Amelung W, Zech W, Zhang X et al., 1998. Carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur pools in particle-size fractions and influenced by climate. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 62: 17-181.
Bao Y J, Li Z H, Zhong Y K, 2004. Composition dynamics of plant functional groups and their effects on stability of community ANPP during 17 yr of mowing succession on Leymus chinensis steppe of Inner Mongolia, China. Acta Botanica Sinica, 46: 1155-1162.
Blake G R, Hartage K H, 1986. Bulk density. In: Klute A et al. (eds.), Methods of Soil Analysis: Part 1: Physical and Mineralogical Methods. 2nd ed. ASA and SSSA, Madison, WI, USA, 363-375.
Chen Z Z, Wang S P, 2000. Typical Steppe Ecosystem of China. Beijing: Science Press.
Christensen B T, 1992. Physical fractionation of soil and organic matter in primary particle size and density separates. Advance in Soil Science, 20: 1-90.
Christensen B T, 2001. Physical fractionation of soil and structural and functional complexity in organic matter turnover. European Journal of Soil Science, 52: 345-353.
Conant R T, Paustian K, Elliott E T, 2001. Grassland management and conversion into grassland: Effects on soil carbon. Ecological Applications, 11: 343-355.
Covaleda S, Pajares S, Gallardo J F et al., 2006. Short-term changes in C and N distribution in soil particle size fractions induced by agricultural practices in a cultivated volcanic soil from Mexico. Organic Geochemistry, 37: 1943-1948.
Dubeux J C B, Sollenberger L E, Comerford N B et al., 2006. Management intensity affects density fractions of soil organic matter from grazed bahiagrass swards. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 38: 2705-2711.
Elmore A J, Asner G P, 2006. Effects of grazing intensity on soil carbon stocks following deforestation of a Hawaiian dry tropical forest. Global Change Biology, 12: 1761-1772.
Fang J Y, Guo Z D, Piao S L et al., 2007. Terrestrial vegetation carbon sinks in China. Science in China (Series D), 50: 1341-1350.
Gallaher R N, Weldon C O, Boswell F C, 1976. A semi-automated procedure for total nitrogen in plant and soil samples. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 40: 887-889.
Guo L B, Gifford R M, 2002. Soil carbon stocks and land use change: A meta-analysis. Global Change Biology, 8: 345-360.
He N P, Wu L, Wang Y S et al., 2009. Changes in carbon and nitrogen in soil particle-size fractions along a grassland restoration chronosequence in northern China. Geoderma, 150: 302-308.
He N P, Yu Q, Wu L et al., 2008. Carbon and nitrogen store and storage potential as affected by land-use in a Leymus chinenis grassland of northern China. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 40: 2952-2959.
He N P, Zhang Y H, Yu Q et al., 2011. Grazing intensity impacts soil carbon and nitrogen storage of continental steppe. Ecosphere, 2, art8, doi:10.1890/ES1810-00017.00011.
Hoffmann C, Funk R, Wieland R et al., 2008. Effects of grazing and topography on dust flux and deposition in the Xilingele grassland, Inner Mongolia. Journal of Arid Environments, 72: 792-807.
Huxman T E, Snyder K A, Tissue D et al., 2004. Precipitation pulses and carbon fluxes in semiarid and arid ecosystem. Oecologia, 141: 254-268.
IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), 2007. Fourth Assessment Report, Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Jones M B, Donnelly A, 2004. Carbon sequestration in temperate grassland ecosystems and the influence of management, climate and elevated CO2. New Phytologist, 164: 423-439.
Lal R, 2009. Sequestering carbon in soil of arid ecosystems. Land Degradation and Development, 20: 441-454.
Leifeld J, K?gel-Knabner I, 2005. Soil organic matter fractions as early indicators for carbon stock changes under different land-use? Geoderma, 124: 143-155.
Li X G, Li F M, Singh B et al., 2007. Soil management changes organic carbon pools in alpine pastureland soils. Soil & Tillage Research, 93: 186-196.
Liu M L, Baoyin T G T, Chi Y et al., 2007. Effect of mowing systems on composition of Stipa grandis community in Inner Mongolia steppe. Journal of Beijing Normal University, 43: 83-87.
