摘要点击排行

    一年内发表文章 |  两年内 |  三年内 |  全部

    当前位置: 全部
    Please wait a minute...
    选择: 显示/隐藏图片
    1. Spatio-temporal variation in China’s climatic seasons from 1951 to 2017
    MA Bin, ZHANG Bo, JIA Lige
    地理学报(英文版)    2020, 30 (9): 1387-1400.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-020-1788-6
    摘要203)   HTML4)    PDF (2155KB)(173)   

    In this paper, meteorological industry standard, daily mean temperature, and an improved multiple regression model are used to calculate China’s climatic seasons, not only to help understand their spatio-temporal distribution, but also to provide a reference for China’s climatic regionalization and crop production. It is found that the improved multiple regression model can accurately show the spatial distribution of climatic seasons. The main results are as follows. There are four climatic seasonal regions in China, namely, the perennial-winter, no-winter, no-summer and discernible regions, and their ranges basically remained stable from 1951 to 2017. The cumulative anomaly curve of the four climatic seasonal regions clarifies that the trend of China’s climatic seasonal regions turned in 1994, after which the area of the perennial-winter and no-summer regions narrowed and the no-winter and discernible regions expanded. The number of sites with significantly reduced winter duration is the largest, followed by the number of sites with increased summer duration, and the number of sites with large changes in spring and autumn is the least. Spring advances and autumn is postponed due to the shortened winter and lengthened summer durations. Sites with significant change in seasonal duration are mainly distributed in Northwest China, the Sichuan Basin, the Huanghe-Huaihe-Haihe (Huang-Huai-Hai) Plain, the Northeast China Plain, and the Southeast Coast.

    图表 | 参考文献 | 相关文章 | 多维度评价
    2. Impact of cultivated land fragmentation on spatial heterogeneity of agricultural agglomeration in China
    XU Weiyi, JIN Xiaobin, LIU Jing, ZHOU Yinkang
    地理学报(英文版)    2020, 30 (10): 1571-1589.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-020-1800-1
    摘要179)   HTML39)   

    Systematically revealing the impact of cultivated land fragmentation (CLF) on the geographical agglomeration pattern of agricultural specialization (AS) has positive significance for national agricultural production management. Based on the data of the second national land survey and agricultural production, this study has explored the impact of CLF on spatial heterogeneity of agricultural agglomeration in China by comprehensively using the Theil index, ordinary least square model and geographically weighted regression. Results showed that: (1) the regional differentiation of the CLF in China is obvious, and the cultivated land fragmentation index is generally characterized by increasing pattern from northwest to southeast. (2) Spatially, the development level of AS in China has formed three high-value clusters in the Northeast China Plain, the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, and the middle of the Middle-lower Yangtze Plain; and the low-value contiguous areas centered on the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau and the Sichuan Basin and surrounding regions, with significant spatial differences. The contribution of grain crops, economic crops, and vegetables and melon to the level of AS was 74.63%, 9.09%, and 16.28%, respectively, and the pattern of agricultural geographical aggregation dominated by grain crops has primarily taken in shape. (3) CLF is significantly negatively correlated with AS, and every 1% increase in the degree of CLF will result in a decrease of about 0.2% in AS. However, the impact of CLF on the geographic agglomeration of different crop categories or groups varies significantly. Among them, CLF has a prominent impact on the specialization level of grain crops and vegetables and melon. Each 1% increase in the CLF will reduce the specialization level of grain crops by 0.38%, and increase the level of vegetables and melon by about 0.22%. (4) According to the landscape characteristics of cultivated land, the degree of spatial division and agglomeration of cultivated land patches have a significant impact on the formation of geographical agglomeration pattern of AS, and the intensity and direction of influence show significant regional differentiation, while the patch size has no significant impact.

    图表 | 参考文献 | 相关文章 | 多维度评价
    3. A study of the construction times of the ancient cities in Ganjia Basin, Gansu Province, China
    XIA Huan, ZHANG Dongju, WANG Qiang, WU Duo, DUAN Yanwu, CHEN Fahu
    地理学报(英文版)    2020, 30 (9): 1467-1480.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-020-1793-9
    摘要166)   HTML0)    PDF (4219KB)(47)   

    The Ganjia Basin in Xiahe County, Gansu Province, China, is located on the northeastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau. The area lies in the transitional zone between the Plateau ethnic groups dominated by ancestral Tibetans, and the Central Plains dynasties dominated by ancestral Han in history. The Ganjia Basin is therefore well suited to studying the history of the intermixing of the Han and Tibetan peoples. In this study, we collected samples of organic materials from two ancient cities, Bajiaocheng (BJC) and Sirougucheng (SRGC), in the Ganjia Basin, which were used for radiocarbon dating. Our aims were to determine the construction times and function of the cities, based on the radiocarbon ages, Bayesian age modeling, and the analysis of relevant historical records. The results are used to discuss the role of the Ganjia Basin in the conflicts between and the integration of the two ethnic groups during the historical period. We conclude that BJC was established during 663-732 CE (Common Era); its early occupation history can be divided into an initial establishment phase (670-780 CE) and a phase of regeneration (880-1030 CE). SRGC was probably built at the time of the transition between the Song and Yuan dynasties (~1271 CE). Combining the dating results with an analysis of the architectural styles and historical records, we conclude that BJC was originally built by the Tubo Kingdom as a military stronghold, and its major functions were military, economic and religious, and to support the major eastward expansion of the Tubo. SRGC was most likely a temple-focused city intended to promote Tibetan Buddhism which was a major political and religious leadership for the Tibetans at that time, reflecting changes in the status of different religions in the Ganjia Basin. In addition, the intermixing and blending of the Han and Tibetan groups, reflected by the human activities in the Ganjia Basin, was an important demographic and cultural foundation for the formation of the culturally-diverse but spiritually-united modern Chinese people.

    图表 | 参考文献 | 相关文章 | 多维度评价
    4. Exploring the spatio-temporal impacts of farmland reforestation on ecological connectivity using circuit theory: A case study in the agro-pastoral ecotone of North China
    LIU Xiaojing, LIU Dianfeng, ZHAO Hongzhuo, HE Jianhua, LIU Yaolin
    地理学报(英文版)    2020, 30 (9): 1419-1435.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-020-1790-z
    摘要144)   HTML4)    PDF (2801KB)(109)   

    Farmland reforestation can contribute substantially to ecological restoration. Previous studies have extensively examined the ecological effects of farmland reforestation, but few of them have investigated the spatiotemporal responses of broad-scale landscape connectivity to reforestation. By using a typical agro-pastoral ecotone in northern China as a case study, we addressed this issue based on an innovative integration of circuit theory approach and counterfactual analysis. The forest connectivity through multiple dispersal pathways was measured using the circuit theory approach, and its spatiotemporal changes after reforestation were evaluated by counterfactual analysis. The results showed that from 2000-2015, the reforested farmland occupied 2095 km2, and 12.5% was on steeply sloped land. Farmland reforestation caused a greater increase in ecological connectivity by adding new ecological corridors and stepping stones in scattered forest areas rather than in areas with dense forest distributions. The newly added corridors and stepping stones were fragmented, short and narrow and thus deserve powerful protection. Future reforestation to improve landscape connectivity should highlight pinch point protection and obstacle removal as well as the tradeoff between farmland loss and farmer survival. Our findings are expected to inform the optimization of the Grain for Green policy from the perspective of broad-scale biodiversity conservation.

