Research Articles

The progress of human geography in China under the support of the National Natural Science Foundation of China

  • HUANG Gengzhi , 1 ,
  • LENG Shuying , 2, *
  • 1. Guangzhou Institute of Geography, Guangdong Open Laboratory of Geospatial Information Technology and Application, Guangzhou 510070, China
  • 2. National Natural Science Foundation of China, Beijing 100085, China
Corresponding author:Leng Shuying (1965-), PhD and Professor, specialized in land science and the management of geographical programs of the natural science foundation. E-mail:

Author: Huang Gengzhi (1986-), PhD and Associate Professor, specialized in urbanization, informal economies and labor geographies. E-mail:

Received date: 2018-04-16

  Accepted date: 2018-05-25

  Online published: 2018-12-20


Journal of Geographical Sciences, All Rights Reserved


This paper analyzes the role of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) in advancing human geography in China by focusing on five key research areas: land use, urban systems and urban agglomeration, economic globalization, climate change and social and cultural geographies. All NSFC-funded human geography programs related to these five topics from 1986 to 2017 comprise the sample for analysis, and the research topics, content, teams, and peer-reviewed journal publications supported by these programs are investigated. Specifically, this paper analyzes the NSFC’s promotion of the expansion of research topics in response to national developmental needs and the shifting frontiers of human geography research internationally, its enhancement of interdisciplinary research, and its contributions to the assembly of specialized research teams. The paper also reports important progress in Chinese human geography over the past 30 years through the institutional lens of the NSFC, revealing major characteristics and trends in the discipline. The paper concludes by calling for further collaboration between the research community and the NSFC for the development of a locally suitable and globally influential Chinese human geography.

Cite this article

HUANG Gengzhi , LENG Shuying . The progress of human geography in China under the support of the National Natural Science Foundation of China[J]. Journal of Geographical Sciences, 2018 , 28(12) : 1735 -1756 . DOI: 10.1007/s11442-018-1563-0

1 Introduction

The development of a discipline is influenced by many factors, including scientists’ perpetual efforts to explore the laws of things, the forces generated from meeting the needs of social development, and innovations in data acquisition techniques and research methods (Song and Leng, 2004a). As a supportive platform for scientific research, science foundations are a major contributory factor as they reflect and promote a discipline’s progress. However, although the contribution of science foundations to a discipline’s development is obvious, analyzing its role can be a complex question, not only because disciplinary development is driven by multiple forces, but also because the role of science foundations in advancing disciplines is indirect, cumulative, and long lasting. Recognizing this complexity, this paper examines the contribution of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) to the progress of human geography in China over the past three decades, from 1986 to 2017.
Human geography is a discipline concerned with spatial difference, the organization of human activities, and the use of the natural environment by human beings, with the regional human-land relationship serving as the research focus (Wu, 1991). Since the political reforms and opening-up of China in 1978, human geography has achieved considerable progress in the context of domestic socioeconomic transformations and epistemological developments in the social sciences internationally. Fang et al. (2011) reviewed the progress of research on human-land relationships, cultural geography, behavioral geography, social geography, and political geography and showed that Chinese human geography has made significant strides in theoretical innovation, research methods, and practical applications. In a more recent book, The Geographical Sciences During 1986-2015: From the Classics to the Frontiers, Leng et al. (2016) examined research topics in Chinese human geography via bibliometric analysis and found that land use and management, urbanization and urban systems, sustainable regional development, and economic globalization were primary research foci. At the same time, they found that the approaches and methods brought to these research topics have been quite diverse, as social, cultural, political, and institutional issues have received increasing attention from human geographers. The book demonstrates the contribution of the NSFC to the progress of human geography in China via quantitative analysis of its role in extending the scope of human geography research, enhancing the quality of research, and promoting the work of high-level research teams in specialized areas. For example, with respect to enhancing the quality of research, 44.7% of SCI/SSCI-indexed mainstream journal papers and 48% of Chinese core journal papers published by Chinese human geographers are funded by the NSFC. Approximately 80% of the most highly cited papers funded by the NSFC are from the top 10 ranked research institutions, which were the primary recipients of NSFC funding from 1986 to 2015 (Leng et al., 2016). The book concludes by arguing that the NSFC plays an important role in enabling Chinese human geographers to engage in and advance basic and applied research for national developmental needs.
Human geography is a discipline concerned with spatial difference, the organization of human activities, and the use of the natural environment by human beings, with the regional human-land relationship serving as the research focus (Wu, 1991). Since the political reforms and opening-up of China in 1978, human geography has achieved considerable progress in the context of domestic socioeconomic transformations and epistemological developments in the social sciences internationally. Fang et al. (2011) reviewed the progress of research on human-land relationships, cultural geography, behavioral geography, social geography, and political geography and showed that Chinese human geography has made significant strides in theoretical innovation, research methods, and practical applications. In a more recent book, The Geographical Sciences During 1986-2015: From the Classics to the Frontiers, Leng et al. (2016) examined research topics in Chinese human geography via bibliometric analysis and found that land use and management, urbanization and urban systems, sustainable regional development, and economic globalization were primary research foci. At the same time, they found that the approaches and methods brought to these research topics have been quite diverse, as social, cultural, political, and institutional issues have received increasing attention from human geographers. The book demonstrates the contribution of the NSFC to the progress of human geography in China via quantitative analysis of its role in extending the scope of human geography research, enhancing the quality of research, and promoting the work of high-level research teams in specialized areas. For example, with respect to enhancing the quality of research, 44.7% of SCI/SSCI-indexed mainstream journal papers and 48% of Chinese core journal papers published by Chinese human geographers are funded by the NSFC. Approximately 80% of the most highly cited papers funded by the NSFC are from the top 10 ranked research institutions, which were the primary recipients of NSFC funding from 1986 to 2015 (Leng et al., 2016). The book concludes by arguing that the NSFC plays an important role in enabling Chinese human geographers to engage in and advance basic and applied research for national developmental needs.
In light of these reports on the discipline’s progress, this paper aims to further analyze the contribution of the NSFC to the development of human geography in China by focusing on five key research areas: land use, urban systems and agglomeration, economic globalization, climate change, and social and cultural geographies. These represent the respective research foci of each of the major subdisciplines of human geography: rural geography, urban geography, economic geography, sustainable regional development, and sociocultural geography. Although sustainable regional development is a comprehensive subdiscipline that involves both physical and human geographical issues, it is more closely coupled with human geography institutionally. All NSFC-funded human geography programs related to these five topics from 1986 to 2017 comprise the sample for analysis. By investigating the research topics, content, teams, and peer-reviewed journal publications supported by NSFC-funded programs, this paper examines the foundation’s role in advancing human geography in China. Specifically, this paper analyzes the NSFC’s promotion of the expansion of research topics in response to national developmental needs and the shifting frontiers of human geography research internationally, its enhancement of interdisciplinary research, and its contributions to the assembly of specialized research teams. This paper also reports important progress in Chinese human geography over the past 30 years through the institutional lens of the NSFC. It contributes to the literature by revealing major characteristics and trends in the development of human geography in China. Like any discipline progress report, this paper is constrained by word length and cannot enumerate and describe all relevant achievements and research teams, but it nonetheless strives to capture the most prominent trends.

2 Sketching NSFC programs in human geography in China

From 1986 to 2017, the NSFC funded 2479 programs in human geography, with the funding amounting to 973 million yuan. The number of programs funded and the amount of funding allocated to human geography account for 16% and 13%, respectively, of the geographical sciences’ funding as a whole. The General Program (GP) and Young Scientists Fund (YSF) are the two primary NSFC funding mechanisms and account for, respectively, 42% and 40% of the total funded programs. As shown in Table 1, NSFC funding for GP and YSF increased continuously from 1986 to 2017; the average increase over each 5-year period exceeded 50%. The NSFC also funded 40 Key Programs, four National Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholar programs, and five Excellent Young Scientists Fund programs for human geography during the same period. Through these various programs, the NSFC has made a significant contribution to the coordinated development of human geography and its subdisciplines and the construction of a well-organized talent structure.
Table 1 NSFC’s general program and young scientists fund on human geography in China
Period General Program Young Scientists Fund
Number Funding
(10,000 yuan)
Per-program funding (10,000 yuan) Number Funding
(10,000 yuan)
Per-program funding (10,000 yuan)
1986-1990 55 235.5 4.3 7 18.5 2.6
1991-1995 64 478.5 7.5 13 78.4 6.0
1996-2000 76 1136.5 15.0 16 207 12.9
2001-2005 117 2856 24.4 39 880 22.6
2006-2010 202 7079 35.0 165 3076 18.6
2011-2015 375 25,748 68.7 540 12,545 23.2
2016-2017 163 11,551.6 70.9 209 5317.5 25.4

The funding amount is the sum of the direct and indirect funding.

