Table of Content

    25 June 2023, Volume 33 Issue 6 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Research Articles
    Dynamics of the global semiconductor trade and its dependencies
    REN Yawen, YANG Yu, WANG Yun, LIU Yi
    2023, 33 (6):  1141-1160.  doi: 10.1007/s11442-023-2123-9
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    The semiconductor industry typifies the international division of labor and exhibits significant structural differences in global trade in key product segments. The evolution of cross-border trade flows and dependency relationships, as well as trade organization patterns of manufactured products, equipment and materials for manufacturing, are investigated by constructing a global semiconductor trade relationship matrix and using the Gini coefficient and trade dependency index. It was found that: (1) the global semiconductor trade is highly spatially unbalanced, with materials and equipment trade in particular highly concentrated in a few countries on both the supply and demand sides; (2) China has replaced the US as the largest global semiconductor trade player and has shaped the regionalized system of manufactured goods and materials trade with East and Southeast Asian economies, but its equipment trade is highly dependent on Europe and the US; (3) the semiconductor production model has promoted the regionalization of the east and southeast Asia region in the trade of manufactured products and materials, and developed economies such as the US, the EU, Japan, and South Korea have maintained their monopolistic advantage in the trade of semiconductor equipment by building exclusive innovation networks and establishing trade barriers. The monopolistic nature of the semiconductor equipment trade and the regionalization of manufactured goods and materials have formed the characteristics of the global semiconductor trade and are likely to be further strengthened in future trade.

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    Spatial pattern of knowledge innovation function among Chinese cities and its influencing factors
    YU Yingjie, LYU Lachang
    2023, 33 (6):  1161-1184.  doi: 10.1007/s11442-023-2124-8
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    Knowledge innovation is a key component of urban innovation function and an important basis for modern urban development. Combining the multidisciplinary research of knowledge innovation, this paper constructs a measurement framework of urban knowledge innovation function from the perspective of urban geography and analyzes its spatial pattern and influencing factors. The conclusions are as follows: (1) The function of urban knowledge innovation refers to the tasks and roles it undertakes in the process of knowledge creation, knowledge dissemination and knowledge application, which is based on the internal knowledge stock and external practice conditions to meet the needs of human survival and development in the new era. The measurement dimensions include functional scale, functional intensity, functional scale, and functional vitality. (2) The development level of knowledge innovation functions in Chinese cities is uneven, and the cities with outstanding knowledge innovation functions are mainly concentrated in the eastern coastal areas and a few developed areas in the central and western regions, forming the diamond-shaped knowledge innovation structure with the Beijing-Tianjin, the Yangtze River Delta, the Pearl River Delta, Shaanxi-Chengdu-Chongqing as the four vertices and central Wuhan and Hefei as the center. According to the Jenks natural breakpoint method, it is divided into national-level, regional-level, local-level and knowledge-innovative development cities. (3) The spatial differentiation characteristics of urban knowledge innovation function are simultaneously affected by various natural and human factors. Among them, economic environment, opening environment, and cultural environment have the strongest interactive explanatory power with other factors, and are the dominant factors affecting the city’s knowledge innovation function. In the future, China should fully considers the status and characteristics of the city’s own knowledge economy development with corresponding policies and measures suitable for the development of the city’s knowledge economy, and strengthen the dominant position of human and social factors in the constructing the city’s knowledge innovation function.

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    Investigating merchandise trade structure in the RCEP region from the perspective of regional integration
    CHEN Xiaoqiang, YUAN Lihua, SONG Changqing
    2023, 33 (6):  1185-1204.  doi: 10.1007/s11442-023-2125-7
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    The Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) was formally signed by the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries, along with China, Japan, South Korea, Australia, and New Zealand. This was a significant step towards regional integration in the Asia-Pacific region. Analysing the trade structure among member states is crucial in understanding the path to regional integration and policy implications of regional cooperation within the RCEP framework. Based on subdivided commodity data, this study reviews the evolution of merchandise trade in the RCEP region in the past two decades. It investigates the current trade structure of the RCEP, emphasising the relative importance of intra-regional versus extra-regional interdependence and the trade asymmetry of the regional members. The results of the study are as follows: First, the overall extent of regional trade integration in the RCEP region increased modestly from 2001 to 2018, indicating that the RCEP region was export-oriented and there was significant room for further expansion of regional trade. Second, most of the commodities traded in the RCEP region demonstrated much higher extra-regional interdependence than intra-regional in 2018, particularly labor-, capital-, and technology-intensive products such as television and radio apparatus. Third, the trade networks of the top five traded commodities were distinguished by large economic asymmetries, with China, Japan, and South Korea being the dominant regional powers. These findings have significant implications for understanding how to promote regional integration and cooperation. Besides expanding intra-regional trade, outward-oriented factors influenced by the regional powers—including consolidating the global advantages of manufacturing, stabilizing supply chains by including large resource countries, and attracting extra-regional investments—were also the main rationales for the conclusion of the RCEP.