    图表 | 参考文献 | 相关文章 | 多维度评价
    5. Spatial-temporal characteristics and decoupling effects of China’s carbon footprint based on multi-source data
    ZHANG Yongnian, PAN Jinghu, ZHANG Yongjiao, XU Jing
    地理学报(英文版)    2021, 31 (3): 327-349.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-021-1839-7
    摘要143)   HTML11)    PDF (7393KB)(44)   

    In 2007, China surpassed the USA to become the largest carbon emitter in the world. China has promised a 60%-65% reduction in carbon emissions per unit GDP by 2030, compared to the baseline of 2005. Therefore, it is important to obtain accurate dynamic information on the spatial and temporal patterns of carbon emissions and carbon footprints to support formulating effective national carbon emission reduction policies. This study attempts to build a carbon emission panel data model that simulates carbon emissions in China from 2000-2013 using nighttime lighting data and carbon emission statistics data. By applying the Exploratory Spatial-Temporal Data Analysis (ESTDA) framework, this study conducted an analysis on the spatial patterns and dynamic spatial-temporal interactions of carbon footprints from 2001-2013. The improved Tapio decoupling model was adopted to investigate the levels of coupling or decoupling between the carbon emission load and economic growth in 336 prefecture-level units. The results show that, firstly, high accuracy was achieved by the model in simulating carbon emissions. Secondly, the total carbon footprints and carbon deficits across China increased with average annual growth rates of 4.82% and 5.72%, respectively. The overall carbon footprints and carbon deficits were larger in the North than that in the South. There were extremely significant spatial autocorrelation features in the carbon footprints of prefecture-level units. Thirdly, the relative lengths of the Local Indicators of Spatial Association (LISA) time paths were longer in the North than that in the South, and they increased from the coastal to the central and western regions. Lastly, the overall decoupling index was mainly a weak decoupling type, but the number of cities with this weak decoupling continued to decrease. The unsustainable development trend of China’s economic growth and carbon emission load will continue for some time.

    图表 | 参考文献 | 相关文章 | 多维度评价
    6. Agent-based model of land system: Theory, application and modelling framework
    DAI Erfu, MA Liang, YANG Weishi, WANG Yahui, YIN Le, TONG Miao
    地理学报(英文版)    2020, 30 (10): 1555-1570.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-020-1799-3
    摘要140)   HTML25)    PDF (919KB)(283)   

    Land change science has become an interdisciplinary research direction for understanding human-natural coupling systems. As a process-oriented modelling approach, agent based model (ABM) plays an important role in revealing the driving forces of land change and understanding the process of land change. This paper starts from three aspects: The theory, application and modeling framework of ABM. First, we summarize the theoretical basis of ABM and introduce some related concepts. Then we expound the application and development of ABM in both urban land systems and agricultural land systems, and further introduce the case study of a model on Grain for Green Program in Hengduan Mountainous region, China. On the basis of combing the ABM modeling protocol, we propose the land system ABM modeling framework and process from the perspective of agents. In terms of urban land use, ABM research initially focused on the study of urban expansion based on landscape, then expanded to issues like urban residential separation, planning and zoning, ecological functions, etc. In terms of agricultural land use, ABM application presents more diverse and individualized features. Research topics include farmers’ behavior, farmers’ decision-making, planting systems, agricultural policy, etc. Compared to traditional models, ABM is more complex and difficult to generalize beyond specific context since it relies on local knowledge and data. However, due to its unique bottom-up model structure, ABM has an indispensable role in exploring the driving forces of land change and also the impact of human behavior on the environment.

    图表 | 参考文献 | 相关文章 | 多维度评价
    7. Spatial patterns of Pinus tabulaeformis and Pinus massoniana forests in Qinling-Daba Mountains and the boundary of subtropical and warm temperate zones
    YAO Yonghui, HU Yufan, KOU Zhixiang, ZHANG Baiping
    地理学报(英文版)    2020, 30 (9): 1523-1533.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-020-1797-5
    摘要129)   HTML1)    PDF (2222KB)(256)   

    The Qinling Mountains is not only the geographical boundary between North and South China, but also the boundary between subtropical and warm temperate zones. It plays an important role in the geo-ecological pattern of China. However, there is controversy about the specific location of this geographical boundary in academic community due to the complexity, transition and heterogeneity of the transitional zone, as well as the differences in the delimitation indicators and research purposes. To further reveal the characteristics of the North-South transitional zone and clarify the specific location of the geo-ecological boundary between North and South China, combined with SRTM topographic data, temperature and precipitation data, Pinus massoniana forest and Pinus tabulaeformis forest, which represent subtropical coniferous forest in South China and temperate coniferous forest in North China respectively, were chosen to analyze their spatial distributions in the Qinling-Daba Mountains and the climatic conditions at their boundary with the climatic indexes of annual precipitation, the coldest month (January) average temperature, the warmest month (July) average temperature and the annual average temperature. The results show that: (1) Pinus massoniana and Pinus tabulaeformis forests and the climate indicators of their boundary can be used as one of the vegetation-climate indexes for the delimitation of subtropical and warm temperate zones. The boundary between the subtropical coniferous forest (Pinus massoniana forest) and temperate coniferous forest (Pinus tabulaeformis forest) is located along the south slope of Funiu Mountain to the north edge of Hanzhong Basin (the south slope of Qinling Mountains) at an altitude of 1000-1200 m, where the climatic indictors are stable: the annual precipitation is about 750-1000 mm, the annual average temperature is about 12-14℃, the coldest monthly average temperature is 0-4℃, and the warmest monthly average temperature is about 22-26℃. (2) It can be more scientifically to delimitate the boundary of subtropical and warm temperate zones in China by comprehensively considering the vegetation-climate indicators. Additionally, the boundary between subtropical and warm temperate zones in Qinling-Daba Mountains should be a transitional zone consisting of the boundaries of coniferous forests, broad-leaved forests and shrubs between subtropical and warm temperate zones. The results provide a scientific basis for the selection of delimitation index of subtropical and warm temperate zones.