Over the past 30 years, the NSFC supported innovative basic research in a way that responded to shifting national developmental needs. For example, in the early years of China’s political reform and opening-up, the country was undergoing rapid economic growth, industrialization, and urbanization. Human geography research reflected these priorities. From 1986 to 2000, most NSFC funding was allocated to research in economic geography and urban geography, with funding for the two subdisciplines accounting for between 70% and 80% for the 15-year period (Figure 1). However, since the late 1990s, especially after China signed the Kyoto Protocol in 1998, sustainable regional development research focusing on environmental effects and regulation has drawn increasing attention from human geographers. The NSFC thus increased funding for this growing research area, with the proportion of NSFC funding being kept at about 25% after 2000 (Figure 1).
Figure 1 Proportion of funded programs in the subdisciplines of human geography (Data are based on the types of General Program and Young Scientists Fund.)
Meanwhile, with the rise of social problems resulting from market-oriented development, social, political, and cultural issues became important objects of human geography research (Song and Leng, 2004b; Leng et al., 2016). Paralleling the “cultural turn” in Western human geography over the past decade, social and cultural geographic research has drawn increasing attention to social, cultural, political, and institutional perspectives. Since 2011, the proportion of funding allocated to programs in sociocultural geography has nearly equaled those in economic geography, urban geography, and sustainable regional development (Figure 1). At the same time, with the Chinese state attaching greater significance and urgency to rural problems, rural geography also saw rapid growth, as its proportion of NSFC funding rose to about 10%.
These developments suggest that the NSFC has sought to coordinate the development of human geography’s subdisciplines in response to shifting national and international research priorities via its funding of different research areas. This trend will be further illustrated in the analysis of the NSFC’s contributions to progress in the five research areas, given below. Table 2 shows funding allocations to each of the five research areas considered here.
Table 2 NSFC programs on the selected research areas in human geography
Research areas Land use Urban systems and urban agglomeration Economic
Social and cultural geographies
Number of programs 183 122 92 165 197
Funding amount (10,000 yuan) 7259 9255 4656 7252 7943

All data in the paper are by the end of 2017.

3 Role of the NSFC in advancing human geography in China

3.1 Enhancing the interdisciplinarity of land use research, enriching theories of the human-land relationship, and providing policy insights for sustainable urban-rural development

Land use is a complex system comprised of diverse natural and human elements that reflects the interaction and correlations between human beings and nature (Wu, 1991; Cai, 2001). As the famous Chinese human geographer Wu Chuanjun emphasized, land use describes the landscape’s embodiment of the relationship between human beings’ production activities and scientific research and the natural environment (Lu and Guo, 1998). Land use has become a central focus in research on the human-land relationship in Chinese human geography. By the end of 2017, the NSFC had funded 183 land use research programs within the broader framework of human geography, with total funding at 72.59 million yuan. The number of programs funded and the funding amount accounted for 20.7% and 14.3% of all land use research programs in the geographical sciences, respectively. Research in these programs has focused on the urbanized areas in China’s eastern coastal regions, ecologically vulnerable areas in northwest China, and rural areas in central and western regions of the country. Meanwhile, research topics corresponded with the international LUCC (Land-Use and Land-Cover Change) project, including: (1) characterizing the processes and patterns of land use change with remote sensing and GIS; (2) revealing macro- and micro-level human factors that drive land use change, including urbanization, population growth, resource development, transportation development, tourism development, agricultural policies, and farmers’ actions; (3) evaluating the environmental and social effects of land use change, such as on water and soil systems, regional climate, ecosystem services, carbon emissions, food production, and farmers’ livelihoods; and (4) exploring institutional dynamics of and measures for regulation of land use and environmental conservation. To a large extent, these projects followed the line of inquiry proposed in Wu’s notion of regional human-land relationships, which sees land use as a specific system of human-land relationships and suggests the investigation of the system’s formation, structure, and regulation (Wu, 1991).
Interdisciplinary methods are needed in research on land use change because it involves both natural and human factors. The typologies, structure, functions, and mechanisms of land use change are highly complex (Cai, 2001). The NSFC has supported and encouraged interdisciplinarity in land use research. As shown in Table 3, 59% of funded programs selected application codes denoting collaborative research, with 42% going to interdisciplinary projects (i.e., human geography and other disciplines) and 17% to intradisciplinary projects (i.e., two or more subdisciplines of human geography). Interdisciplinary programs appear to be more easily funded, as these increased from five in 2000-2004 to 29 in 2005-2009, and then to 58 in 2010-2014. The disciplines most often working in collaboration with human geographers included Integrated Physical Geography, Natural Resource Management, Regional Environmental Quality and Safety, and Geographical Information Sciences (GIS) (Table 3). Programs intersecting with GIS focused on the analysis and simulation of the processes, patterns, and evolution of land use change; programs intersecting with Regional Environmental Quality and Safety examined the ecological effects of land use change; and programs intersecting with Integrated Physical Geography engaged in comprehensive research of the driving factors, environmental effects, and control models of land use change. Land use is thus one of the main research topics in which human geography intersects closely with physical geography and GIS, reflecting a more general trend in the discipline towards interdisciplinary and integrative research—a trend that will likely continue (Fu et al., 2015).
Table 3 Interdisciplinary features of NSFC programs in land use research in human geography
Interdisciplinarity Programs in human
Programs in sustainable regional development Total
Number of funded programs 109 74 183
Number of interdisciplinary programs 66 42 108
Percentage of interdisciplinary programs (%) 61 57 59
Number of intradisciplinary programs 27 4 31
Number of interdisciplinary programs 39 38 77
Number of programs intersected with
Physical Geography 6 10 16
Integrated Physical Geography 5 7 12
Human Geography - 7 7
Environmental Change and Prediction 2 0 2
Pedology 0 1 1
GIS 6 1 7
Regional Environmental Quality and Safety 4 4 8
Natural Resources Management 8 11 19
Sustainable Regional Development 12 - 12
Ecology 0 1 1
Macro-management and Policy 1 2 3
Agricultural and Forestry Economy Management 0 1 1
Another feature of land use research in Chinese human geography is that greater attention has been paid to rural geography. About half (46%) of the funded land use research programs identify their projects with rural geography. This development illustrates Wu Chuanjun’s influence on Chinese human geographers, given his advocacy for research on land use from an agricultural geography approach (Liu, 2008). For the past three decades, the NSFC has supported a batch of researchers who have been particularly influential in their work on land use (Leng et al., 2016). For example, early in the development of Chinese human geography, She Zhixiang, from the Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology at the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), received NSFC funding to examine the relationship between land use change and agricultural production in the Yangtze River Delta region, which provided policy insights for sustainable water and soil resource use and agricultural development (She and Luo, 2007).
Two main land use research teams currently operate with support from the NSFC (Table 4). The first is led by Liu Yansui and Long Hualou at the Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS. With support from three Key Programs, nine General Programs, and five Young Scientists Fund programs, the team has conducted systematic research on the processes, driving mechanisms, effects, and regulation models of land use change in different types of regions, including agro-pastoral interlaced zones, the Huang- Huai-Hai Plain, and coastal areas. In particular, the team has focused on rural hollowing, arguing that the abandoned village is a spatial form of the evolving rural system. Their work has revealed evolutionary characteristics and driving mechanisms of rural hollowing across regions, evaluated the social, economic, and environmental harms of hollowing, and proposed policy models for renovating hollow villages (Long et al., 2009; Liu and Liu, 2010). Methodologically, the team uses large-scale and high-resolution remote sensing data and GIS tools to identify and map the distribution of hollow villages at the national and regional levels, while addressing the mechanisms driving rural hollowing through social surveys at the household and individual levels. The team has published influential papers in international journals and is well regarded internationally as representatives of Chinese rural geographers. Moreover, their research provides significant policy insights for sustainable rural development and urban-rural integration (Liu et al., 2016).
Table 4 NSFC programs on land use for main research teams in human geography
Research teams Types of program Number of programs Funding amount
(10,000 yuan)
Liu Yansui General Program, Key Program 5 558
Long Hualou Young Scientists Fund, General Program, Key Program 4 443
Principal team members Young Scientists Fund, General Program 8 362
Huang Xianjin Young Scientists Fund, General Program 3 129
Principal team members Young Scientists Fund, General Program 6 230
The other main land use research team is led by Huang Xianjin at Nanjing University. This team is well known for their research on farmers’ land use behaviors and change across diverse economic and institutional conditions in the Yangtze River Delta region. This team primarily uses social surveys and econometric models. At the macro level, their work has revealed that economic growth, population growth, and urbanization are primary factors that drive rural land use change. At the micro level, they have examined the effects of various regional economic determinants—for example, the agricultural product market, farmland market, and nonagricultural employment opportunities—on farmers’ land use behaviors and land cover change in rural China (Zhou et al., 2004; Zhong and Huang, 2012). Moreover, the team has examined the influence of various institutional factors, such as urban-rural land market integration policies and agricultural subsidies, on farmers’ land use behaviors and their arable land occupation (Huang, 2017). Their research provides valuable policy implications for more sustainable agricultural land use and the improvement of farmers’ income.