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    How to identify transitional geospace in mountainous areas? An approach using a transitional index from the perspective of coupled human and natural systems
    DENG Wei, ZHANG Hao, ZHANG Shaoyao, WANG Zhanyun, HU Maogui, PENG Li
    2023, 33 (6):  1205-1225.  doi: 10.1007/s11442-023-2126-6
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    The coupling of humans and nature differs in terms of distribution and intensity, thus producing a gradient of synthetic geographical environments. Within this variety of gradients, the transitional zone represents a complex space where dynamic processes and unstable conditions are observed. Based on the concepts of ecotone and transitional zone, we propose a conceptual framework for the transitional geospace of coupled human and natural systems and a quantitative identification method for the zone. Taking the Sichuan Basin as an example, this study defined the strength and direction of the coupling of the natural ecosystem and socioeconomic system and divided different types of transitional geospace. The transitional geo- space of the strong coupling type accounted for approximately 16.7% of the study area. Nine of the ten counties with the largest proportion of the type were formerly nationally poor counties in the study area. In the strong coupling type, human and nature jointly explained a high proportion of the variance in transitional stability (e.g., in Shifang city, with an unexplained proportion of 1.7%). The discovery and characterization of the transitional geospace types is crucial for facilitating more effective land use planning and sustainable balance among the population, resources, and environment.

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    Spatiotemporal evolution and influencing mechanism of ecosystem service value in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area
    LIU Zhitao, WANG Shaojian, FANG Chuanglin
    2023, 33 (6):  1226-1244.  doi: 10.1007/s11442-023-2127-5
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    Ecosystem services are the media and channels through which ecological elements, structures, functions, and products benefit human society. Regulating the utilization intensity and protection methods of society on the ecosystem according to the ecosystem service value (ESV) and its influencing mechanism is of great significance for achieving the sustainable development goals. This paper takes the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area (GBA) as the research object and describes the spatiotemporal evolution characteristics of ESV in the GBA from 2000 to 2015. Panel quantile regression is also implemented to increase the understanding of the influencing mechanism of ESV. The main results are as follows: (1) From 2000 to 2015, the total ESV declined with a decreasing rate. The areas of decline were mainly distributed in the central part of the GBA and areas along the Pearl River Estuary. (2) Elasticity index, indicating response of ESV to land use change, reached its peak (1.08). The spatial distribution of elasticity index showed that land use changes brought about more intense ESV variations at the junction of cities. (3) In areas with different ESV levels, the influencing factors have different effects. Land use integrity can only promote ecosystem service capabilities in low-ESV areas. The positive effect of temperature on ecosystem service capacity increases with the increase of ESV, which reflects the self-reinforcement of the ecosystem. Moreover, the negative effect of economic density on ecosystem service capacity decreases with the increase of ESV, which reflects the self-protection of the ecosystem. The combination of such self-reinforcement and self-protection will lead to an ESV gap between the high- and low-ESV areas, and induce the “natural Matthew effect.”