    图表 | 参考文献 | 相关文章 | 多维度评价
    8. Differential changes in precipitation and runoff discharge during 1958-2017 in the headwater region of Yellow River of China
    HOU Bingfei, JIANG Chao, SUN Osbert Jianxin
    地理学报(英文版)    2020, 30 (9): 1401-1418.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-020-1789-5
    摘要121)   HTML1)    PDF (1635KB)(59)   

    Maintenance of steady streamflow is a critical attribute of the continental river systems for safeguarding downstream ecosystems and agricultural production. Global climate change imposes a potential risk to water supply from the headwater by changing the magnitude and frequency of precipitation and evapotranspiration in the region. To determine if and to what extent the recent climate changes affected streamflow in major river systems, we examined the pattern of temporal variations in precipitation, temperature, evapotranspiration and changes in runoff discharge during 1958-2017 in the headwater region of the Yellow River in northeastern Tibetan Plateau. We identified 1989 as the turning point for a statistically significant 14% reduction in streamflow discharge (P < 0.05) for the period 1989-2017 compared with 1958-1988, approximately coinciding with changes in the monthly distribution but not the interannual variations of precipitation, and detected a mismatch between precipitation and runoff after 2000. Both annual precipitation and runoff discharge displayed four- and eight-year cyclic patterns of changes for the period 1958-1988, and a six-year cyclic pattern of changes for the period 1989-2017, with two intensified two-year cyclic patterns in the changes of precipitation and a three-year cyclic pattern in the change of runoff further detected for the later period. Our results indicate that the temporal changes in runoff are not strictly consistent with the temporal variations of precipitation in the headwater region of Yellow River during the period 1958-2017. In particular, a full recovery in annual precipitation was not reflected in a full recovery in runoff toward the end of the study period. While a review of literature yielded no apparent evidence of raised evapotranspiration in the region due to recent warming, we draw attention to increased local retention of rainwater as a possible explanation of differential changes in precipitation and runoff.

    图表 | 参考文献 | 相关文章 | 多维度评价
    9. Iterative construction of low-altitude UAV air route network in urban areas: Case planning and assessment
    XU Chenchen, LIAO Xiaohan, YE Huping, YUE Huanyin
    地理学报(英文版)    2020, 30 (9): 1534-1552.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-020-1798-4
    摘要116)   HTML0)    PDF (7777KB)(139)   

    With the rapid increase of Unmanned Aircraft Vehicle (UAV) numbers, the contradiction between extensive flight demands and limited low-altitude airspace resources has become increasingly prominent. To ensure the safety and efficiency of low-altitude UAV operations, the low-altitude UAV public air route creatively proposed by the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) and supported by the Civil Aviation Administration of China (CAAC) has been gradually recognized. However, present planning research on UAV low-altitude air route is not enough to explore how to use the ground transportation infrastructure, how to closely combine the surface pattern characteristics, and how to form the mechanism of “network”. Based on the solution proposed in the early stage and related researches, this paper further deepens the exploration of the low-altitude public air route network and the implementation of key technologies and steps with an actual case study in Tianjin, China. Firstly, a path-planning environment consisting of favorable spaces, obstacle spaces, and mobile communication spaces for UAV flights was pre-constructed. Subsequently, air routes were planned by using the conflict detection and path re-planning algorithm. Our study also assessed the network by computing the population exposure risk index (PERI) and found that the index value was greatly reduced after the construction of the network, indicating that the network can effectively reduce the operational risk. In this study, a low-altitude UAV air route network in an actual region was constructed using multidisciplinary approaches such as remote sensing, geographic information, aviation, and transportation; it indirectly verified the rationality of the outcomes. This can provide practical solutions to low-altitude traffic problems in urban areas.

    图表 | 参考文献 | 相关文章 | 多维度评价
    10. Magnetic characteristics of lake sediments in Qiangyong Co Lake, southern Tibetan Plateau and their application to the evaluation of mercury deposition
    GAO Xing, KANG Shichang, LIU Qingsong, CHEN Pengfei, DUAN Zongqi
    地理学报(英文版)    2020, 30 (9): 1481-1494.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-020-1794-8
    摘要104)   HTML0)    PDF (2452KB)(41)   

    Heavy metals, one of the most toxic classes of pollutants, are resistant to degradation and harmful to the biological environment. The lakes that have developed on the Tibetan Plateau are ideal regions to investigate historic heavy metal pollution, particularly through the use of the reliable210Pb dating technique. Environmental magnetism has been successfully applied to estimate heavy metal pollution in different environmental systems due to its characteristics of simple processing steps, good sensitivity, and non-destructibility. However, it has not yet been applied to assess heavy metal pollution in lake sediments on the Tibetan Plateau. A series of environmental magnetic investigations of Qiangyong Co Lake sediments (southern Tibetan Plateau) was therefore conducted to explore the relationship between magnetic minerals and mercury (Hg) concentrations. The results showed that the magnetic mineral species in lake sediments remained stable, with similar levels of four different components from 1899 to 2011. However, the proportion of component 1 (C1, hematite) increased continuously with the corresponding decrease in the proportion of C2 (goethite), while the proportions of C3 and C4 (magnetite) did not change significantly. As a result, the bulk magnetic signals (e.g., SIRM and χlf) were unsuitable for the evaluation of the Hg concentration; however, the proportion of hematite had a strong positive correlation with the Hg concentration. It is possible that the Qiangyong Glacier (the main water supply for Qiangyong Co Lake) has experienced faster melting with global and local warming, and the Hg trapped in cryoconite and ice was released. Hematite, with a large specific surface area, has a strong capacity for absorbing Hg, and both materials are ultimately transported to Qiangyong Co Lake. The proportion of hematite in a sample is therefore a suitable semi-quantitative proxy that can be used to evaluate the Hg concentration in Qiangyong Co Lake sediments. This study confirmed that the variation of magnetic minerals can provide a new method to estimate the variation of Hg concentrations and to study the process of Hg deposition in lakes in the southern Tibetan Plateau on the basis of a detailed environmental magnetic analysis.

    图表 | 参考文献 | 相关文章 | 多维度评价
    11. Human’s digital footprints on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau: Variations during festivals and impacts on nature reserves
    DU Yunyan, TU Wenna, LIANG Fuyuan, YI Jiawei
    地理学报(英文版)    2021, 31 (2): 179-194.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-021-1841-0
    摘要104)   HTML6)    PDF (8739KB)(178)   

    Mobile internet and wireless communication technologies have produced unprecedented location-aware data. Such big geospatial data can be used as a proxy measure of the ‘digital footprints’ left by us on the planet and provide a valuable opportunity to understand the dynamic and short-term human disturbance on the nature at fine scales. This study investigated the spatiotemporal variations of human’s digital footprints on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau using smartphone-users-generated Tencent’s location request data. The results showed that human’s digital footprints cover less than 5% of Qinghai and Tibet, exhibiting either a U-shaped or an N-shaped temporal change pattern during the major festivals. Spatial changes of the digital footprints manifested a transition process from dispersion to concentration in Xining and Lhasa. Human disturbance assessment of seven large nature reserves on the plateau showed that the Qinghai Lake is the most disturbed one as shown by 14.6% of its area is stained with human digital footprints and the areal average of footprint intensity is 1.59, and the disturbance was significantly escalated during the National Day holiday. By contrast, the Qangtang and Hoh Xil are the least affected nature reserves with the two indices less than 1% and 0.1, respectively.