3.2 Successively supporting research on urban systems, shaping a distinctive Chinese urban geography, and serving national planning for urban agglomeration

The concept of urban systems describes the set of intercity relationships generated via urbanization, while the concept of urban agglomeration refers to cities’ functional and spatial relationships within a specific geographic area. Both are key topics of urban geography research in China and have been supported by the NSFC throughout the 30-year period under consideration. From 1986 to 2017, the NSFC funded 122 research programs on urban systems and agglomeration research, with funding amounting to 92.55 million yuan. There are four main threads of progress that have been made in these research areas. First, influenced by research on the “global city” network that prevailed throughout the 1990s, how urban systems are understood has shifted from a hierarchical conceptualization to a relational model (i.e., a network). Second, with rapid urbanization in China, research has shifted attention from an administrative division-based provincial urban system to one based in economic linkages and agglomerations. Third, with national strategic attention being paid to uneven geographic development, research extended geographically from the eastern coastal areas to the interior cities of central and western China. Fourth, increasing concerns over ecological sustainability has prompted urban agglomeration research to extend beyond issues of spatial organization to incorporate environmental effects and governance.
Research on urban systems and agglomeration has become a core focus for Chinese urban geographers (Table 5). The group led by Zhou Yixing at Peking University is one of the most influential research teams currently operating with support from the NSFC. Zhou’s team has conducted successive and systematic research on the mechanisms that drive the evolution and performance of China’s urban systems. In the mid-1990s, with support from two General Programs, “The Index System for Chinese Cities” and “Liaoning Metropolitan Area,” Zhou challenged the accepted view of urban evolution, which at the time focused on city-size distributions, proposing instead the wavy circulative ascension model to understand the dynamics of China’s city systems (Leng and Song, 2005a). In a program titled “Spatial Structure of Chinese Urban System in the Condition of Opening-up” completed in 2001, Zhou proposed the notion of primary economic linkage and argued that urban planning should prioritize economic linkages between cities (Zhou, 1998). He created frameworks for evaluation of Chinese cities, considering them in the context of economic globalization and the growing network of global cities. This allowed Zhou to measure and analyze patterns in intercity linkages, focusing specifically on the flows of railway passengers, goods, air passengers, international trade, and information exchange (Zhou and Zhang, 2003). This research provided a broad theoretical basis for understanding urban agglomeration processes in China (Leng and Song, 2005a) and had a profound influence on his team members and other Chinese urban geographers. For instance, Wang Maojun, a former member of Zhou’s team and currently a staff at the Capital Normal University, has studied Chinese urban systems using Zhou’s patent network perspective for his last three General Program projects.
Table 5 NSFC programs on urban systems and urban agglomeration for main research teams
Research teams Types of program Number of programs Funding amount (10,000 yuan)
Zhou Yixing General Program, Key Program 4 117
team members
Young Scientists Fund, General Program 6 223
Xu Xueqiang General Program, Key Program 3 118
team members
Young Scientists Fund, General Program 3 156
Ning Yuemin General Program 3 112
team members
Young Scientists Fund, General Program 5 216
Gu Chaolin General Program, Key Program, National Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholar, Subproject of Major Program 5 642
Lu Yuqi General Program, Key Program 5 445
Wang Shijun General Program, Key Program 5 523
Xiu Chunliang General Program 3 98
Xue Desheng Key Program, International (Regional) Cooperation and Exchange 2 620
Fang Chuanglin General Program, Major Program 4 2142
team members
Young Scientists Fund, General Program 4 229
Beyond Zhou’s work, a number of research teams have been examining China’s urban systems, with geographic focus on the regions of Pearl River Delta, Yangtze River Delta and northeast China. The teams include: Xu Xueqiang at Sun Yat-sen University, Ning Yuemin at the East China Normal University, Gu Chaolin at Nanjing University (now at Tsinghua University), Lu Yuqi at Nanjing Normal University, and Wang Shijun and Xiu Chunliang at the Northeast Normal University. Together, these teams have contributed to our theoretical and empirical understanding of the spatial patterns and evolution of urban systems in China; the concept, function, spatial organization, and formation mechanisms of urban agglomeration; and theories and techniques for urban system planning (Xu et al., 1995; Lu, 2002; Gu and Pang, 2008; Ning, 2011; Wang et al., 2011). Several other scholars working independently or in smaller teams have also received funding to conduct urban system research and draw on a wide variety of approaches. For example, Yan Xiaopei received support from the National Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholar to explore the rise of information industries and their effect on urban systems. Similarly, Yao Shimou and Jin Fengjun received support to examine intercity linkages within urban agglomerations from the perspective of transportation geography and, in particular, the impact that the high-speed rail system has had on the structure of urban systems, whereas Chen Wen explored cities’ integrative development modes from the perspective of regional cooperation.
Along with the globalization process, recent years have seen increasing research on non-Western approaches to globalizing cities in China and the emerging urban agglomerations in inner land of the country. One of the main research teams currently growing with the NSFC’s support is led by Xue Desheng at Sun Yat-sen University. This team focuses on the processes and forces that drive urban globalization in China. The team’s work has been critical of the extremely economy-centered approach of world city research in the Western literature and has set out to explore the diversity of world cities from historical, political, and cultural perspectives (Xue et al., 2010; Xue et al., 2014). At the same time, as a response to national strategies for coordinated urban development, an increasing number of programs funded by the NSFC have begun to conduct research on urban agglomeration in central and western China, such as in Sichuan, Chongqing, Hunan, and Xinjiang provinces. The geographical expansion of research will continue to contribute theoretical and empirical insights for China’s urban systems and agglomeration.
Increasing attention has also been paid to environmental issues in recent years. The team led by Fang Chuanglin at the Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, has made great strides. Fang’s early research on environmental sustainability in arid regions provided a basis for his later research on the environmental effects of urban agglomeration. His first NSFC General Program, “Ecological Reconstruction and Sustainable Development of Arid Regions in Northwest China: A Case Study of Liangxi Region,” was approved in 1998 and focused on problems of resource constraint, ecological and environmental change, and sustainable urbanization in arid areas. In his second General Program, approved in 2009 and titled “The Mechanism and Ecological Impacts of Spatial Expansion of Urban Agglomeration and the Computational Experiment System for Compactness Regulation,” Fang turned to urban agglomeration research. In 2015, Fang, together with Zhou Chenghu from the Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Chen Liding from the Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, CAS, Gu Chaolin from Tsinghua University, and Li Shuangcheng from Peking University, successfully applied for the NSFC’s Major Program with the title “The Coupling Mechanism and Interactive Stress Effects of Urbanization And Eco-environment in Mega-urban Agglomerations.” Fang’s team developed a technical standard to define the geographical scope of urban agglomerations, analyzing the spatial patterns, compactness, and eco-efficiency of several such agglomerations in China. They asserted that the national urban agglomeration system in China could be characterized structurally by six central urban agglomerations, 23 big urban agglomerations, and a π-shape belt of urban agglomerations (Fang et al., 2005). They proposed a strategy of grading cultivation for urban agglomeration planning (Fang, 2015). Recently, the team used an urban energy metabolism method to measure the metabolic efficiency and environmental pressures of local coupling and tele-coupling between urbanization and the eco-environment in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei agglomeration (Fang and Ren, 2017), thus providing quantitative evidence for policies to address the dispersion of Beijing’s non-capital functions and regional coordinated development.

3.3 Improving knowledge of regional development, extending the scope of economic globalization research, and meeting the changing needs of national economic development

The NSFC’s research programs in economic globalization, informatization, technology innovation, high-speed traffic, and industrial clustering have examined the various factors that drive regional development in post-reform China. Lu Dadao at the Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, has conducted comprehensive research on the patterns, dynamics, and sustainability of China’s regional developments. Lu had previously developed the “pole-axis system” theory to explain the structure of regional development in China, providing guidance to national territorial development initiatives (Lu, 1986). More recently, with the support of two Key Programs titled “Comprehensive Research on the Geographic Basis for the Regional Development of China” and “Analysis of the Sustaining System of Economic Development in China and the Dynamics of Human-land System,” Lu has been committed to studying the coupling of geographical factors that affect regional development and the resource-environmental systems in sustaining regional economic development, the aim being to explore various approaches to coordinating human-land relations (Lu, 2002; 2015). Similarly, Liu Yi emphasizes the role of resource-environmental constraints on regional development in his Key Program titled “The Study of the Resource-environmental Basis of the Changing Human-land Relation in Modern China,” exploring the relationship between social wealth accumulation and the exploitation of resources and the environment. Fan Jie, with support from two Key Programs, took an integrated approach to explore theories of regional functions and models of land development to achieve a more sustainable balance between the natural ecosystem and human systems. He developed a technical method for defining regional functions, evaluating resources and environmental carrying capacity, and providing the theoretical basis for major-function-areas planning of China (Fan, 2007). He also developed a model of balanced regional development that considers economic, social, and ecological factors (Fan, 2015). These integrative studies on regional development have valuable policy implications for sustainable development and optimized land development in China.
Although regional development is a result of both natural and human factors, economic globalization and its elements—such as foreign direct investment (FDI), transnational corporations, and international trade—have become core research foci for economic geography, largely because China’s economic development over the past 30 years has been driven by foreign capital. By the end of 2017, the NSFC had funded 92 research programs on economic globalization, with total funding amounting to 46.56 million yuan. Li Xiaojian from Henan University was one of the first Chinese scholars to study foreign direct investment with support from the NSFC. From 1996 to 2002, he examined the locational characteristics of FDI and its influence on regional development in China (Li, 1999). This research was carried out under two General Program grants, “Foreign Transnational Corporations and the Development of Coastal Regions in China: A Case Study of Shanghai” and “The Study of Spatial Network of Large-size Sino-foreign Joint Ventures.” These research programs have proven extremely influential.
In the period since the 1990s, economic geographic studies of FDI have only increased, especially after 2001 when China became a member of the World Trade Organization (WTO). Several research teams have emerged with support from NSFC funding (Table 6). Wang Jici, from Peking University, has focused on the emergence and upgrading of export-oriented manufacturing industrial clusters in the context of globalization (Wang and Zhang, 2008). He Canfei from the same university has studied FDI’s geographical concentration, locational modeling, and technological spillover effect in China, examining the ways in which FDI influences regional development. He has argued that agglomeration effects play an important role in determining where FDI concentrates in China. His research thus makes valuable contributions to traditional investment theories and location-based approaches to the study of multinational corporations (He and Liu, 2006; He and Xiao, 2011). Liu Weidong, from the Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, has focused on the interaction between foreign enterprises and local institutional environments to consider the influence of FDI on regional development patterns in China. His concept of obligated embeddedness explains globalization as a process that must be embedded in local institutional environments, suggesting that the way a region benefits from globalization depends on institutional and knowledge innovation in the region (Liu, 2003; Liu et al., 2003). Du Debin, from the East China Normal University, has studied the agglomeration effects of, and knowledge spillover from, multinational corporations’ R&D practices (Du, 2005). Zeng Gang from the same university has examined the evolution of industrial clusters from the perspective of global value chains, revealing the influence of multinational corporations on local industrial upgrading (Wen and Zeng, 2005). These studies provide a reference for local governments to formulate regional development strategies in response to the forces of globalization.
Table 6 NSFC programs on economic globalization for main research teams
Principal investigator Types of program Number of programs Funding amount
(10,000 yuan)
Li Xiaojian General Program 2 30
Wang Jici General Program, Key Program 2 133
He Canfei Young Scientists Fund, General Program, Key Program, National Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholar 5 797
Liu Weidong General Program, Key Program, National Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholar 3 586
Du Debin General Program 2 70
Zeng Gang General Program 2 40
With the promulgation of the “Belt and Road” international cooperation initiative and China’s outward FDI exceeding its inward FDI for the first time in 2014 (Zhang et al., 2017), China is seen to have entered a new phase of globalization, now characterized as “going out” or outward-facing (Liu, 2015). This periodization has raised new questions for Chinese human geographers. In the present context, the NSFC has increased funding for research programs studying outward FDI, international trade, geo-economics, and geopolitics. In fact, the NSFC had funded 12 such programs even before 2014, illustrating the foundation’s foresight in support of new research topics; after 2014, as a response to these broad shifts, the NSFC doubled its funding for such programs. This research focuses on the geographical distribution of China’s oversea enterprises, the modes of international cooperation in oil-gas resource exploitation, cross-border economic cooperation, and China’s geopolitical situation. As such, these programs have been instrumental in revealing new elements impacting China’s economic security and regional development in the present era. Hence, Lu Dadao and Du Debin’s research has shifted to geopolitics and geo-economics (Lu and Du, 2013), Liu Yi has recently become focused on world energy geographies (Yang et al., 2015), and He Canfei and Liu Weidong have shifted their research focus from FDI in China to China’s oversea FDI (He et al., 2016; Zou and Liu, 2016). To sum up, the NSFC has supported and encouraged economic geographers to engage in new research areas that reflect the circumstances of the present historical era, extending the subdiscipline’s role from the “bringing in” of FDI to now inform its “going out.”