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    Spatio-temporal differences and influencing factors of carbon emission equity in the Loess Plateau based on major function-oriented zones
    SONG Yongyong, XIA Siyou, XUE Dongqian, MA Beibei, LIU Xianfeng
    2023, 33 (6):  1245-1270.  doi: 10.1007/s11442-023-2128-4
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    In this paper, we firstly constructed a theoretical framework based on major function-oriented zones (MFOZs). Then taking the Loess Plateau (LP) as the study area, we revealed the spatio-temporal differences and influencing factors of carbon emission equity by using the carbon equity model, Theil index, and Geo-detector. The results showed that: (1) From 2000 to 2017, the carbon equity of the Loess Plateau showed a downward trend, but the ecological carbon equity remained above 2.3, which was significantly higher than the economic carbon equity. (2) The ecological carbon equity in the Loess Plateau increased from the core of urban agglomeration to the periphery. The spatial pattern of economic carbon equity changed from low in the northeast and high in the southwest to low in the north and high in the south. The ecological support coefficient and economic contribution coefficient of provincial capital cities and their surrounding districts remained low since 2000. (3) The equity of carbon emissions in each function-oriented zone in the Loess Plateau was compatible with its orientation. The ecological carbon equity of the key ecological functional zones (KEFZs) was significantly higher than that of the key development zones (KDZs) and the major agricultural production zones (MAPZs), while the economic carbon equity of the KDZs was significantly higher than that of the MAPZs and the KEFZs. (4) The formation and evolution of the spatial differentiation pattern of carbon equity in the Loess Plateau was the result of the long-term interaction effects of geographic location, social economy, science and technology level, and policy system. Among them, eco-environmental protection policy, government financial support, and geographical location are the key driving factors for the spatial pattern of ecological carbon equity. Geographical location, social economic level, and science and technology level are the key factors driving the spatial pattern of economic carbon equity. According to this study, to achieving carbon equity on the Loess Plateau region, what the key approaches are to fully implement the planning of MFOZs, design differentiated regional carbon compensation mechanisms, improve energy efficiency and ecological environment capacity, and build a collaborative regional carbon emission governance system. This research can not only provide an effective framework for analysing the carbon equity, but also offer policy implication for promoting carbon emission reduction and achieving high-quality development goals in the ecologically fragile areas.

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    Feasibility analysis of a double-cropping system for the efficient use of farmland on China’s Loess Plateau
    FENG Weilun, LIU Yansui, LI Yurui, CHEN Zongfeng
    2023, 33 (6):  1271-1286.  doi: 10.1007/s11442-023-2129-3
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    Cropping systems worldwide have been affected by the current trend in global warming and the optimization of cropping systems is an important area of research in the transition of agricultural land. The Loess Plateau is a typical ecologically fragile region with the most serious soil erosion in China. We carried out a field experiment in Yan’an city on the Loess Plateau to explore the effect of sowing date on crop growth and yield. We then analyzed the feasibility of a double-cropping system by considering climatic adaptability, ecological suitability and economic viability. Our results showed that different sowing dates resulted in significant differences in crop growth and that appropriate early sowing can result in higher crop yields for early maturing varieties. We showed that double-cropping systems of sweet maize (Zea mays)-forage rape and feed maize-forage rape are feasible on the Loess Plateau. We discuss the implications for the efficient use of farmland, which is important in guiding agricultural supply-side reform and the development of modern agricultural management.

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    Dynamics of soil loss and sediment export as affected by land use/cover change in Koshi River Basin, Nepal
    YIGEZ Belayneh, XIONG Donghong, ZHANG Baojun, BELETE Marye, CHALISE Devraj, CHIDI Chhabi Lal, GUADIE Awoke, WU Yanhong, RAI Dil Kumar
    2023, 33 (6):  1287-1312.  doi: 10.1007/s11442-023-2130-x
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    How the dynamics in soil loss (SL) and sedimentation are affected by land use/cover change (LULCC) has long been one of the most important issues in watershed management worldwide, especially in fragile mountainous river basins. This study aimed to investigate the impact of LULCC on SL and sediment export (SE) in eastern regions of the Koshi River basin (KRB), Nepal, from 1990 to 2021. The Random Forest classifier in the Google Earth Engine platform was employed for land use/land cover (LULC) classification, and the Integrated Valuation Ecosystem Services and Trade-offs (InVEST) Sediment Delivery Ratio model was used for SL and SE modeling. The results showed that there was a pronounced increase in forest land (4.12%), grassland (2.35%), and shrubland (3.68%) at the expense of agricultural land (10.32%) in KRB over the last three decades. Thus, the mean SL and SE rates decreased by 48% and 60%, respectively, from 1990 to 2021. The conversion of farmland to vegetated lands has greatly contributed to the decrease in SL and SE rates. Furthermore, the rates of SL and SE showed considerable spatiotemporal variations under different LULC types, topographic factors (slope aspect and gradient), and sub-watersheds. The higher rates of SL and SE in the study area were observed mostly in slope gradient classes between 8° and 35° (accounting for 83%-91%) and sunny and semi-sunny slope aspects (SE, S, E, and SW) (accounting for 57%-65%). Although the general mean rate of SL presented a decreasing trend in the study area, the current mean SL rate (23.33 t ha-1 yr-1) in 2021 is still far beyond the tolerable SL rate of both the global (10 Mg ha-1 yr-1) and the Himalayan region (15 t ha-1 yr-1). Therefore, landscape restoration measures should be integrated with other watershed management strategies and upscaled to hotspot areas to regulate basin sediment flux and secure ecosystem service sustainability.