    图表 | 参考文献 | 相关文章 | 多维度评价
    12. Exploring the urban-rural development differences and influencing factors in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain of China
    CHENG Mingyang, LI Linna, ZHOU Yang
    地理学报(英文版)    2020, 30 (10): 1603-1616.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-020-1802-z
    摘要99)   HTML4)    PDF (1695KB)(109)   

    Uneven urban and rural development is one of the main reasons for the decline of the countryside. This imbalance could be measured by the urban-rural difference index (URDI). Existing studies on urban-rural differences have focused on single dimension between urban and rural areas, and lack a systematic multi-dimensional measurement. Based on the construction of an index system and model for measuring urban-rural differences, this study took the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain (HHHP) as the study area, explores the spatial pattern of urban-rural differences in the area, and used geographical weighted regression models to identify the factors affecting urban-rural development differences. Results show that the mean value of URDI in the HHHP was 0.295, and the URDI in its western region was higher than that in the east. The average URDI was relatively high in the western counties along the Beijing-Guangzhou Railway. The low level of urban-rural “population-land-industry” development in the HHHP is an important reason for the small differences between urban and rural areas. Improvements in road transportation infrastructure have led to an increase in the urban-rural development gap. However, the driving force of the road network on urban development is greater than that on rural areas. The role of county economic agglomeration is gaining strength. In the process of rapid economic development, more attention should be paid to the development of the rural economy and the overall revitalization of the countryside. The equivalent allocation of social service facilities is an effective way to solve the problem of urban-rural imbalance. Further analysis demonstrated that terrain factors have relatively little influence on the URDI. This study provides a new perspective and measurement method for understanding the integration of urban and rural development, and provides a useful reference for guiding the urban-rural integration development and the rural revitalization.

    图表 | 参考文献 | 相关文章 | 多维度评价
    13. Patterns and trends in grain self-sufficiency on the Tibetan Plateau during 1985-2016
    SHI Wenjiao, LU Changhe, SHI Xiaoli, CUI Jiaying
    地理学报(英文版)    2020, 30 (10): 1590-1602.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-020-1801-0
    摘要98)   HTML11)    PDF (1164KB)(174)   

    Capacity for grain self-sufficiency on the Tibetan Plateau (TP) is an important basis for ensuring social stability and regional sustainability. Thus, based on county-level statistical data for population, grain production and consumption, we analyzed patterns and trends in grain supply and demand at regional, provincial, and county levels on the TP between 1985 and 2016. We applied two indices to evaluate capacity for grain self-sufficiency and found that the regional average self-sufficiency rate increased quickly by 1.97%/a since 1989, reaching 173.03% on the plateau over the period between 2010 and 2016. This indicates that grain supply in this region is able to fully meet demand. In addition, all provinces apart from Xinjiang exhibited similar increasing trends, attaining grain self-sufficiency during 2010-2016. Furthermore, 59% of counties attained grain self-sufficiency over this period, mainly distributed in southern Tibet, in the Sichuan-Tibet junction area, and in eastern Qinghai Province. A number of gaps in grain supply and demand occurred within the headwater regions of the Yangtze and Yellow rivers as well as on the Qiangtang Plateau. Grain self-sufficiency significantly increased over the study period in 36% of counties, mainly distributed in the agricultural areas of southeastern Tibet and in eastern Qinghai. Across the whole plateau, capacity for grain self-sufficiency substantially increased between 1985 and 2016, although serious spatial imbalances remain.

    图表 | 参考文献 | 相关文章 | 多维度评价
    14. Luminescence dating of reticulated red clay buried in Lanshanmiao Paleolithic site in Zhejiang Province, southern China
    LU Ying, SUN Xuefeng, XU Xinmin, LIU Yalin, YI Shuangwen
    地理学报(英文版)    2020, 30 (9): 1436-1450.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-020-1791-y
    摘要96)   HTML0)    PDF (10652KB)(47)   

    The Lanshanmiao (LSM) Palaeolithic site, which was excavated in the summer of 2017 by the Zhejiang Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology, is the only excavated palaeolithic site in central Zhejiang Province to date. Luminescence dating methods, including optical stimulated luminescence (OSL) and thermal transfer OSL (TT-OSL) for quartz and post-infrared (IR) stimulated luminescence (pIRIR290) for feldspar, were used to determine the age of the LSM site. The results showed that the LSM section developed before 145.5 ± 12.5 ka and ended after 17.1 ± 1.0 ka. The TT-OSL dating of samples NJU2576 and NJU2615 showed that palaeolithic artifact-bearing layer was between 150 and 100 ka in age. The age range of the palaeolithic layer mainly corresponded to the transition between Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 6 and MIS5. Our study showed that hominins prominently occupied the LSM site during the glacial and interglacial stages, when it exhibited a floodplain environment.

    图表 | 参考文献 | 相关文章 | 多维度评价
    15. Progress and prospects of applied research on physical geography and the living environment in China over the past 70 years (1949-2019)
    CHEN Fahu, WU Shaohong, CUI Peng, CAI Yunlong, ZHANG Yili, YIN Yunhe, LIU Guobin, OUYANG Zhu, MA Wei, YANG Linsheng, WU Duo, LEI Jiaqiang, ZHANG Guoyou, ZOU Xueyong, CHEN Xiaoqing, TAN Minghong, WANG Xunming, BAO Anming, CHENG Weixin, DANG Xiaohu, WEI Binggan, WANG Guoliang, WANG Wuyi, ZHANG Xingquan, LIU Xiaochen, LI Shengyu
    地理学报(英文版)    2021, 31 (1): 3-45.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-021-1831-2
    摘要95)   HTML12)    PDF (6049KB)(130)   

    Physical geography is a basic research subject of natural sciences. Its research object is the natural environment which is closely related to human living and development, and China’s natural environment is complex and diverse. According to national needs and regional development, physical geographers have achieved remarkable achievements in applied basis and applied research, which also has substantially contributed to the planning of national economic growth and social development, the protection of macro ecosystems and resources, and sustainable regional development. This study summarized the practice and application of physical geography in China over the past 70 years in the following fields: regional differences in natural environments and physical regionalization; land use and land cover changes; natural hazards and risk reduction; process and prevention of desertification; upgrading of medium- and low-yield fields in the Huang-Huai-Hai region; engineering construction in permafrost areas; geochemical element anomalies and the prevention and control of endemic diseases; positioning and observation of physical geographical elements; and identification of geospatial differentiation and geographical detectors. Furthermore, we have proposed the future direction of applied research in the field of physical geography.