3.4 Promoting research on human dimensions of climate change, broadening the research scope of the discipline, and meeting the national need for climate change negotiations

Climate change is one of the most severe challenges facing human beings in the 21st century. It has become a crucial issue in academia and global society in general. Since China signed the Kyoto Protocol in 1998, climate change has attracted increasing attention from domestic scholars. The NSFC started to fund human geographers to engage in climate change research in 2000. Following the 2009 Summit on Global Climate Change in Copenhagen, the number of funded programs on climate change exploded, reaching its peak in 2013 and declining slightly thereafter (Figure 2). However, after China signed the Paris Agreement in 2015, the number of funded programs grew again, as reflected in the 2017 numbers shown in Figure 2. This implies, on the one hand, that human geographers have been able to develop immediate responses to national strategic needs, and on the other hand, that the NSFC conforms to trends in academic research and supports the expansion of human geography into new research areas.
Figure 2 The growth of NSFC funded programs on climate change in human geography
By the end of 2017, the NSFC had funded 165 climate change research programs under the framework of human geography, with total funding amounting to 75.52 million yuan. Economic geography and urban geography are the two main subdisciplines engaged in climate change research (Table 7). In general, however, human geographers studying climate change focus on two key issues: the effect of climate change on, and adaptive responses of, human systems; and climate protection, carbon emissions and reduction, low-carbon economies, and low-carbon cities. The NSFC has supported human geography’s various subdisciplines to address these issues from several approaches. Economic geographers have been most concerned with measurement of carbon emissions to determine regional patterns and its driving factors; the impact of carbon-reducing policies on regional economic development such as carbon trading and the path of carbon emission reductions and their regional assignment. Environmental regulations, resulting from pressure to reduce carbon emissions, has given rise to a new interdisciplinary field, environmental economic geography. For their part, urban geographers have been attuned to the effects that urban forms and residents’ travel modes have on carbon emission rates, exploring low-carbon-oriented urban spatial structures. Social and cultural geographers have focused on measuring carbon emissions from the tourism industries, the effect of climate change on seasonal tourism products, and human systems’ responses to climate pressures. Rural geographers examine the effect of global warming on crop production and planting and study farmers’ adaptation behaviors in the face of climate change. Sustainable regional development studies have drawn attention to two aspects of these overall trends: how ecosystems such as hydrology, land cover, and agriculture respond to climate change, and the effectiveness of various carbon emissions-reduction mechanisms, such as carbon trading, low-carbon economies, and circular economies. These studies provide implications for policies promoting low-carbon economies, low-carbon urban development, and climate protection.
Table 7 NSFC programs on climate change in subdisciplines of human geography
Subdiscipline Economic
Number of programs 35 16 25 3 79 86 165
Funding amount
(104 yuan)
1658 871 1022 166 3717 3535 7252
Climate change is still an ascendant field for human geographers in China. It is believed that the teams of human geographers engaging in climate change research under the support of the NSFC are growing up as 60% of funded programs were approved in the last five years. Nevertheless, a team led by Wang Zheng from the Institute of Science and Technology Policy and Management Science, CAS, and the East China Normal University is full-fledged. With support from six NSFC-funded programs, Wang’s team has made great progress in studying cooperative efforts to protect the global climate, the estimation and prediction of carbon emissions in China, carbon emission reduction policies, and carbon trading simulations. Based on model analysis, this team has argued that China would reach peak carbon emissions in 2040 at the rate of current technological progress and that carbon emissions from energy consumption would reach their peak in 2031 under optimal growth path conditions (Wang et al., 2010; Zhu et al., 2009). Based on a comparison of various carbon emission reduction schemes at home and abroad, they proposed a more reasonable global carbon reduction cooperation scheme on the basis of Pareto improvements (Wang et al., 2015). Their research provides a valuable reference for China’s international negotiations on carbon emission reduction.

3.5 Meeting the needs of social development, facilitating the growth of sociocultural geography, and enhancing geographers’ contribution to the construction of a harmonious society

The development of sociocultural geographies in China was shaped by twin forces. On the one hand, the rapid growth of China’s market economy has resulted in serious social problems, which have turned attention to the importance of social governance. Political, social, and cultural issues have thus gradually become research themes within human geography. On the other hand, influenced by postmodern social theory and criticism, Western human geography has undergone a so-called “cultural turn” over the past two decades, and this development has had significant influence on human geography in China. To keep apace of these trends in the discipline’s development, the NSFC set up an independent submission framework for sociocultural geography programs in 2008 as a way to support the emerging subdiscipline. Hence, the number of funded programs in social and cultural geographies increased from 7 in 1990-1994 to 77 in 2010-2014 (Figure 3). By the end of 2017, the NSFC had funded 197 research programs in social and cultural geographies, with funding amounting to 79.43 million yuan.
Figure 3 The growth of the number of NSFC programs on social and cultural geographies
Overall, social geography in China has made significant progress in studying the structuring and restructuring of urban social spaces and the evolution of specific social spaces (e.g., international migrant communities, floating population communities, deprived neighborhoods). The first NSFC funding for a research program in social geography went to Wang Xingzhong from Xi’an International Studies University and was titled “Study of urban social spatial structure in the economic center of Xi’an City.” With the support of other two NSFC-funded programs, Wang completed research on living spaces in Chinese cities and a micro-locational analysis of commercial entertainment businesses. Specifically, he examined the structure of residential spaces in Chinese cities, the everyday living behaviors of residents, and the division of urban social space. Moreover, he developed a framework with which to evaluate quality of life at the level of urban communities and offered a theoretical basis for urban community planning in China. Wu Chuanjun offered praise for Wang’s work, commenting that he “developed a theoretical framework for Chinese urban social geography and filled up the gap of the under-researched area.” (Wang, 2000)
Another main social geography research team is led by Li Zhigang (now at Wuhan University) and He Shenjing (now at Hong Kong University), both at Sun Yat-sen University at the time the funding was awarded. The NSFC provided the researchers continual support, funding them with different program levels at different periods in their careers, including the Young Scientists Fund, General Program, and the Excellent Young Scientists Fund (Table 8). Li’s work focused on social differentiation, segmentation, and integration in Guangzhou’s ethnic enclaves, which include African and other new immigrant communities, revealing the roles played by institutions, market forces, and social networks in the production and reproduction of socio-spatial differentiation (Li et al., 2008; Li and Liu, 2011). He’s work was concerned with gentrification driven by urban redevelopment in Chinese cities. She examined the modes, processes, driving forces, and socio-spatial consequences of gentrification in urban China, revealing the importance of the state, market forces, and social factors in the restructuring of social space and transformations in urban China (He and Liu, 2010; He et al., 2012). Li and He have each published a number of papers in international journals and are well regarded internationally as representatives of Chinese urban social geographers (Leng et al., 2016).
Table 8 NSFC programs on social geography for main research teams
Principal investigator Types of program Number of programs Funding amount (10,000 yuan)
Wang Xingzhong General Program 3 49.5
Li Zhigang Young Scientists Fund, General Program, Excellent Young Scientists Fund 5 309
He Shenjing Young Scientists Fund, General Program, Excellent Young Scientists Fund 4 269
The NSFC fostered the development of cultural geography in two ways. The first was to promote a transformation in traditional cultural geography as a response to new trends in cultural geography in the West. Traditional cultural geography in China was concerned with the types, distribution, formation, and evolution of cultural landscapes (such as talents, settlements, place names, and calligraphy) in specific geographical regions. The first NSFC program on traditional cultural geography was directed by Situ Shangji from Sun Yat-sen University under the title “The Study of Cultural Geography in Guangdong Province”. The NSFC then funded Deng Hui from Peking University, Zhang Weiran from Fudan University, and Liu Peilin from Hengyang Normal University to study the characteristics, formation, and evolution of cultural landscapes in other regions of China. With the exception of a few scholars who continue to pursue traditional cultural geography interests, most scholars have shifted to what is described as the new cultural geography, focusing on the sociality and spatiality of culture and the meaning of cultural landscapes (e.g., the values and power relationships that shape production of cultural landscapes). The number of funded programs under this new cultural geography framework increased from 0 in 1990-2000 to 89 in 2001-2017, whereas the number of traditional cultural geography programs funded during the same period only increased from 11 to 18.
An interesting example of this transformation is Zhu Hong from Sun Yat-sen University and the South China Normal University. Following his PhD supervisor Situ Shangji, he continued to study traditional topics in cultural geography and completed his first NSFC program on the formation of Hainan’s island culture in 2006. After this project was completed, however, he turned to new cultural geography research with support from the NSFC and focused on the interpretation of urban cultural evolution in the context of globalization, including immigrants’ development of a sense of place and cultural identity and how they engage in localized negotiations with other social groups in cities. Two main research teams are currently working in the new cultural geography tradition in China (Table 9). One is the team led by Zhu Hong, which focuses on issues of identity, sense of place, social construction, and the politics of culture. This team has published papers in high-level international journals in recent years. The other is led by Zhou Shangyi at Beijing Normal University and focuses on transformations in urban cultural space, the construction of locality, and the cultural adaptations of urban immigrants. In sum, the new cultural geographers have been committed to exploring the cultural and political meanings that attend the reconstruction of human-land relationships in modernizing and globalizing China.
Table 9 NSFC programs on cultural geography for main research teams
Research teams Types of program Number of programs Funding amount (10,000 yuan)
Zhu Hong Young Scientists Fund, General Program, Key Program 4 372
Principal team members Young Scientists Fund, General Program 11 310
Zhou Shangyi General Program 4 188
Principal team members Young Scientists Fund, General Program 2 98
Liu Peilin General Program 3 128
Principal team members General Program 2 132
The second way that the NSFC has advanced cultural geography is by facilitating intersections between traditional cultural geography and other disciplines. An example is the research team led by Liu Peilin at Hengyang Normal University (Table 9). Liu’s early NSFC-funded research had focused on the cultural landscapes of traditional settlements in South China. With continual support of the NSFC, however, Liu’s more recent work has made great strides in using GIS techniques and concepts from biology to activate and renew traditional cultural geography. These unique disciplinary crossovers helped Liu develop his concept of landscape gene and promote a GIS-based mode of protection for traditional settlements. Specifically, he developed a technique for the zoning of traditional settlement landscapes in China and provided a theoretical basis for a policy of “remembering nostalgia” in the context of new-type urbanization in China (Liu et al., 2010).

