestern Qinghai. (3) Economic factors were considered fundamental drivers for migrants to live on the Plateau. Destinations with high levels of economic development and more opportunities in non-agricultural jobs proved more attractive for migrants. For short-distance migrants, urbanization level also proved a considerable driving factor for in-migration. However, long-distance migrants were mainly affected by the job chances of the secondary industry on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

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    19. Evaluation of the carbon sequestration of Zhalong Wetland under climate change
    YU Chenglong, LIU Dan, ZHAO Huiying
    地理学报(英文版)    2021, 31 (7): 938-964.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-021-1879-z
    摘要68)   HTML2)    PDF (1984KB)(2)   

    Wetland ecosystems are crucial to the global carbon cycle. In this study, the Zhalong Wetland was investigated. Based on remote sensing and meteorological observation data from 1975-2018 and the downscaled fifth phase of the coupled model intercomparison project (CMIP5) climate projection dataset from 1961-2100, the parameters of a net primary productivity (NPP) climatic potential productivity model were adjusted, and the simulation ability of the CMIP5 coupled models was evaluated. On this basis, we analysed the spatial and temporal variations of land cover types and landscape transformation processes in the Zhalong Nature Reserve over the past 44 years. We also evaluated the influence of climate change on the NPP of the vegetation, microbial heterotrophic respiration (Rh), and net ecosystem productivity (NEP) of the Zhalong Wetland and predicted the carbon sequestration potential of the Zhalong Wetland from 2019-2029 under the representative concentration pathways (RCP) 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios. Our results indicate the following: (1) Herbaceous bog was the primary land cover type of the Zhalong Nature Reserve, occupying an average area of 1168.02 ± 224.05 km 2, equivalent to 51.84% of the total reserve area. (2) Since 1975, the Zhalong Nature Reserve has undergone a dry-wet-dry transformation process. Excluding several wet periods during the mid-1980s to early 1990s, the reserve has remained a dry habitat, with particularly severe conditions from 2000 onwards. (3) The 1975-2018 mean NPP, Rh, and NEP values of the Zhalong Wetland were 500.21±52.76, 337.59±10.80, and 162.62±45.56 gC·m-2·a-1, respectively, and an evaluation of the carbon balance indicated that the reserve served as a carbon sink. (4) From 1975-2018, NPP showed a significant linear increase, Rh showed a highly significant linear increase, while the increase in the carbon absorption rate was smaller than the increase in the carbon release rate. (5) Variations in NPP and NEP were precipitation-driven, with the correlations of NPP and NEP with annual precipitation and summer precipitation being highly significantly positive (P < 0.001); variations in Rh were temperature-driven, with the correlations of Rh with the average annual, summer, and autumn temperatures being highly significantly positive (P < 0.001). The interaction of precipitation and temperature enhances the impact on NPP, Rh and NEP. (6) Under the RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios, the predicted carbon sequestration by the Zhalong Wetland from 2019-2029 was 2.421 (± 0.225) × 1011 gC·a-1 and 2.407 (± 0.382) × 1011 gC·a-1, respectively, which were both lower than the mean carbon sequestration during the last 44 years (2.467 (± 0.950) × 1011 gC·a-1). Future climate change may negatively contribute to the carbon sequestration potential of the Zhalong Wetland. The results of the present study are significant for enhancing the abilities of integrated eco-meteorological monitoring, evaluation, and early warning systems for wetlands.

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    20. Theorizing Belt and Road construction mode from institutional and cultural perspectives
    LIU Weidong, YAO Qiuhui
    地理学报(英文版)    2021, 31 (5): 623-640.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-021-1862-8
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    There is a gap between the great vision and high-quality targets of the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) and Western recognition of them, which challenges Chinese and Western scholars. This gap should be narrowed by conducting in-depth case studies and comparative studies at the project level. In recent years, the international academic community has paid increasing attention to Chinese outward foreign direct investment (FDI), but Belt and Road construction is much broader in scope, comprising not only FDI projects but also China-financed projects and emerging mixed projects. Our investigation, observation, and examination of the BRI projects find that compared to their Western counterparts, Chinese enterprises have less experience in doing business in other countries and often pay less attention to institutional and cultural differences between China and the host countries. Thus, revisiting the institutional and cultural turn in economic geography and employing its ideas to analyze the BRI projects and summarize their construction modes may contribute to the development of both economic geography and the BRI. This paper first briefly reviews the background and research trends of the institutional and cultural turn and then summarizes three major modes of Belt and Road construction, namely, EPC (Engineering Procurement Construction)-based projects, concession-based projects, and FDI; finally, it draws on the institutional and cultural turn to classify the BRI projects according to the two indicators of “Breadth and Depth of Territorial Embeddedness” and “Destructive Effect of a Project and/or Technology” into four types: transformative, supportive, ordinary projects and overseas industrial cooperation parks. Different institutional and cultural sensitivity can be observed for each type of project. The preliminary theorization proposed in this paper may offer a potential framework for further research on the BRI.