    图表 | 参考文献 | 相关文章 | 多维度评价
    16. Evolution of Neolithic site distribution (9.0-4.0 ka BP) in Anhui, East China
    WU Li, SUN Xiaoling, SUN Wei, ZHU Cheng, ZHU Tongxin, LU Shuguang, ZHOU Hui, GUO Qingchun, GUAN Houchun, XIE Wei, KE Rui, LIN Guiping
    地理学报(英文版)    2020, 30 (9): 1451-1466.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-020-1792-x
    摘要94)   HTML1)    PDF (19983KB)(150)   

    Based on archaeological surveys of Neolithic cultural development and GIS spatial analysis, this study reproduced the main characteristics of temporal distribution and settlement selection of the sites from the Neolithic Age in Anhui and identified a relationship between environmental evolution and human activity. The results show that altitude, slope direction, and slope gradient were consistent among the settlements at different stages of the Neolithic Age in Anhui, and the sites were mostly distributed in hilly and plain areas on southeast- or south-facing slopes of low gradients close to rivers. We determined that early Neolithic Age (9.0-7.0 ka BP) sites were scattered in small numbers and likely had little cultural exchange with communities of other provinces. The environmental characteristics of various regions in Anhui indicated that the climate was warm and humid with extensive water distribution. The sites of the mid Neolithic Age (7.0-5.0 ka BP) increased rapidly with wide distribution. They were mainly distributed in the plain area north of the Huaihe River and the southwestern areas of Anhui. In the mid Neolithic Age, the warm and humid climate gradually dried, and our ancestors slowly developed cultural exchanges. The largest number of sites existed during the late Neolithic Age (5.0-4.0 ka BP), and were distributed throughout the province. During this period, the overall climate was relatively dry, but humans could still obtain water and other resources through migration. The relatively benign climate facilitated cultural interaction and exchange, which increased during this time, and the Wanjiang culture matured. We also determined that as early civilization evolved, cultures in different regions responded differently to environmental changes. In humid subtropical regions, especially in low-lying plains and areas beside lakes, rivers, and coastal areas, the relatively dry climate in the late period of the middle Holocene, prefaced by a period of high humidity, was conducive to the development of human culture. The evidence from the Neolithic settlements in Anhui therefore reflects this subtropical man-land relationship between cultural development and environmental conditions.

    图表 | 参考文献 | 相关文章 | 多维度评价
    17. GIS and DEM based analysis of incision and drainage reorganization of the Buyuan River basin in the upper Lancang-Mekong of China since the Late Pleistocene
    GU Zhenkui, FAN Hui, YANG Kun
    地理学报(英文版)    2020, 30 (9): 1495-1506.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-020-1795-7
    摘要94)   HTML1)    PDF (16611KB)(141)   

    River incision and drainage reorganization have an important impact on the site selection of many major projects including city, road and others, and are the key issues of Quaternary environmental changes. Studies of river incision and river-network adjustment have traditionally been based on extensive field evidence, such as sediment age and beheaded river system. The Buyuan River basin is a large sub-basin of the upper Lancang-Mekong, with high mountains and extremely active erosion. The latter affects the preservation of the Quaternary period sediments leading to difficulties in understanding the main evolution characteristics of the basin. This study investigates differences in the equilibrium state of the longitudinal profile, infers incision rates, and evaluates drainage divide migration timelines using the stream-power incision model, the latest morphological dating, and Chi-plots (χ-z) based on digital elevation models (DEMs) on the GIS software platform. The final results show that two significant erosion base-level decreases occurred in the Late Pleistocene at least. The incision rate of the mainstream might have been 0-2.99 mm/yr since 100 ka BP and 0-3.28 mm/yr since 46 ka BP. The Chi-values across the divides suggest that space limited (or constrained) river reorganization and that there is no severe reorganization in the basin; the imbalance of traceable erosion only exists in local areas. The main driving force for the geomorphologic evolution of the Buyuan River basin is likely climate fluctuations rather than strong tectonic uplift since the Late Pleistocene.

    图表 | 参考文献 | 相关文章 | 多维度评价
    18. The cooperative and conflictual interactions between the United States, Russia, and China: A quantitative analysis of event data
    YUAN Lihua, SONG Changqing, CHENG Changxiu, SHEN Shi, CHEN Xiaoqiang, WANG Yuanhui
    地理学报(英文版)    2020, 30 (10): 1702-1720.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-020-1808-6
    摘要94)   HTML2)    PDF (765KB)(81)   

    The United States, Russia and China are militarily and economically among the most powerful countries in the post-Cold War period, and the interactions between the three powers heavily influence the international system. However, different conclusions about this question are generally made by researchers through qualitative analysis, and it is necessary to objectively and quantitatively investigate their interactions. Monthly-aggregated event data from the Global Data on Events, Location and Tone (GDELT) to measure cooperative and conflictual interactions between the three powers, and the complementary cumulative distribution function (CCDF) and the vector autoregression (VAR) method are utilized to investigate their interactions in two periods: January, 1991 to September, 2001, and October, 2001 to December, 2016. The results of frequencies and strengths analysis showed that: the frequencies and strengths of USA-China interactions slightly exceeded those of USA-Russia interactions and became the dominant interactions in the second period. Although that cooperation prevailed in the three dyads in two periods, the conflictual interactions between the USA and Russia tended to be more intense in the second period, mainly related to the strategic contradiction between the USA and Russia, especially in Georgia, Ukraine and Syria. The results of CCDF indicated that similar probabilities in the cooperative behaviors between the three dyads, but the differences in the probabilities of conflictual behaviors in the USA-Russia dyad showed complicated characteristic, and those between Russia and China indicated that Russia had been consistently giving China a hard time in both periods when dealing with conflict. The USA was always an essential factor in affecting the interactions between Russia and China in both periods, but China’s behavior only played a limited role in influencing the interactions between the USA-Russia dyad. Our study provides quantitative insight into the direct cooperative and conflictual interactions between the three dyads since the end of the Cold War and helps to understand their interactions better.

    图表 | 参考文献 | 相关文章 | 多维度评价
    19. Ecosystem carbon storage under different scenarios of land use change in Qihe catchment, China
    ZHU Wenbo, ZHANG Jingjing, CUI Yaoping, ZHU Lianqi
    地理学报(英文版)    2020, 30 (9): 1507-1522.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-020-1796-6
    摘要90)   HTML0)    PDF (2436KB)(45)   

    Regional land use change is the main cause of the ecosystem carbon storage changes by affecting emission and sink process. However, there has been little research on the influence of land use changes for ecosystem carbon storage at both temporal and spatial scales. For this study, the Qihe catchment in the southern part of the Taihang Mountains was taken as an example; its land use change from 2005 to 2015 was analyzed, the Markov-CLUE-S composite model was used to predict land use patterns in 2025 under natural growth, cultivated land protection and ecological conservation scenario, and the land use data were used to evaluate ecosystem carbon storage under different scenarios for the recent 10-year interval and the future based on the carbon storage module of the InVEST model. The results show the following: (1) the ecosystem carbon storage and average carbon density of Qihe catchment were 3.16×107 t and 141.9 t/ha, respectively, and decreased by 0.07×107 t and 2.89 t/ha in the decade evaluated. (2) During 2005-2015, carbon density mainly decreased in low altitude areas. For high altitude area, regions with increased carbon density comprised a similar percentage to regions with decreased carbon density. The significant increase of the construction areas in the middle and lower reaches of Qihe and the degradation of upper reach woodland were core reasons for carbon density decrease. (3) For 2015-2025, under natural growth scenario, carbon storage and carbon density also significantly decrease, mainly due to the decrease of carbon sequestration capacity in low altitude areas; under cultivated land protection scenario, the decrease of carbon storage and carbon density will slow down, mainly due to the increase of carbon sequestration capacity in low altitude areas; under ecological conservation scenario, carbon storage and carbon density significantly increase and reach 3.19×107 t and 143.26 t/ha, respectively, mainly in regions above 1100 m in altitude. Ecological conservation scenario can enhance carbon sequestration capacity but cannot effectively control the reduction of cultivated land areas. Thus, land use planning of research areas should consider both ecological conservation and cultivated land protection scenarios to increase carbon sink and ensure the cultivated land quality and food safety.