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    Investigating the critical influencing factors of snowmelt runoff and development of a mid-long term snowmelt runoff forecasting
    ZHAO Hongling, LI Hongyan, XUAN Yunqing, BAO Shanshan, CIDAN Yangzong, LIU Yingying, LI Changhai, YAO Meichu
    2023, 33 (6):  1313-1333.  doi: 10.1007/s11442-023-2131-9
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    Snowmelt runoff is a vital source of fresh water in cold regions. Accurate snowmelt runoff forecasting is crucial in supporting the integrated management of water resources in these regions. However, the performances of such forecasts are often very low as they involve many meteorological factors and complex physical processes. Aiming to improve the understanding of these influencing factors on snowmelt runoff forecast, this study investigated the time lag of various meteorological factors before identifying the key factor in snowmelt processes. The results show that solar radiation, followed by temperature, are the two critical influencing factors with time lags being 0 and 2 days, respectively. This study further quantifies the effect of the two factors in terms of their contribution rate using a set of empirical equations developed. Their contribution rates as to yearly snowmelt runoff are found to be 56% and 44%, respectively. A mid-long term snowmelt forecasting model is developed using machine learning techniques and the identified most critical influencing factor with the biggest contribution rate. It is shown that forecasting based on Supporting Vector Regression (SVR) method can meet the requirements of forecast standards.

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    Critical threshold of periodic point bar scour and sediment body transport path in tidal reaches: A case study of Fujiangsha reach, Yangtze River
    WANG Jianjun, YANG Yunping, ZHANG Mingjin, ZHU Lingling, LI Shaowu, WEN Yuncheng
    2023, 33 (6):  1334-1358.  doi: 10.1007/s11442-023-2132-8
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    The evolution of point bars in changing sections of a downstream tidal current limit is periodic. Accordingly, assessing the critical morphology and hydrodynamic characteristics of point bar scour and the sediment transport process of scour sediment bodies can support river regulation and waterway maintenance. The frequent scour of point bars in changing sections of tidal current limits within the Yangtze River directly restricts waterway stability. This study examined the Fujiangsha reach of the Yangtze River, hydrological data on sediment transport, and riverbed topography from 1950. The Jingjiang bank tail exhibited an evolutionary cycle (siltation>scour>siltation), with a primary period ranging from 3-6 years. Additionally, certain morphological and dynamic conditions were necessary for scour. The Datong station flow (Q) ranged from 20,000-40,000 m3·s-1 for ≥180 days·yr-1, enabling the bank silt layers to widen. Scour occurred during flooding and was concentrated in areas 5.0-7.5 km downstream from Ebizui. When Q≥40,000 m3·s-1, scouring occurred in the bank middle and lower reaches, whereas Q≥50,000 m3·s-1 for >50 consecutive days, scour occurred at the tail as well. Moreover, the volume of the scour shoals increased with the number of high-flow days (≥60,000 m3·s-1). Bottom sand transport mainly occurred in the low-bank zone. Before the project’s second phase, the longitudinal transport of the scouring sand bodies occurred as follows: Jingjiang bank > low bank on the north side of Shuangjiansha > Fubei anabranch. During the second phase, the longitudinal transport route changed to Jingjiang bank > Fubei anabranch. The Jingjiang bank volume was also reduced; thus, its development was controlled. Owing to changes in the longitudinal transport routes, dredging should be conducted in areas where scouring sand bodies are separately transported from the tail, thereby reducing the load of dredging and maintenance for the Fubei anabranch during dry years.

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