4 The NSFC’s contribution to talents cultivation

Overall, the NSFC contributes to talents cultivation through its various programs by providing support to scholars at early stages in their academic career. These types of programs include the Young Scientists Fund, the General Program, the Key Program, the Excellent Young Scientists Fund, and the National Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholar. Specifically, the NSFC’s contribution to talents cultivation is its provision of financial support for individual scholars, who are meant to use the funds to develop as professional researchers in specialized research areas. From 1986 to 2017, the NSFC supported 1746 principal investigators in human geography, of which 37 were principal investigators of Key Programs, 720 led General Programs, 988 received Young Scientists Fund, and 207 directed Fund for Less Developed Regions (Table 10). The logic behind these programs is that principal investigators contribute, directly and indirectly, to attracting more talents to engage in human geography research by producing new knowledge and enhancing the social value of the discipline. Meanwhile, and importantly, funded scholars train participants and research assistants in their programs and build specialized research teams. In these direct and indirect ways, principal investigators contribute to the continuity and innovation of academic traditions and the advancement of the discipline. This section thus examines how the NSFC contributes to talents cultivation by focusing on the role of principal investigators in training participants in their programs. Two cases are offered for this examination.
Table 10 Number of principal investigators (PIs) of NSFC programs in human geography
Discipline PIs in total PIs’ institutions PIs of Key Programs PIs of General Programs PIs of Young Scientists Fund PIs of Fund for Less Developed Regions
Human geography (including sustainable regional development) 1746 356 37 720 988 207
Human geography 1285 273 21 559 734 132
The first case involves the team led by Zhou Yixing, whose research focuses on the urbanization and urban systems in China. After completing three General Programs in urbanization, Zhou led a Key Program titled “Urban Transformation in China and Spatial Dynamics of Its Self-Organization” in 2003. In implementing this program, Zhou trained a group of young scholars who went on to continue promoting research on China’s urbanization and urban systems from different perspectives (Figure 4). For example, with funding support from three General Programs, Chen Yanguang has used mathematical models to examine China’s urbanization patterns and organization. Likewise, after completing a Young Scientists Fund project in 2005, Feng Jian received support from two General Programs and has focused on understanding the process and results of China’s urbanization through the lens of suburbanization and socio-spatial restructuring. Under the successive support of three General Programs, Wang Maojun has studied the structure and formation of intercity networks in China. At the same time, each of these participants gradually built up their own research teams and trained younger researchers, as their supervisor Zhou had done. For instance, after completing his doctoral thesis in 2005, Wang Maojun took a position at the Capital Normal University, where he is building a research team for urbanization research. This case shows that by implementing a Key Program, Zhou has trained a small but growing research network focused on China’s urbanization and urban systems, thus contributing to the cultivation of new research teams at other institutions.
Figure 4 NSFC talent cultivation: the case of Zhou Yixing’s research team
A second case is the team led by Li Xiaojian, whose research focuses on farmers’ economic geographies in China. Before 2005, Li’s work was concerned with geographies of FDI and had received the support of three General Programs. Since 2005, with support from a Key Program titled “The Coordinated Development of Social Economy in Agricultural Areas of Central China under the Interaction of Farmers and Geographical Environment,” Li has turned to rural economic geography. The implementation of the Key Program gathered together a group of young scholars, most students of Li, who have followed their supervisor to advance research in rural economic geography (Figure 5). For example, Qiao Jiajun received support from two General Programs and has sought to enrich the understanding of farmer geographies by focusing on spatial agglomerations of the villages with specialized industries. Gao Genghe’s research examines the locational choices of rural migrants when they emigrate to cities or return to their hometowns. Fan Xinsheng has studied farmers’ livelihood strategies, while Li Erling has focused on industrial clusters and innovation in rural areas. As with the first case, these researchers have built up their own research teams with support from the NSFC. Some have become regional academic leaders. For example, Qiao Jiajun is an academic leader approved by the Department of Education of Henan Province. In sum, under the support of the NSFC, Li Xiaojian not only pioneered research on farmers’ economic geographies in China, but also built a professional and influential research network in rural economic geography, making Henan University and Henan University of Economics and Law the center of rural economic geography research in China.
Figure 5 NSFC talent cultivation: the case of Li Xiaojian’s research team
These two cases illustrate the NSFC’s contributions to the training of leading researchers and the growth of research teams in specialized research areas. By providing various types and levels of funding, the NSFC has played an important role in supporting the development of basic talents in human geography. Although the science and technology programs at other national administrative departments, local governments, and researchers’ institutions also play considerable roles in training tomorrow’s researchers, the NSFC has to a large extent shaped the geographical and topical distribution of human geography research in China.

5 Conclusions

This paper has examined the NSFC’s contribution to the development of human geography in China. It reports on progress in five key research areas over the past three decades, revealing major characteristics and trends in the development of Chinese human geography. The NSFC’s contribution to the progress of the discipline was seen to have proceeded along five main trajectories. First, the NSFC promoted basic research, enhanced dialogue with international academic frontiers, and supported the development of Chinese human geography with a global vision. Second, it promoted applied research to meet the needs of national strategic development, as the research it supported was applied to guide policies on urbanization, industrialization, sustainable development, economic globalization, climate change, and social governance. Third, it promoted an intersection between human geography and other disciplines by favoring research programs committed to introducing new concepts, methods, and technologies from other disciplines into human geography. Fourth, it supported new research interests in response to disciplinary developments and trends, such as the new cultural geography, China’s outward FDI, geopolitics, climate change, and low-carbon economies. Fifth, it contributed to the training of leading researchers and the building of research teams in specialized research areas, thereby contributing to the continuity of human geography as an academic tradition and discipline.
Despite these myriad achievements over the past three decades, there are many more ways that human geographers in China can advance the field. In particular, we need to make greater effort to engage in innovative theoretical work and to enhance our capabilities to lead research in the international academic community (Leng, 2013; Leng and Song, 2005b). China has diverse, variegated, and complex human geography phenomena and is an ideal place for empirical investigation of the discipline’s wide range of theories and concepts. We hope that with further collaboration between the research community and the NSFC as a supportive system, Chinese human geography will continue to grow as a globally influential and locally suitable geographical science.