    图表 | 参考文献 | 相关文章 | 多维度评价
    20. China’s rural revitalization and development: Theory, technology and management
    LIU Yansui, ZANG Yuzhu, YANG Yuanyuan
    地理学报(英文版)    2020, 30 (12): 1923-1942.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-020-1819-3
    摘要89)   HTML17)    PDF (778KB)(152)   

    The urban-rural transformation from dichotomy to integration is a gradual process. Like rural areas in many countries, Chinese rural society is experiencing a decline in all spheres due to depopulation, aging, lack of economic opportunity, and so on. Aiming at solving the serious rural issues, China proposed the implementation of a rural revitalization strategy and the promotion of an integrated urban-rural development for the first time in 2017. This proposal marks the transformation of the urban-rural relationship, and the integrated urban-rural development reflects a significant conceptual change. Researches on issues of rural decline are urgently needed to determine the most effective method for rural revitalization and development from the perspective of the urban-rural dynamics. In this context, this paper focuses on studying the theory, technology and management of rural revitalization and development. We construct a theoretical framework for urban-rural integration based on population-land-industry-right between the urban and rural systems, regarding land engineering for land capacity building as the technical support and the rural land system reform and reconstruction as the policy support for management. This research will provide theoretical support for the implementation of China’s rural revitalization strategy.

    图表 | 参考文献 | 相关文章 | 多维度评价
    21. A comparison and case analysis between domestic and overseas industrial parks of China since the Belt and Road Initiative
    YE Chao, LI Simeng, ZHANG Zhao, ZHU Xiaodan
    地理学报(英文版)    2020, 30 (8): 1266-1282.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-020-1781-0
    摘要88)   HTML0)    PDF (2851KB)(71)   

    With rapid globalization, industrial parks are playing an increasingly important role in the national and regional development. Since the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) was put forward, national-level overseas industrial parks of China have emerged with new development features and trends. It is of great importance to carry out a comparative study on domestic and overseas industrial parks of China. Based on the perspective of spatiotemporal evolution, this paper compares and analyzes national-level overseas industrial parks along the Belt and Road (B&R) and domestic industrial parks of China. In time, China’s industrial parks have experienced four stages with distinctive state-led characteristic. There are different development paths and modes for overseas industrial parks along the B&R and domestic industrial parks. In space, the national-level overseas industrial parks are invested and constructed by Chinese enterprises (mostly from the coastal developed cities), and mainly distributed in the countries along the B&R. Through typical cases comparison of Thai-Chinese Rayong Industrial Zone and Tianjin Economic-Technological Development Area, the paper finds that national-level overseas industrial parks are basically market-driven and concentrated in traditional advantageous industries, while domestic industrial parks are mainly government-led high-tech industries. Localization of overseas industrial parks and remote coupling with domestic industrial parks become very important.

    图表 | 参考文献 | 相关文章 | 多维度评价
    22. Spatiotemporal changes of land desertification sensitivity in northwest China from 2000 to 2017
    WEI Wei, GUO Zecheng, SHI Peiji, ZHOU Liang, WANG Xufeng, LI Zhenya, PANG Sufei, XIE Binbin
    地理学报(英文版)    2021, 31 (1): 46-68.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-021-1832-1
    摘要84)   HTML8)    PDF (11177KB)(212)   

    Sensitivity assessment is useful for monitoring land desertification. Research into how to prevent and control desertification is also important. In the arid region of northwest China, desertification is becoming worse and is a serious problem that affects local sustainable development. Based on remote-sensing and geographic information system technology, this study establishes a “soil-terrain-hydrology-climate-vegetation” desertification sensitivity comprehensive evaluation system to reflect the spatiotemporal changes of land desertification, and proposes a spatial distance model to calculate a desertification sensitivity index. The spatiotemporal change characteristics of land desertification sensitivity in northwest China are quantitatively assessed from 2000 to 2017. Moreover, the main driving factors are analyzed using the geographical detector method. The results show the following. (1) Terrain, soil, climate, vegetation and hydrology affect and restrict each other, and constitute the background conditions of the distributions and changes of sensitivity to desertification in northwest China. (2) Desertification sensitivity generally displays a low distribution characteristic on the periphery of the area and a high one in the interior. The low-sensitivity regions are mainly in the five major mountain ranges (Altai Mountains, Tianshan Mountains, Kunlun Mountains, Altun Mountains and Qilian Mountains), while the high-sensitivity regions are mainly in regions such as the Junggar Basin, the Tarim Basin and the Inner Mongolia Plateau, as well as the Taklimakan Desert, Badain Jaran Desert and Tengger Desert. The spatial distribution of desertification sensitivity is obviously regional, and the high- and low-sensitivity regions have clear boundaries and a concentrated distribution. (3) With regard to spatiotemporal evolution, changes in desertification sensitivity since 2000 have been predominantly stable, and the overall sensitivity has displayed a slowly decreasing trend, indicating that potential desertification regions are decreasing annually and that some achievements have been made in the control of regional desertification. (4) Soil and climate play a direct role in the driving factors of desertification in northwest China, and these have been found to be the most important influential factors. Vegetation is the most active and basic factor in changing the sensitivity. In addition, topography and hydrology play a role in restricting desertification changes. Socio-economic factors are the most rapid factors affecting regional desertification sensitivity, and their impacts tend to be gradually increasing. In general, desertification has been effectively controlled in northwest China, and positive results have been achieved in such control. However, against the backdrop of intensified global climate change, increasingly prominent human activities and new normals of socio-economic development, the monitoring, assessment and control of desertification in China still have a long way to go.