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    21. Integrating the ecosystem service in sustainable plateau spatial planning: A case study of the Yarlung Zangbo River Basin
    CHE Lei, ZHOU Liang, XU Jiangang
    地理学报(英文版)    2021, 31 (2): 281-297.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-021-1847-7
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    The Yarlung Zangbo River Basin (YZRB) is a key ecological protection area on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP). Determination of the ecosystem service values (ESVs) can help recognize the benefits of sustainable management. It is gradually becoming the main path that constructs plateau spatial planning of integrating ecological protection, and achieves global sustainable development goals (SDGs) in China. In this paper, the spatio-temporal dynamic evolutions of the ESVs were estimated on the multiple scales of “basin, subbasin and watershed” from 1980 to 2015. The main factors influencing ESVs were explored in terms of physical geography, human activities, and climate change. It had been proposed that sustainable spatial planning including ecological protection, basin management, and regional development was urgent to set up. Our results show that the increase in wetland and forest and results in an increase of 9.4% in the ESVs. Attention should be paid to the reduction of water and grassland. Water conservation (WC), waste treatment (WT), and soil formation and conservation (SFC) are the most important ecosystem services in the YZRB. At present, the primary problem is to solve the ESVs decreasing caused by glacier melting, grassland degradation, and desertification in the upper reaches region. The middle reaches should raise the level of supply services. Regulation services should be increased in the lower reaches region on the premise of protecting vegetation. The ESVs in adjacent watersheds are interrelated and the phenomenon of “high agglomeration and low agglomeration” is obvious, existing hot-spots and cold-spots of ESVs. Additionally, when the altitude is 4500-5500 m, the temperature is 3-8°C, and the annual precipitation is 350-650 mm, ESVs could reach its maximum. A framework of sustainable plateau spatial planning could provide references to delimit the ecological protection red line, key ecological function zone, and natural resource asset accounting on the QTP.

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    22. Interaction between urbanization and eco-environment in the Tibetan Plateau
    FENG Yuxue, LI Guangdong
    地理学报(英文版)    2021, 31 (2): 298-324.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-021-1838-8
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    A scientific evaluation of the broad reciprocal influences between urbanization and the eco-environment in the Tibetan Plateau region is of great significance for increasing the speed and quality of urbanization as well as restoring and improving the eco-environment. Based on a thorough look at the progress made by research on interactions between urbanization and the eco-environment in the Tibetan Plateau region, this article attempts to construct a complete analytical model of the reciprocal influences that can achieve the whole process of analyzing evaluation indexes, quantifying coupling coordination, identifying coupling types, exploring decoupling paths, and predicting future trends. Using multi-scale analysis of the Tibetan Plateau and its provinces and prefecture-level units as a means of comparison, we attempt to clarify differences at different scales, identify problem areas and propose targeted improvement measures. The result shows that the urbanization evaluation indexes for the Tibetan Plateau at different scales rise in stages and that the urbanization index for Qinghai is higher than for Tibet; the changes in the eco-environment index of the two regions are also different, with a downward trend in Qinghai and a trend toward stability in Tibet, and with stratification in the eco-environment indexes of prefecture-level units; the degree of coupling coordination between urbanization and the eco-environment at different scales in the Tibetan Plateau region is increasing overall, with the type of coordination changing from uncoordinated deterioration to borderline uncoordinated deterioration, and ultimately changing into scarcely coordinated development, which basically puts the region into the logging urbanization category; and the urbanization and eco-environment indexes display a dynamic trend of alternating between strong decoupling and weak decoupling, indicating that there is a negative reciprocal influence between urbanization and eco-environment at different scales and that the phenomenon of passive urbanization is prominent. We predict that in the next 10 years, the system coupling coordination of prefecture-level units in the Tibetan Plateau region will steadily increase, but there will be significant discrepancies in the growth rates of different regions.