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Cai Y L, 2001. A study on land utilization/cover change: The need for a new integrated approach.Geographical Research, 20(6): 645-652. (in Chinese)

Du D B, 2005. Investment motivations and location of MNC’s overseas R&D.Studies in Science of Science, 23(1): 71-75. (in Chinese)

Fan J, 2007. The scientific foundation of major function oriented zoning in China.Acta Geographica Sinica, 62(4): 339-350. (in Chinese)Major function oriented zoning (MFOZ hereafter) is the guideline for optimizing the spatial pattern of regional development in China, which entails both theoretical and methodological innovation in the academic field of economic geography. This study analyzes the basic features of territorial function and puts forward a spatial equilibrium model for regional development for the first time. It argues that there exists a trend of regional convergence in the average value which indicates the comprehensive development status of any region. Based on this finding, the study illustrates that the formation of functional zone should be conducive to the narrowing of regional gap and that free flow of resources between regions is the prerequisite to spatial equilibrium. It also investigates the impact of territorial functional evolution on the process of spatial equilibrium and suggests that the maximization of benefits derived from zoning proposal is interrelative with the method of regional division and the degree of understanding towards the temporal changes of territorial function. Furthermore, this study goes on to examine the scientific foundation of several issues concerning the reconciliation between contradictory functions of development and protection, the selection of indicators and the spatial and temporal features of MFOZ. It is then probes into the rationality of achieving dual goals of efficiency and equality simultaneously through three-dimensional flow and spatial equilibrium. The paper ends with discussions on the position, implementation and coordination of MFOZ from the perspective of institutional arrangements of spatial governance including law, planning and government policy.


Fan J, 2015. Draft of major function oriented zoning of China.Acta Geographica Sinica, 70(2): 186-201. (in Chinese)

Fang C L, 2015. Scientific selection and grading cultivation of China’s urban agglomeration adaptive of new normal in China.Bulletin of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 30(2): 127-136. (in Chinese)The urban agglomeration is a city group of highly integrated and regional co-coordinating, which has experienced four extension processes from the city to metropolitan area, metropolitan circle, urban agglomeration, then to metropolis. Urban agglomeration is the main land of One Belt And One Road(OBAOR)where the world economy focus will transfer to, the main part of the new urbanization, and the most dynamic core area with the highest potential in the economic development pattern today and future. But a series of"city disease"should be solved, such as"arbitrary range, strive for grandiose projects, spoil things by excessive enthusiasm, out of thin air, knock together", et al. These problems embodied in the following forms: the strategic position of urban agglomeration has been exaggerated overvalued, appeared"only group theory"in the new urbanization; spatial scopes of urban agglomeration expand excessively, and violate the basic purpose of urban agglomerations for state construction; urban agglomeration scopes depend too much on subjective will, and break away from the basic stand of urban agglomerations; the choice of cultivation of urban agglomeration makes endless concessions to local interests and affects the nation's overall strategic security structure; and urban agglomerations become a sensitive area and"problem"area that ecological environment problems centralized in,such as fog and haze. To solve these problems, we suggest that selecting urban agglomeration should be in accordance with the scientific standard and objective law and cultivating urban agglomeration step by step, and scientifically recognizing and understanding the objective standards and laws of nature on urban agglomeration development; distinguishing the essential difference between urban agglomeration and city cluster, avoiding confusions among them in government documents and academic research; cultivating China's urban agglomeration in large, medium, and small gradient scientifically, and constructing five big national-level urban agglomerations, nine medium regional-level urban agglomerations, and six small local-level urban agglomerations; making urban agglomeration planning adaptive to the environmental resource bearing capacity; innovating public finance system and public fiscal reserve mechanism of urban agglomeration; playing the significant role of market mechanism in urban agglomeration development, and guiding urban agglomeration comply with the new normal of economic development to realize healthy and stable development.

Fang C L, Ren Y F, 2017. Analysis of energy-based metabolic efficiency and environmental pressure on the local coupling and telecoupling between urbanization and the eco-environment in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration.Science China: Earth Sciences, 47(7): 833-846. (in Chinese)We use emergy-based urban metabolism analysis in this study to investigate the local coupling and telecoupling between urbanization and the eco-environment in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration. Our analysis encompasses the last 35 years spanning the period between 1980 and 2014. In addition, we analyze urban metabolic efficiency and environmental pressure in these couplings. There are three main conclusions of this study. First, we show that the total metabolic emergy value of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration has increased over the last 35 years, and that external elements have replaced internal ones as the leading contributors to urban metabolism in this region. The proportion of metabolic emergy derived from external elements increased from 30.87% in 1980 to 67.43% in 2014. The emergy extroversion ratio has continued to increase over our study period, while the development of this urban agglomeration had become progressively and more heavily reliant on external elements. Second, over the study period, the metabolic emergy intensity of elements of local coupling and telecoupling in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration has declined at an accelerating rate, from 1.15 10 21 Sej/100 million RMB in 1980 to 9.69 10 19 Sej/100 million RMB in 2014. This reflects a continuous increase in the economic efficiency of this area. Correspondingly, emergy use per capita increased from 7.8 10 15 Sej/person in 1980 to 5.83 10 16 Sej/person in 2014, suggesting a gradual rise in the level of social welfare in this urban agglomeration. However, we also observed a consistently elevated environmental loading ratio (ELR) in our analysis in terms of metabolism of local coupling and telecoupling elements. This result indicates that environmental pressure has also increased constantly within the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration. Third, our analysis shows that the ELR of metabolic emergy from internal elements increased from 8.30 in 1980 to 43.46 in 2014, while the ratio from external elements increased from 4.15 to 92.03. Thus, we quantitatively investigated the dependency of development within this urban agglomeration on external elements as well as the resultant environmental load. The conclusions of this study provide the basis for quantitative policy-making in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, optimizing economic structures, improving economic efficiency, controlling environmental pollution, and promoting the coordinated development of this region.


Fang C L, Song J T, Zhang Qet al., 2005. The formation, development and spatial heterogeneity patterns for the structures system of urban agglomerations in China.Acta Geographica Sinica, 60(5): 827-840. (in Chinese)The Structures Systems of Urban Agglomerations (SSUAs) in China are the spatialand synthetic polymers coupled organically by Urban Agglomerations with differentdevelopment degrees, grades, political relationship, formative reasons and spatial locationsthrough various flows of substance, power, information and knowledge. Based on the syntheticanalysis of the SSUAs at home and abroad, it is found out that world SSUAs are in theprocess of formation, the functions with different grades for Urban Agglomerations arefabricating profoundly now through new international division of labor and region, and at thesame time, although Urban Agglomerations are in the incipient phase as a whole, they are themost vigorous strategic strong point and growth pole with the greatest potential in theeconomic development framework in the future, and they will dominate the economicdevelopment orientation in China. The paper identifies three grades according to thecalculating results using of model subject to the index of development degree for UrbanAgglomerations in China. The first grade group constitutes Urban Agglomerations on theYangtze River Delta, Pearl River Delta and of capital Metropolitan Coordinating Region. Thesecond grade consists of 11 Urban Agglomerations in Shandong Peninsula, Chengdu andWuhan metropolitan coordinating regions. The third grade group is composed of 14 UrbanAgglomerations in the central Yunnan Province and the north Tianshan Mountains. Furtheranalyses indicate that there are great differences among the 28 Urban Agglomerations, butsuch differences are reasonable to some degree. They have showed some characteristics ofregional heterogeneities including different development phases, non-equilibrium in overalldistribution, regularities in regional heterogeneous pattern, distinct disintegration andheterogeneity in inter-conglomeration. Based on the above analyses, the paper suggests thatfuture studies should focus on the theoretical studies of the multi-dimension, regularity andphase subject of the SSUAs in China, enhance studies on the differences in heterogeneity andcompetitiveness in the formation and development of the SSUAs and reinforce research ontheir internationalization, globalization and dynamic monitoring.

Fang C L, Zhou S Y, Cai Y Wet al., 2011. Updated progress and perspectives of the discipline of human geography in China.Progress in Geography, 30(12): 1470-1478. (in Chinese)This paper focuses on the status quo,progress and future development prospects of human geogra-phy,particularly on its crucial and newly emerged subgroups including the theory of human-environment in-teractions,cultural geography,behavioral geography,social geography,and political geography.After compar-ing intensive literature review of both China and English-world scholars,we strongly believe that human geog-raphy in China has achieved fruitful results on its theoretical innovation,research methodology,technological innovation and practical application.Some conclusions can be drawn as follows.(1) By virtue of geographical thinking,the position and content of the theory of human-environment interactions has been greatly enhanced.(2) The scope of cultural geography has broadened,whose study direction is turning to New Cultural Geogra-phy.(3) Behavioral geography has aroused attention and generated many crucial results.(4) To meet the needs of geopolitical strategy,political geography resurges in the research and policy analysis circles.(5) Along with the construction of harmonious society,social geography is emerging as an important field.The general trends of Chinese human geography in future has to keep pace with Chinese social and economic development,be oriented to the national strategic needs,aimed at establishing a scientific development viewpoint with harmonious human-environment interactions,and solving new problems in national development with full strength.Mean-while,it should deepen studies on the theory and research methods of human-environment interactions,strengthen the research on the regulation mechanism,process,pattern,rhythm,and the demonstration and application of the man-land system,and strengthen the research on systematical management and monitoring,dynamic simulation,and technique support system,and enhance the research on global problems,global change and its regional response in the evolution process of man-land system,and reinforce the research on human-oriented environmental ethics and ecological morality of man-land system.With the rapid development of the national cultural industry and the strategic requirement of cultural construction of a powerful country,we should strengthen the inter-disiciplinary research between cultural geography study and cultural industry promotion,and construct the subject system of cultural geography based on absorbing overseas advanced results.Meanwhile,the theoretical scope and depth of research on behavioral geography should be expanded,and the experimental study should be strengthened.Last but not the least,human geographers should pay attention to the research of New Geopolitics,urban political geography and local political geography,and promote the development of social geography based on the Sixth National Population Census Data.We did this research to promote a faster but sound and sustainable development of human geography in China.