    图表 | 参考文献 | 相关文章 | 多维度评价
    23. Priority sites and conservation gaps of wintering waterbirds in the Yangtze River floodplain
    XIA Shaoxia, YU Xiubo, LEI Jinyu, HEARN Richard, SMITH Bena, LEI Gang, XIE Ping
    地理学报(英文版)    2020, 30 (10): 1617-1632.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-020-1803-y
    摘要79)   HTML3)    PDF (3653KB)(196)   

    The Yangtze River floodplain is critical for migratory waterbirds along the East Asian-Australasian Flyway (EAAF). Greater awareness of its global importance is urgently needed to ensure waterbird populations remain in favourable conservation status, as well as the enhancement of wider wetland biodiversity within this region. The designation of protected wetland areas and building a green ecological corridor in the Yangtze floodplain is now becoming a critical issue of interest to the Chinese government. Priority sites in this area were identified based on the criteria used to identify sites that qualify as Wetlands of International Importance (Ramsar Sites) and Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBAs) by using multi-source data. The results show that 140 of the sites surveyed are priority sites. The Importance Index (I) for the whole floodplain decreased slightly from 2001-2005 and an unbalanced distribution pattern is evident with Jiangxi and Hunan provinces significantly higher than the other provinces in the floodplain. Although more than 60% of the priority sites are currently located outside protected areas, the average Conservation Effectiveness Index (C) of the whole floodplain is 75.6%, which suggests the coverage of protected areas for most wintering waterbird population is reasonable. Conservation of the Yangtze River floodplain needs to be further strengthened due to declining waterbird abundances and the mismatch between the distribution of protected areas and their importance for wintering waterbirds. A comprehensive system for priority site identification and protection and scientific review is needed. Multi-sourced data from regular, systematic and coordinated monitoring of waterbird distribution and abundance across the EAAF, as well as national scale citizen science programmes are also critically important.

    图表 | 参考文献 | 相关文章 | 多维度评价
    24. Evaluation and spatiotemporal characteristics of glacier service value in the Qilian Mountains
    SUN Meiping, MA Weiqian, YAO Xiaojun, ZHAO Linlin, LI Zhongqin, QIN Dahe
    地理学报(英文版)    2020, 30 (8): 1233-1248.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-020-1779-7
    摘要78)   HTML2)    PDF (1843KB)(30)   

    Glaciers provide essential resources and services for human well-being and socio-economic development in arid regions. It is of great significance for regional socio- economic sustainable development and environmental protection to conduct a glacier service value assessment and to analyze its spatiotemporal characteristics. Based on the first and second Chinese glacier inventories of the Qilian Mountains, a glacier service value evaluation system was established. Then the glacier service value and its spatiotemporal variation were assessed by combining the methods of unit area service price, value equivalent factor, and the glacier service value change index (GSCI). Three key results were obtained. (1) The total service value of glaciers in the Qilian Mountains for 2016 was 24.354 billion yuan. The main services provided were climate regulation and runoff regulation, which accounted for 60.58% and 33.14% of the total service value, respectively. Minor services were freshwater supply and hydropower, which accounted for 3.47% and 1.75% of the total value, respectively. The value of other types of services was about 0.259 billion yuan. (2) Among the various river systems in the Qilian Mountains, the Shule River basin had the highest glacier service value (7.771 billion yuan, 31.91%), followed by the Haltang River basin (4.321 billion yuan, 17.74%) and the Beida River basin (3.281 billion yuan, 13.47%). In terms of administrative divisions, the glacier service value of the Qilian Mountains in Qinghai Province was 1.138 billion yuan higher than that of Gansu Province at 11.608 billion yuan, of which the services in the Haixi Mongol and Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture and Jiuquan City were valued at 11.124 (45.68%) and 7.758 (31.86%) billion yuan, respectively. (3) During the period from 1956 to 2010, the service value of glaciers in the Qilian Mountains declined by 435 million yuan, with an acceleration in the decreasing trend from west to east.

    图表 | 参考文献 | 相关文章 | 多维度评价
    25. Evolution characteristics and drivers of the water level at an identical discharge in the Jingjiang reaches of the Yangtze River
    CHAI Yuanfang, YANG Yunping, DENG Jinyun, SUN Zhaohua, LI Yitian, ZHU Lingling
    地理学报(英文版)    2020, 30 (10): 1633-1648.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-020-1804-x
    摘要75)   HTML7)    PDF (935KB)(51)   

    The operation of large-scale reservoirs have modified water and sediment transport processes, resulting in adjustments to the river topography and water levels. The polynomial fitting method was applied to analyze the variation characteristics of water levels under different water discharge values in the Jingjiang reach of the Yangtze River from 1991-2016. The segregation variable method was used to estimate the contributions of the varied riverbed evaluation, the downstream-controlled water level, and the comprehensive roughness on the altered water level at an identical flow. We find that low water levels in the Jingjiang reach of the Yangtze River from 1991-2016 are characterized by a significant downward trend, which has intensified since 2009. Riverbed scouring has been the dominate factor causing the reduced low water level while increased roughness alleviated this reduction. From 1991-2016, there was first a decrease followed by an increase in the high water level. The variation characteristic in terms of the “high flood discharge at a high water level” before 2003 transformed into a “middle flood discharge at a high water level” since 2009. The increased comprehensive roughness was the main reason for the increased high water level, where river scouring alleviated this rise. For navigation conditions and flood control, intensified riverbed scouring of the sandy reaches downstream from dams enhanced the effects that the downstream water level has on the upstream water level. This has led to an insufficient water depth in the reaches below the dams, which should receive immediate attention. The altered variation characteristics of the high water level have also increased the flood pressure in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River.

    图表 | 参考文献 | 相关文章 | 多维度评价
    26. Land use transition and rural spatial governance: Mechanism, framework and perspectives
    GE Dazhuan, ZHOU Guipeng, QIAO Weifeng, YANG Mengqi
    地理学报(英文版)    2020, 30 (8): 1325-1340.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-020-1784-x
    摘要74)   HTML2)    PDF (1045KB)(199)   

    The pattern for utilization of rural space is closely related to rural transformation development (RTD). The problem of rural space utilization is an important manifestation of the uncoordinated relationship between land use patterns and rural development status during a transformation period. Considering the rural space utilization issue, this article seeks to analyze the interaction mechanisms between land use transition (LUT) and rural spatial governance and then build a rural spatial governance analysis framework based on LUT. Also, the paper explores the internal relationship between rural spatial governance and rural vitalization and discusses the research prospective of the interaction. The study found that: (1) Rural space utilization has systemic problems such as limited development space, ill-defined ownership and poor organization, which have become important obstacles for rural development. (2) The uncoordinated relationship between LUT and RTD is an important reason for the dilemma surrounding rural space utilization. (3) The LUT provides a basis for determining the timing of rural spatial governance, specifying spatial governance objectives, and clarifying rural spatial governance methods. (4) The construction of a comprehensive analysis framework of “matter-ownership-organization” of rural space based on the LUT has created conditions for the orderly promotion of rural spatial governance. (5) Rural spatial governance which facilitates the integration of urban-rural development is an important foundation for rural vitalization. (6) Interaction analysis of LUT, RTD and rural spatial governance is conducive to facilitating research on the operational mechanism of rural regional systems and to expanding the research field of rural geography.