Mikhailova E A, Bryant R B, Vassenev I I et al., 2000. Cultivation effects on soil carbon and nitrogen contents at depth in the Russian Chernozem. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 64: 738-745.
Neff J C, Reynolds R L, Belnap J et al., 2005. Multi-decadal impacts of grazing on soil physical and biogeochemical properties in southeast Utah. Ecological Applications, 15: 87-95.
Olk D C, Gregorich E G, 2006. Overview of the symposium proceeding, “meaningful pools in determining soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 70: 967-974.
Pei S F, Fu H, Wan C G, 2008. Changes in soil properties and vegetation following exclosure and grazing in degraded Alxa desert steppe of Inner Mongolia, China. Agricultural Ecosystem & Environment, 124: 33-39.
Post W M, Kwon K C, 2000. Soil carbon sequestration and land-use change: Processes and potential. Global Change Biology, 6: 317-327.
Roscoe R, Buurman P, Velthorst E J, 2000. Disruption of soil aggregates by varied amounts of ultrasonic energy in fractionation of organic matter of a clay Latosol: Carbon, nitrogen, and δ13 C distribution in particle-size fractions. European Journal of Soil Science, 51; 445-454.
Schwinning S, Sala O E, 2004. Hierarchy of responses to resource pulses in arid and semi-arid ecosystems. Oecologia, 141: 211-220.
Solomon D, Fritzsche F, Lehmann J et al., 2002. Soil organic matter dynamics in the subhumid agroecosystems of the Ethiopian highlands: Evidence from natural 13C abundance and particle-size fractionation. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 66: 969-978.
Soussana J F, Loiseau P, Vuichard N et al., 2004. Carbon cycling and sequestration opportunities in temperate grasslands. Soil Use and Management, 20: 219-230.
Steffens M, K?lbl A, Totsche K U et al., 2008. Grazing effects on soil chemical and physical properties in a semiarid steppe of Inner Mongolia (P.R. China). Geoderma, 143: 63-72.
Su Y Z, Zhao H L, Zhang T H et al., 2004. Soil properties following cultivation and non-grazing of a semi-arid sandy grassland in northern China. Soil & Tillage Research, 75: 27-36.
Wang G X, Cheng G D, Shen Y P et al., 2003. Influence of land cover changes on the physical and chemical properties of alpine meadow soil. Chinese Science Bulletin, 48: 118-124.
Wang Q, Zhang L, Li L et al., 2009. Changes in carbon and nitrogen of Chernozem soil along a cultivation chronosequence in a semi-arid grassland. European Journal of Soil Science, 60: 916-923.
Whalen J K, Willms W D, Dormaar J F, 2003. Soil carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus in modified rangeland communities. Journal of Rangeland Management, 56: 665-672.
Wright A L, Hons F M, 2004. Soil aggregation and carbon nitrogen storage under soyben cropping sequences. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 68: 507-513.
Wu L, He N, Wang Y et al., 2008. Storage and dynamics of carbon and nitrogen in soil after grazing exclusion in Leymus chinensis grasslands of northern China. Journal of Environmental Quality, 37: 663-668.
Yan H, Wang S Q, Wang C Y et al., 2005. Losses of soil organic carbon under wind in China. Global Change Biology, 11: 828-840.
Yang Y S, Xie J S, Sheng H et al., 2009. The impact of land use/cover change on storage and quality of soil organic carbon in midsubtropical mountainous area of southern China. Journal of Geographical Sciences, 19: 49-57.
Yuan Z Y, Li L H, Han X G et al., 2006. Nitrogen response efficiency increased monotonically with decreasing soil resource availability: A case study from a semiarid grassland in northern China. Oecologia, 148: 564-572.
Zhou Z Y, Sun O J, Huang J H et al. 2007. Soil carbon and nitrogen stores and storage potential as affected by land-use in an agro-pastoral ecotone of northern China. Biogeochemistry, 82: 127-138.
Zinn Y L, Lal R, Bigham J M et al., 2007. Edaphic controls on soil organic carbon retention in the Brazilian Cerrado: Texture and mineralogy. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 71: 1204-1214.