Journal of Geographical Sciences >
A review of underlying surface parameterization methods in hydrologic models
Author: Zhao Lingling (1980), PhD and Associate Professor, specialized in hydrological cycle simulation and water resources management. Email: linglingzhao@gdas.ac.cn
Received date: 20180505
Accepted date: 20181010
Online published: 20190625
Supported by
National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41771044, No.41501046
Water Conservancy Science and Technology Innovation Project of Guangdong Provincial Water Resources Department, No.201414, No.201614
Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province, No.2015A030310234
GDAS’ Project of Science and Technology Development, No.2019GDASYL0104003, No.2018GDASCX0101, No.2017 GDASCX0806
Science and Technology Project of Guangdong Province, No.2018B030324002
Copyright
Numerous topography, landcover, landuse, and soiltype parameterization methods are required to simulate the hydrologic cycle. In this paper, using the principles of hydrologic cycle simulation, 20 methods commonly applied to runoffyield simulation are analyzed. Additionally, parameterization methods used in 17 runoffyield simulation methods and 15 confluence methods are discussed, including the degree of parameterization. Next, the parameterization methods are classified into four categories: not clearly expressed; calibrated; deterministic; and physicalconceptual. Furthermore, we clarify responses and contributions of different parameterization methods to hydrologic cycle simulation results. Finally, major weaknesses of simplified descriptions of complex rational and physical mechanisms in the parameterization methods of the underlying surfaces in hydrologic models are outlined, and two directions of future development are estimated, looking toward simple practicality and complex mechanization.
ZHAO Lingling , LIU Changming , SOBKOWIAK Leszek , WU Xiaoxiao , LIU Jiafu . A review of underlying surface parameterization methods in hydrologic models[J]. Journal of Geographical Sciences, 2019 , 29(6) : 1039 1060 . DOI: 10.1007/s1144201916439
Table 1 Classification of runoffyield methods in hydrological models 
Runoffyield method  Calculation method  Hydrological model 

Rainfallrunoff coefficient of correlation  SCS, Nonlinear runoff methods  DTVGM (Xia et al., 2002; Xia et al., 2005a; Xia et al., 2005b), HIMS (Liu et al., 2006; Liu et al., 2008), SWMM (Huber et al., 2008), SWAT (Neitsch et al., 2011; Arnold et al., 1998), HECHMS (Feldman,1981) 
Storagefull runoff  Soil water storage capacity curve  Xin’anjiang (Zhao,1984), VIC (Liang et al., 1994; Liang et al., 1996), EasyDHM (Lei et al., 2010a, 2010b) 
Topographic index  TOPMODEL (Beven et al., 1984; Beven et al., 1995), TOPKAPI (Liu et al., 2002)  
Runoff yield under excess infiltration  Soil infiltration capacity curve  Shanbei model (Zhao, 1984), water tank model (Xu, 2009), EasyDHM, TOPMODEL, VIC 
GreenAmpt  SWAT, WEP, HIMS, SWMM, PRMS (Xu, 2009), HECHMS  
Dynamic equation  Richards equation  VIC, WEP (Jia et al., 2001a, 2001b), VIP (Mo et al., 2004), MIKE SHE (Abbott et al., 1986a, 1986b) 
Note: SWAT: Soil and Water Assessment Tool; SCS: Soil Conservation Service curve method; SWMM: StormWater Management Model; HIMS: Hydrological Informatic Modeling System; WEP: Water and Energy transfer Processes models; HSPF: Hydrological Simulation ProgramFortran; DTVGM: Distributed TimeVariant Gain hydrological Model; HECHMS: Hydrologic Engineering Center Hydrologic Model System; VIC: Variable Infiltration Capacity; EasyDHM: Easy Distributed Hydrological Model; TOPMODEL: Topography based Hydrological Model; TOPKAPI: Topographic Kinematic Approximation and Integration; PRMS: PrecipitationRunoff Modeling System; VIP model: Vegetation Interface Processes; MIKE SHE: MIKE Système Hydrologique Européen; SWMIV: Stanford Watershed Model IV; HBV: Hydrologiska Byråns Vattenbalansavdelning Model 
Table 2 Classification of confluence methods in hydrological models 
Confluence process  Calculation method  Hydrological model 

Overland flow  Unit hydrograph method  Xin’anjiang model, SWMIV, HSPF, HEC1, TOPMODEL, VIC3L, HIMS, SWAT 
Isochrones method  Xin’anjiang model, HIMS  
Linear reservoir equation  Xin’anjiang model, TOPMODEL, DTVGM  
Nonlinear reservoir equation  SWMM, TOPKAPI  
River flow routing  Kinematic wave equation  HEC1, TOPKAPI, DTVGM, WEPL (Jia et al., 2006), EasyDHM 
Dynamic wave equation  SHE, VIC3L (Yuan et al., 2004>), PRWS, WEPL  
Muskingum method  Xin’anjiang model, HBV, HEC1, SWAT, HIMS, EasyDHM  
Variable storage coefficient method  SWAT, EasyDHM 
Note: SWAT: Soil and Water Assessment Tool; SCS: Soil Conservation Service curve method; SWMM: StormWater Management Model; HIMS: Hydrological Informatic Modeling System; WEP: Water and Energy transfer Processes models; HSPF: Hydrological Simulation ProgramFortran; DTVGM: Distributed TimeVariant Gain Hydrological Model; HECHMS: Hydrologic Engineering Center Hydrologic Model System; VIC: Variable Infiltration Capacity; EasyDHM: Easy Distributed Hydrological Model; TOPMODEL: Topography based Hydrological Model; TOPKAPI: Topographic Kinematic Approximation and Integration; PRMS: PrecipitationRunoff Modeling System; VIP model: Vegetation Interface Processes; MIKE SHE: MIKE Système Hydrologique Européen; SWMIV: Stanford Watershed Model IV; HBV: Hydrologiska Byråns Vattenbalansavdelning Model 
Table 3 Summary of runoff formation methods 
Table 4 Summary of flow concentration methods 
Table 5 Classification of parameterization in runoffyield processes 
Category  Runoffyield method  

Rainfallrunoff coefficient of correlation  Deterministic parameters  SCS runoff curve method 
Nonlinear TimeVariant Runoff Gain method  
Storagefull runoff  Calibrated parameters  Soil water capacity demand curve method 
Deterministic parameters  Topographic index  
Physical conceptual  Richards equation  
Runoff yield under excess infiltration  Not clearly expressed  Infiltration curve method 
Initial and final loss method  
Physical conceptual  Green & Ampt (physical concept formula)  
Calibrated parameters  Profit and loss constant method  
Horton (empirical formula)  
Kostiakov (empirical formula)  
Philip (empirical formula)  
Hotan (empirical formula)  
Smith (empirical formula)  
SmithParlange (empirical formula) 
Table 6 The classification of flow concentration parameterization methods 
Flow concentration method  Category  

Overland flow concentration  Isochronous line  Calibrated parameters  
Unit hydrograph  Time interval unit line  Not clearly expressed  
Instantaneous unit line (J.E. Nash)  Calibrated parameters  
GIUH  Physical conceptual  
SCS runoff curve  Deterministic parameters  
Linear reservoir equation  Calibrated parameters  
Nonlinear reservoir equation  
River flow routing  SaintVenant equations  Calibrated parameters  
Simplified dynamic equation  Kinematic wave equation  Deterministic parameters  
Diffusion wave equation  
Dynamic wave equation  
Other empirical equations replacing dynamic equations  Reservoir flood routing method  Calibrated parameters  
Muskingum method  
MuskingumCunge method  
Variable storage coefficient method 
The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
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