    图表 | 参考文献 | 相关文章 | 多维度评价
    27. Carbon neutrality and mitigating contribution of terrestrial carbon sink on anthropogenic climate warming in China, the United States, Russia and Canada
    CUI Yaoping, LI Nan, FU Yiming, CHEN Liangyu
    地理学报(英文版)    2021, 31 (7): 925-937.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-021-1878-0
    摘要73)   HTML0)    PDF (3288KB)(0)   

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a major climate forcing factor, closely related to human activities. Quantifying the contribution of CO2 emissions to the global radiative forcing (RF) is therefore important to evaluate climate effects caused by anthropogenic and natural factors. China, the United States (USA), Russia and Canada are the largest countries by land area, at different levels of socio-economic development. In this study, we used data from the CarbonTracker CO2 assimilation model (CT2017 data set) to analyze anthropogenic CO2 emissions and terrestrial ecosystem carbon sinks from 2000 to 2016. We derived net RF contributions and showed that anthropogenic CO2 emissions had increased significantly from 2000 to 2016, at a rate of 0.125 PgC yr-1. Over the same period, carbon uptake by terrestrial ecosystems increased at a rate of 0.003 PgC yr-1. Anthropogenic CO2 emissions in China and USA accounted for 87.19% of the total, while Russian terrestrial ecosystems were the largest carbon sink and absorbed 14.69 PgC. The resulting cooling effect was -0.013 W m-2 in 2016, representing an offset of -45.06% on climate warming induced by anthropogenic CO2. This indicates that net climate warming would be significantly overestimated if terrestrial ecosystems were not included in RF budget analyses. In terms of cumulative effects, we analyzed RFs using reference atmospheres of 1750, at the start of the Industrial Revolution, and 2000, the initial year of this study. Anthropogenic CO2 emissions in the study area contributed by + 0.42 W m-2 and +0.32 W m-2 to the global RF, relative to CO2 levels of 1750 and 2000, respectively. We also evaluated correlations between global mean atmospheric temperature and net, anthropogenic and natural RFs. We found that the combined (net) RF caused by CO2 emissions accounted for 30.3% of global mean temperature variations in 2000-2016.

    图表 | 参考文献 | 相关文章 | 多维度评价
    28. Chinese overseas ports: Market potential, supply capacity and access to imports
    DUNFORD Michael, LIU Zhigao, XUE Jiashun
    地理学报(英文版)    2020, 30 (10): 1681-1701.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-020-1807-7
    摘要71)   HTML2)    PDF (1385KB)(190)   

    Especially since 2012 Chinese companies have acquired stakes as investors and constructors of overseas ports in both high-income and emerging economies. These initiatives play an important role in the construction of a Maritime Silk Road and China’s Belt and Road Initiative (BRI). Although a result of many factors, of which Chinese port investments are only one, macro-geographical gravity methods show that distance impedance and increases in the export market potential, export supply capacity and access to imports of these countries drove increases in income per capita. Export supply capacity rose particularly in Southeast Asia and more recently in Sub-Saharan Africa. In difficult times for the world economy, countries in which China invested in overseas port infrastructure saw increases in national export market potential and income per capita, due to reduction in the impedance of distance, while in the case of developing economies export market supply capacity and access to imported capital equipment and intermediate goods improved.

    图表 | 参考文献 | 相关文章 | 多维度评价
    29. Damage evaluation of soybean chilling injury based on Google Earth Engine (GEE) and crop modelling
    CAO Juan, ZHANG Zhao, ZHANG Liangliang, LUO Yuchuan, LI Ziyue, TAO Fulu
    地理学报(英文版)    2020, 30 (8): 1249-1265.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-020-1780-1
    摘要68)   HTML1)    PDF (3506KB)(296)   

    Frequent chilling injury has serious impacts on national food security and in northeastern China heavily affects grain yields. Timely and accurate measures are desirable for assessing associated large-scale impacts and are prerequisites to disaster reduction. Therefore, we propose a novel means to efficiently assess the impacts of chilling injury on soybean. Specific chilling injury events were diagnosed in 1989, 1995, 2003, 2009, and 2018 in Oroqen community. In total, 512 combinations scenarios were established using the localized CROPGRO-Soybean model. Furthermore, we determined the maximum wide dynamic vegetation index (WDRVI) and corresponding date of critical windows of the early and late growing seasons using the GEE (Google Earth Engine) platform, then constructed 1600 cold vulnerability models on CDD (Cold Degree Days), the simulated LAI (Leaf Area Index) and yields from the CROPGRO-Soybean model. Finally, we calculated pixel yields losses according to the corresponding vulnerability models. The findings show that simulated historical yield losses in 1989, 1995, 2003 and 2009 were measured at 9.6%, 29.8%, 50.5%, and 15.7%, respectively, closely (all errors are within one standard deviation) reflecting actual losses (6.4%, 39.2%, 47.7%, and 13.2%, respectively). The above proposed method was applied to evaluate the yield loss for 2018 at the pixel scale. Specifically, a sentinel-2A image was used for 10-m high precision yield mapping, and the estimated losses were found to characterize the actual yield losses from 2018 cold events. The results highlight that the proposed method can efficiently and accurately assess the effects of chilling injury on soybean crops.

    图表 | 参考文献 | 相关文章 | 多维度评价
    30. Temperature variations evidenced by records on the latest spring snowing dates in Hangzhou of eastern China during 1131-1270AD
    LIU Haolong, DAI Junhu, YAN Junhui, HE Fanneng, GE Quansheng, MU Chongxing
    地理学报(英文版)    2020, 30 (10): 1664-1680.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-020-1806-8
    摘要63)   HTML4)    PDF (3373KB)(43)   

    We collected and verified documentary records of the latest spring snowing dates (LSSD) in Hangzhou during Southern Song Dynasty. Furtherly, the statistical correlation between this proxy and February-April mean temperature in Hangzhou was examined, and samples later than the perennial mean of the LSSD during Southern Song Dynasty were transformed into the decadal mean of LSSD by means of Boltzmann function. General characteristics of this reconstructed LSSD series with a 10-year temporal resolution was analyzed, and it was also compared with other documentary evidences and reconstructed climate series in China for the period 1131-1270. The results and discussion suggested that: (1) Records of the LSSD in Hangzhou during Southern Song Dynasty did not refer to ice pellets and graupels, which had an explicit climate significance (-0.34oC/10d, R 2=0.37, p<0.001). However, when this proxy is used to reconstruct temperature changes, all dates should be converted into proleptic Gregorian style and meet the same criterion of “true Qi” as the Chinese traditional calendar after 1929. (2) The decadal mean of LSSD can be effectively estimated by using the forefront of LSSD in the decade on the basis of Boltzmann function, whose extrapolation has a lesser uncertainty than those on the basis of linear models or polynomial models. (3) The spring climate in Hangzhou during 1131-1270 was almost as warm as the period 1951-1980. At the centennial scale, this period can be divided into two phases: the cold 1131-1170 and the warm 1171-1270. In the latter, 1181-1200 and 1221-1240 were two cold intervals at the multi-decadal scale. (4) The reconstructed LSSD series was consistent well with other documentary evidences and reconstructed climate series in China for 1131-1270, which may reflect the influence on the climate over most regions of China imposed by the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO).

    图表 | 参考文献 | 相关文章 | 多维度评价