Fu B J, Leng S Y, Song C Q, 2015. The characteristics and tasks of geography in the new era.Scientia Geographica Sinica, 35(8): 939-945. (in Chinese)Geography is a subject of "exploring the laws of nature, declaring the human essence", with characteristics of comprehensiveness and interactiveness. Since the 1980 s, Geography plays an important role in global environmental change research programs. Theories, methods and techniques of Geography have become the basis for solving the problems of the sustainable development of human society is facing. Originated in the global environment change research, and combined with the social science research, The " Future Earth" research plan represents the direction of the development of Geography in the new period. In contemporary, Geography research methods have shift from survey, observation, and records, drawings and other traditional research methods to the modern scientific methods such as spatial statistics, earth observation, GIS, indoor and outdoor simulation and modeling, decision-making system, etc., and are gradually tend to comprehensive and quantitative. As the problems that Geography is facing are more complex and more comprehensive, the Geography research issues become more comprehensive and diverse, and attract more extensive subjects to participate in. In more and more field, the angle of Geography are considered. The discipline boundary that concepts and tools belonging to is blurring. In the new era, the geography, is heading for geographical science. China is an ideal geography test sites of studying the problem of the sustainable development of human society. The future development of Chinese Geography needs to deepen the comprehensive and integrated understanding of the complex man-land system, and strengthen the research of global problems. To achieve the goal of geographical science and social service value, the internationalization level of Chinese geographical science needs to be promoted, and the ability of using advanced technology to parse geographical phenomenon needs to be improved.


Gu C L, Pang H F, 2008. Study on spatial relations of Chinese urban system: Gravity model approach.Geographical Research, 27(1): 1-12. (in Chinese)

He C F, Dong Y, Zhou Y, 2016. Evolution of export product space in China: Path-dependent or path-breaking?Acta Geographica Sinica, 71(6): 970-983. (in Chinese)Regional economic development is closely related to its productive structure, which evolves constantly. Economic geographers argue that the evolution of regional productive structure is path- dependent and stress the importance of technological relatedness. However,recent studies also suggest that regional and industrial policies may help create a new path of regional development. This study follows the method proposed by Hidalgo to measure technological relatedness and generate product space of Chinese exports using the trade data of China's 31 provinces during 2001- 2013. The results show that China has experienced substantial structural transformation in export products, but there are significant regional differences. The coastal region has shifted from the labor intensive to capital and technology intensive products, the central and northeastern regions have first evolved from the resource intensive to labor intensive products, and then to capital and technology intensive products. The western region has transferred from the resource intensive to labor intensive structures.Econometric analysis reports that the evolution of export products of the four regions was significantly driven by technological relatedness during 2001- 2007. Technological relatedness still played its role during 2008- 2013 for the eastern, central and northeastern regions. But in the western region, regional and industrial policies support the structural transformation of export products. The significance of technological relatedness implies that the evolution of regional export products in China is path dependent. The role of regional policies suggest that institutions may create a new development path.


He C F, Liu Y, 2006. Industrial agglomeration and sectoral distribution of foreign direct investment: A case study of Beijing.Acta Geographica Sinica, 61(12): 1259-1270. (in Chinese)The purpose of this paper is to investigate the systematic forces that determine the sectoral distribution of foreign investment. Unlike the existing literature, this study highlights the importance of industrial agglomeration and industrial linkage in attracting foreign investment. Using a panel dataset of two-digit manufacturing industries in Beijing during the period 1999-2004, this study finds that geographically agglomerated industries with strong intra-industrial linkages attract much foreign investment. Previous foreign investments have demonstration effects, information spillover effects and linkage effects, leading to industrial concentration of foreign investment. Investors also highly favor capital and technology intensive industries and are drawn to the most profitable and exporting industries, but avoid industries with high effective wage rates and high entry barriers. This study provides strong evidence to support that competitive and comparative advantages of local industries are critical to allure foreign investment. The existence of industrial clusters certainly heightens a city's attractiveness to foreign investment.


He C F, Xiao X J, 2011. Geography of multinational corporations in China.Acta Geographica Sinica, 66(12): 1669-1681. (in Chinese)

He S J, Liu Y T, 2010. Mechanism and consequences of China’s gentrification under market transition.Scientia Geographica Sinica, 30(4): 496-502. (in Chinese)Based on a review of the mutation of gentrification in the west,this paper examines the mechanism and consequences of China's emerging gentrification under the background of market transition. Prawing on a detailed anlaysis of China's political economic transformation in the post-reform era,this study shows that strong state intervention plays an important role in promoting China's gentrification. This can be seen from three aspects. First,the state stimulates and accommodates the consumption demands of the emerging middle class through launching land and housing reforms. Second,to create optimal conditions for capital circulation,the state makes policy interventions and invests heavily in environment beautification and infrastructure construction. Third,the state mobilizes the most important resources,e. g. land and resettlement housing,to tackle the problem of fragmented property rights and to facilitate gentrification. Under market transition,China's gentrification resembles its western counterparts,and shows two distinctive characteristics:the state plays a predominant role throughout the gentrification process; the social interests of low-income groups have been overwhelmed by the economic interests of local government and real estate developers. This particular form of state-sponsored gentrification in China is motivated by the pursuit of economic growth and urban development,at the cost of large-scale residential displacement. At the end of this paper,the authors elaborate the negative effects of gentrification in Chinese cities,and discuss possible solutions to overcome these adverse consequences.

He S J, Qian J X, Xu Y Xet al., 2012. Spatial-temporal evolution of rural gentrification amidst rapid urbanization: A case study of Xiaozhou village, Guangzhou.Acta Geographica Sinica, 67(8): 1044-1056. (in Chinese)

Huang X J, 2017. A review of effects of urban and rural land market integration on land utilization and land cover change.Scientia Geographica Sinica, 37(2): 200-208. (in Chinese)In order to break through the segmentation between urban and rural land markets, and achieve the target of integrated land use of ountain-water-forest-cropland-lake', integrated urban and rural land markets need to be developed. This study explored the mechanism impacts of urban land market, informal rural collective construction land market, and rural agricultural land circulation market on land use/land cover change(LUCC). The results show that,first, the segmentation between urban and rural land markets still existed, and resulted in a great effect on LUCC. Second, the different development degree of urban state-owned construction land market has a direct impact on relationship between land supply and demand, as well as land use structure, and even on the efficiency of land use allocation. Third, the rural collective construction land market has appeared, which accelerated the speed of the transformation of land use types because of the vagueness of property rights and the lack of legal supervision and protection. Fourth, the segmentation of urban land rural land markets affected the sustainability of land use systems and the ecosystem and environmental systems. Finally, on the basis of above results, we thought that the future research will strengthen the analysis of the integration of urban land rural land markets. Moreover, the response mechanism(pattern, process and effect) of the integration of urban and rural land markets on LUCC will be revealed.

Leng S Y, 2013. Characteristics of human geographical programs of NSFC.Acta Geographica Sinica, 68(10): 1307-1315. (in Chinese)

Leng S Yet al., 2016. The Geographical Sciences During 1986-2015:From the Classics to the Frontiers. Beijing: The Commercial Press. (in Chinese)

Leng S Y, Song C Q, 2005a. The continuous progresses of urbanization and urban system study in China.Science Foundation in China, (4): 233-235. (in Chinese)Key Words】:


Leng S Y, Song C Q, 2005b. Challenges and opportunities of Chinese geography.Acta Geographica Sinica, 60(4): 553-558. (in Chinese)A rational institutional framework consisting of relavant research institutes and intellectuals has been formed in China in the process of geographical development. However, geographical development is also meeting challenges in the point of view of either disciplinary development or national demands for new economic construction and social advancement. Generally there are some advantages in practical demands for and professional reserve of Chinese geography as well as the understanding of international geographical developmental trend. Meanwhile there are still some gaps compared with the international advanced standard in the aspects of professionals' train of thoughts relating to integrated studies, problems of interest, research methods and approaches, knowledge structure of professionals as well as public recognition of the role of geography.

Li X J, 1999. Outward foreign direct investment and its impact on economic development of coastal China.Acta Geographica Sinica, 54(5): 420-430. (in Chinese)

Li Z G, Liu Y, 2011. Beyond spatial segregation: Neo-migrants and their social network in Chinese cities.Acta Geographica Sinica, 66(6): 785-795. (in Chinese)Against the context of the speed-up urbanization, neo-migrants in China, i.e. those born after the 1980s, emerge as a major actor shaping contemporary urban China. Unlike their predecessors who flooded into cities as Diaspora, neo-migrants become deeply grafted into cities. Being a major concern of Chinese society, such neo-migrants and their social relations have never been systematically explored. Based on a survey of eight migrant villages in Guangzhou, the largest capital of southern China, this study sheds light upon the social network and related issues for neo-migrants. In particular, it tries to examine the impacts of the enclave or accumulation space upon the social networks of migrants. Through a series of quantitative studies, it is found that the social networks of neo-migrants is becoming diversified, modernized and varied across the urban space. In contrast to the old generation migrants, more connections can be found between the neo-migrants and various social strata, especially those beyond the enclaves. As such, it is argued that the social network of neo-migrants is moving beyond the boundary of migrant enclaves or villages, so that a new trend of social integration between migrants and the local society can be found. Moreover, it is argued that new migrant enclave today is by no means as insulated or segregated as in history, as migrant enclaves is gradually reconstructed when neo-migrants establish new types of social ties beyond the spatial boundaries. Nevertheless, sociospatial segregation between migrants and local residents still can be found, and the significance of traditional social networks for migrants, i.e., kinship or laoxiang relations, is still evident, though the extent of which has been largely alleviated. In addition, migration history, social economic status and social cultural characteristics also have significant impacts upon the restructuring of migrant social networks. As such, it is concluded that that the trend of moving beyond the spatial segregation in terms of neo-migrants' social networks will be a progressive, piecemeal and time-lasting process.