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    23. Spatial pattern of location advantages of ports along the Maritime Silk Road
    MOU Naixia, WANG Chunying, CHEN Jinhai, YANG Tengfei, ZHANG Lingxian, LIAO Mengdi
    地理学报(英文版)    2021, 31 (1): 149-176.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-021-1837-9
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    Location advantages of ports refer to the current developments of ports based on their conditions, such as geographic location, traffic accessibility and hinterland economy, etc., and the spatial pattern of ports’ location advantages reflects the spatial distributions, the regularities and the correlations among their conditions for development. A good understanding of the spatial patterns of ports’ location advantages can help to better identify the relative advantages of ports, position ports’ functions and make strategic plans for development. This paper selected 1259 ports from 63 countries along the Maritime Silk Road as research objects and builds an accessing model to analyze their location advantages on the bases of six factors: the influence of strategic shipping pivot, the competitiveness of port location potential, port network status, the influence of city, the influence of traffic trunk, and road network density in hinterland. The study has the following three findings. Firstly, the location advantages of ports show a “high-low-high” distribution pattern from the west to the east, displaying an obvious “core-periphery” regionalized distribution. Secondly, most ports have high location advantages, mainly located in Strait of Malacca, the United Arab Emirates, northern Mediterranean coastal region and China-Japan region, the top 10 ports are mainly located in Singapore, China, Malaysia and Japan, indicating that the shipping industry in Asia-Pacific region has stepped to the far front of the global competition; slow economic growths, wars, far away from the Belt and Road countries or bad climate have low location advantages, mainly located in African coastal areas, Oceania, Northeast Europe and Russia. Thirdly, compared with the landward location advantages, the seaward location advantages have a higher influence, and different indicators of location advantages have different influences on the evaluation results, the competitiveness of port location potential being the core indicator.

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    24. Spatiotemporal patterns of the daily relative risk of COVID-19 in China
    CHENG Changxiu, JIANG Yifan, SONG Changqing, SHEN Shi, WU Yunfeng, ZHANG Tianyuan
    地理学报(英文版)    2021, 31 (7): 1039-1058.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-021-1884-2
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    The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to threaten lives and the economy around the world. Estimating the risk of COVID-19 can help in predicting spreading trends, identifying risk areas, and making public health decisions. In this study, we proposed a comparative risk assessment method to estimate comprehensive and dynamic COVID-19 risks by considering the pandemic severity and the healthcare system pressure and then employing the z-order curve and fractal theory. We took the COVID-19 cases from January 19-March 10, 2020 in China as our research object. The results and analysis revealed that (1) the proposed method demonstrated its feasibility to assess and illustrate pandemic risk; (2) the temporal patterns of the daily relative risk indices of 31 provinces were clustered into four groups (high-value, fluctuating-increase, inverted U-shaped, and low-stable); (3) the spatial distribution of the relative pandemic risk indicated a significant circular pattern centered on Hubei Province; and (4) healthcare system capacity is the key to reducing relative pandemic risk, and cases imported from abroad should be given more attention. The methods and results of this study will provide a methodological basis and practical guidance for regional pandemic risk assessment and public health decision-making.

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    25. The spatio-temporal heterogeneity of county-level economic development and primary drivers across the Loess Plateau, China
    LIU Shijun, XUE Liang
    地理学报(英文版)    2021, 31 (3): 423-436.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-021-1851-y
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    Unbalanced economic growth is a ubiquitous phenomenon while investigating the regional development at a large spatial scale. Therefore, it is of great significance to analyze the spatio-temporal pattern of regional economic growth and the drivers to understand and facilitate the economic development of low development areas. Taking a county as a fundamental study unit, we used the county-level per capita GDP data on the Loess Plateau from 2005 to 2017, and geographic variables such as slope, elevation, and population density to analyze the spatio-temporal differences and the driving factors of the county-level economic development in the Loess Plateau by employing both conventional and advanced quantitative methods including Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis (ESDA) and the geographic detector model. Our results suggested that: (1) The selected indicators, including absolute difference, the fluctuation of relative difference and total difference of economic development on the Loess Plateau, all show steady increasing trends, respectively. (2) There are 64.5% of the counties with economic development being below the average level of the whole Loss Plateau region. The relatively high developed counties are distributed in the “A”-shaped regions in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, Shaanxi, and Henan provinces, however, the low development counties are mainly located in the “V”-shaped regions in Gansu and Shanxi provinces. (3) GDP, investment in fixed assets and urbanization rate are the major driving factors influencing the regional economic development, and the combined effects are far greater than that of any individual factor.

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    26. Paleoclimatic proxies from global closed basins and the possible beginning of Anthropocene
    LI Yu, HAN Qin, HAO Lu, ZHANG Xinzhong, CHEN Dawei, ZHANG Yuxin, XU Lingmei, YE Wangting, PENG Simin, LI Yichan, FENG Zhuowen, LIU Hebin
    地理学报(英文版)    2021, 31 (6): 765-784.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-021-1870-8
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    Global closed basins, occupying almost one fifth of the world’s land area, spatially coincide with arid and semiarid areas. Paleoclimatic proxies can indicate basin-wide environmental change and human activity. However, previous studies have not approached the use of proxies in the same way to reconstruct natural and anthropogenic processes at regional and global scales. Here we present a regional study to investigate the basic processes of paleoclimatic proxies, from a typical closed-basin system in arid China. We use multiple paleoclimatic proxies of surface samples and sediments, as well as groundwater and sediment ages to study environmental change and human activity. We then establish a dataset for paleoclimatic proxies from global closed basins and do a numerical analysis on it. Regional studies verify that human activity greatly impacts paleoclimatic proxies, especially with regard to surface samples, as well as groundwater age, but Holocene sediments are less affected. Results from global studies indicate that the major changing trend of the wet/dry status of closed basins is associated with the movement of the westerly jet streams controlled by long-term changes in winter insolation. There is an abrupt change between 1800 AD and 1900 AD, according to a numerical synthesis of paleoclimatic proxies from global closed basins, which can be linked to human impact. We suggest this time period can be considered as a start point for the Anthropocene based on the sedimentary evidence of closed basins, globally.

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    27. Multidimensional measurement of poverty and its spatio-temporal dynamics in China from the perspective of development geography
    DONG Yin, JIN Gui, DENG Xiangzheng, WU Feng
    地理学报(英文版)    2021, 31 (1): 130-148.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-021-1836-x
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    Exploring the spatio-temporal dynamics of poverty is important for research on sustainable poverty reduction in China. Based on the perspective of development geography, this paper proposes a panel vector autoregressive (PVAR) model that combines the human development approach with the global indicator framework for Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) to identify the poverty-causing and the poverty-reducing factors in China. The aim is to measure the multidimensional poverty index (MPI) of China’s provinces from 2007 to 2017, and use the exploratory spatio-temporal data analysis (ESTDA) method to reveal the characteristics of the spatio-temporal dynamics of multidimensional poverty. The results show the following: (1) The poverty-causing factors in China include the high social gross dependency ratio and crop-to-disaster ratio, and the poverty-reducing factors include the high per capita GDP, per capita social security expenditure, per capita public health expenditure, number of hospitals per 10,000 people, rate of participation in the new rural cooperative medical scheme, vegetation coverage, per capita education expenditure, number of universities, per capita research and development (R&D) expenditure, and funding per capita for cultural undertakings. (2) From 2007 to 2017, provincial income poverty (IP), health poverty (HP), cultural poverty (CP), and multidimensional poverty have been significantly reduced in China, and the overall national poverty has dropped by 5.67% annually. there is a differentiation in poverty along different dimensions in certain provinces. (3) During the study period, the local spatial pattern of multidimensional poverty between provinces showed strong spatial dynamics, and a trend of increase from the eastern to the central and western regions was noted. The MPI among provinces exhibited a strong spatial dependence over time to form a pattern of decrease from northwestern and northeastern China to the surrounding areas. (4) The spatio-temporal networks of multidimensional poverty in adjacent provinces were mainly negatively correlated, with only Shaanxi and Henan, Shaanxi and Ningxia, Qinghai and Gansu, Hubei and Anhui, Sichuan and Guizhou, and Hainan and Guangdong forming spatially strong cooperative poverty reduction relationships. These results have important reference value for the implementation of China’s poverty alleviation strategy.

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    28. Variegated transnational partnerships: Multi-scalar actor networks in China’s overseas industrial parks
    SONG Tao, SUN Man, LIANG Yutian, Soavapa NGAMPRAMUAN, WUZHATI Yeerken, ZHOU Keyang
    地理学报(英文版)    2021, 31 (5): 664-680.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-021-1864-6
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    The development of overseas industrial parks is a key component of the Belt and Road Initiative and a practical way of promoting inclusive globalization by introducing new forms of cooperation between China and the host countries. In this paper, the Thai-Chinese Rayong Industrial Zone (TCRIZ), and the China-Indonesia Economic and Trade Cooperation Zone (KITIC) are discussed in the context of the evolving development strategies and trajectories through three interrelated conceptual lenses - policy mobility, actor networks, and partnerships. The actor-network theory provides a lens to analyze how policy mobility and partnerships develop for two industrial zone case studies. The development, which involves a multi-scalar process, is shaped by the interactions among the national states, the regional governments and corporations against a background of globalization. Three types of transnational actor partnership networks have been identified, namely, hierarchical partnership, spontaneous partnership, and hybrid partnership. A highlight of the study is the role that the partnerships play in the process of policy mobility when it comes to the overseas industrial zones. It is argued that the partnerships are the key to achieving technology transfer on a cross-national basis, and the effectiveness of the technology transfer is dependent on partner selection and the roles of the actors in policy mobility.

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    29. Mechanism of interaction between urbanization and resource environment in Central Asia
    ZHANG Xinhuan, XU Wenqiang, XIANG Xinyi, ZHANG Zhiping, CUI Mingjie
    地理学报(英文版)    2020, 30 (11): 1723-1738.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-020-1809-5
    摘要49)   HTML3)    PDF (1103KB)(99)   

    Central Asia features an arid and semi-arid climate, and the region is undergoing urbanization in the context of a fragile eco-environment. The influence of specific historical events in this region also persists on this ongoing urbanization. This study examines the mechanism of interaction between urbanization and the resource environment in Central Asia. The following results were obtained. (1) In different periods—Russian colonization, the era of the Soviet Union, and Central Asian countries as independent—the interactions between urbanization and the resource environment varied. (2) Variations in land use within 50 km of major cities of the region reflect both the trend of urbanization and that of variations in the eco-environment. In Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, where urbanization has been slow, the supportive effect of the eco-environment for urbanization was clear. In Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan, where freshwater resources are scarce, a close relationship was noted between urbanization and variations in the eco-environment. In Kazakhstan, fast urbanization has had a significant impact on the availability of water, grassland, and woodland in the relevant areas. (3) The efficiency of utilization of land and water resources is generally low. The compactness of the urban land of 47 major cities in Central Asia decreased from 0.44 in 1990 to 0.31 in 2015. Of them, 31 cities decreased in compactness, including all national capitals. Regardless of the level of urbanization, water consumption was high across the region. (4) The mechanisms of interaction between urbanization and the resource environment in Central Asia in the three stages were formulated to illustrate their specific temporal conductivity and spatial relevance.

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    30. Central Asian geo-relation networks: Evolution and driving forces
    WANG Yun, LIU Yi
    地理学报(英文版)    2020, 30 (11): 1739-1760.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-020-1810-z
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    Due to the unique geographical location and historical background of Central Asia, the region’s geo-relation networks are complex and changeable. A social network analysis was conducted in this study to visualize the 20-year evolutionary process of bilateral (diplomatic relations) and multilateral (intergovernmental organization (IGO) connections) networks in Central Asia since 1993. Additionally, a further empirical study determined the significant driving forces of the construction of the geo-relation networks. The results showed that since the independence of the five Central Asian countries, their degree centrality (C’D(ni)) values have been increasing, with the index values being the highest for Kazakhstan, followed by Uzbekistan, while the other three countries had relatively low values. The Central Asian countries maintain bilateral relations with post-Soviet nations, neighboring countries, and Western powers, and have gradually deepened and expanded their diplomatic networks. From each state’s perspective, the geostrategic approaches adopted by the five countries were different. Kazakhstan has focused on expanding its bilateral and multilateral relations, while the other Central Asian countries have attempted to increase their influence by joining influential IGOs. Various driving forces, including economic, political, cultural, and geographical factors, have played significant roles in the construction of geo-relation networks in Central Asia. The importance of these factors has changed over time, from political and cultural factors (before 1995) to relations with neighboring countries (1996-2001), and finally to economic power and cultural and religious proximity (after 2002).

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