Li Z G, Xue D S, Michael Let al., 2008. The African enclave of Guangzhou: A case study of Xiaobei.Acta Geographica Sinica, 63(2): 207-218. (in Chinese)Market reform and economic restructuring is reshaping the cities in mainland China. In the last two decades, a spate of studies have examined the transformation of urban social space under the perspective of socioeconomic transition, few lights, however, are shed on the implication of globalization upon urban China. Though the literature of transnationalism has extensively examined ethnic enclaves of Western cities especially the US, little is known about globalizing Chinese cities such as Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou. This paper takes efforts to examine the newly appeared ethnic enclaves of African traders in Guangzhou, using Xiaobeilu as a study area. It mainly targets on the sociospatial feature as well as the underlying mechanism. The booming of Guangzhou's exporting economy is examined, followed by a general description of ethnic enclaves of transmigrants in Guangzhou. Five enclaves are identified, Sanyuanli, Huanshidong, Tianhebei, Ersha island, and Panyu, while the former two sites, Sanyuanli and Huanshidong, are becoming enclaves of African traders. As such, Xiaobeilu, one part of Huangshidong, is chosen to conduct in-depth studies. Under a microscopic lens, both questionnaires and half-structured interviews are used in the survey of 2006-2007. Though this study will use intensive interviews as the main method, questionnaires target on both Black and Chinese residents of Xiaobeilu are also used, and 45 questionnaires of African Traders have been collected, along with around 43 questionnaires of local residents. Importantly, a total of 46 semi-structured interviews have been successfully conducted, so that abundant qualitative information can be put into use. First, it is argued that Guangzhou's Black ethnic enclave is by no means the same as that of the West. Though the development of the enclave is largely an outcome of 'globalization from below', it is also heavily shaped by the national and local forces. Transnational migrants have been attracted to China as early as 1980, most African traders, however, came to Guangzhou after the door of China opened further in the late 1990s. Located in PRD (Pearl River Delta), one of the world factories of China, Guangzhou enjoys advantaged status in terms of goods export, annual fairs, accommodation, and so on. Moreover, the restructuring of Xiaobeilu is interacting with localities such as Guangzhou's entrepreneurial history and culture. It is found that most transnational migrants of Xiaobeilu come from West Africa and they work as merchants, either floating or fixed, to collect products, such as shoes, clothes and electronic facilities. Africans of Xiaobeilu can be grouped into two types: salesmen and tradesmen, the former is featured by regular mobility of crossing borders, whilst the latter, as Diasporas, has developed social networks to trade between China and Africa. Accordingly, Xiaobeilu is becoming a social field featured by ethnic enclave economy, within which the residents are featured by both high mobility and diversity. Nevertheless, African traders of Xiaobeilu suffer a high possibility of residential segregation. As such, globalization adds Chinese cities such as Guangzhou a new dimension of sociospatial segregation, ethnicity.


Liu P L, Liu C L, Deng Y Yet al., 2010. Landscape division of traditional settlement and effect elements of landscape gene in China.Acta Geographica Sinica, 65(12): 1496-1506. (in Chinese)The landscape division of traditional settlement is the job with a strong concept with theory and practicality.It is one of the most important topics in studies on cultural landscape division.In views of the characteristics of regional,systematic,stable,development,identical,typical and harmonious traditional settlement landscape in China,setting the inner similarity of traditional settlement landscape "Image" as precondition,and taking opposite consistency principle as main principle while considering other principles,this paper divides the nation's settlement landscape into three large-sized landscape regions,14 landscape regions and 76 landscape subregions.The division,from the practice,are based on the relevant landscape principle,such as the principle of environmental constraints,the principle of cultural guidance,the principle of integrated regions,the principle of relevant identity,the principle of covering and non-continuity,the principle of structures,the principle of comprehensive and landscape identity,etc.Naming principle of landscape area at all levels is area-name plus charecteristic and general name.These large-sized landscape regions,landscape regions and landscape subregions are all different in environmental quality and cultural background,so their integrated settlement and architectural landscapes show strong "identifiability" and "impressionality".The division of China's traditional settlement in this article is from the landscape gene perspective rather than based on cultural characteristics used before.Finally,the paper,in the view of "landscape gene",analyzes the main elements that influence the judges of China's traditional settlement landscape genes,from the elements of psychology,ecology,aesthetics,environment,culture,time and order and so on.


Liu W D, 2003. Interdependent relationship between economic globalization and local development: Obligated embeddedness.World Regional Studies, 12(1): 1-9. (in Chinese)

Liu W D, 2015. Scientific understanding of the Belt and Road initiative of China and related research themes.Progress in Geography, 34(5): 538-544. (in Chinese)The Belt and Road Initiative here the "Belt" stands for the Silk Road Economic Belt and the "Road" stands for the 21 st Century Maritime Silk Road s a call of China for new modes of regional economic cooperation under the trend of development of economic globalization. It targets at promoting orderly and free flow of economic factors, efficient allocation of resources, and deep integration of markets; enabling the countries along the Belt and Road to achieve economic policy coordination and carry out broader, deeper, and more efficient economic cooperation; and jointly building an open, inclusive, and balanced regional economic cooperation architecture. Thus the Belt and Road Initiative is an alternative road to further economic globalization, but contains ideas that are different from the past, that is, the spirit of the Silk Road "peace and cooperation, openness and inclusiveness, mutual learning and win-win." Based on such an understanding, this article first analyzes the general background of the Belt and Road Initiative against economic globalization and the changing configurations of the world, and then discusses the Initiative's spatial connotation by revealing its multi-scalar and transscalar characteristics. The article points out that the Belt and Road Initiative is a national strategy, rather than a regional strategy, to coordinate all-around opening of China to the world and promote further integration of the country into the global economy. Last, the article suggests several research themes in geography that are brought about by the Belt and Road Initiative, including geopolitical studies, geography of countries of the region to explore cooperation opportunities, foreign direct investment theories advanced by the Belt and Road Initiative, and optimization of transcontinental transportation.

Liu W D, Ma L, Liu Y, 2003. The impact of economic globalization on regional development in China.Areal Research and Development, 22(6): 11-17. (in Chinese)One of the major features of the development of the world economy in the last two decades is economic globalization. Although there are still debates on what is economic globalization, it is widely accepted that increasing foreign direct investment (FDI) and international trade are two major indicators of such a phenomenon. Since the opening and reform in the late 1970s, China has been heavily involved in economic globalization in the form of FDI inflow and increasing import and export, which has greatly promoted the economic growth of China and influenced its regional pattern. This paper aims to provide an empirical study to theunderstanding how economic globalization has influenced regional development in China. The authors first examine the provincial distribution of FDI inflow and international trade in China, then analyze the degree of provincial participation in economic globalization, and lastly assess the impact of participation in economic globalization on provincial economic growth in China by employing a multi_regression method. Analysis in this paper indicates that FDI inflow has been playing a stronger and stronger role in regional economic growth in China and is a major factor leading to increasing regional disparity in the country. Indeed, economic globalization has resulted in the Matthew Effect in China, i.e. the stronger region goes stronger and the weaker region goes weaker. Under such a situation, strong government interference is necessary to narrow regional disparity in China.

Liu Y S, 2008. Modern agricultural geography and innovative land utilization research: Celebrating 90-years-old birthday of Sir Wu Chuanjun.Acta Geographica Sinica, 63(4): 353-358. (in Chinese)

Liu Y S, Liu Y, 2010. Progress and prospect on the study of rural hollowing in China.Geographical Research, 29(1): 35-42. (in Chinese)

Liu Y S, Zhou Y, Liu J L, 2016. Regional differentiation characteristics of rural poverty and targeted poverty alleviation strategy in China.Bulletin of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 31(3): 269-278. (in Chinese)Poverty is a challenge facing all countries and the international community as a whole. Narrowing the rural-urban gap and eliminating poverty to ultimately achieve common prosperity is an ideal that humanity constantly pursues. China has long insisted the government-led to promote poverty reduction and constantly bring forth theoretical,organization,and institutional innovation of poverty relief in practice,and explored a road of poverty alleviation and development with Chinese characteristics that captures the world's attention,contributing significantly to the global effort to eliminate poverty. However,at present China still have 70.17 million poor people in rural areas,becoming the biggest weakness for building moderately prosperous society. This study deeply analyzed and investigated the basic characteristics of Chinese rural poverty in the new era and then revealed the laws of territorial differentiation of rural poverty,and explored the leading factors and the main sticking points of rural poverty. Finally,we proposed some problem-oriented policy implications for poverty alleviation in China. Results showed that China has still large poor populations with the characteristics of wide distribution and deep poverty,and it is more and more difficult to leave the remaining poor population out of poverty by conventional measures. The phenomenon on poverty and returning to fall into poverty again for the poor who have got rid of poverty induced by disease,disability,and natural disasters are very universal. The remaining poor population gradually gathered towards the central-western deep mountain,alpine areas,minority areas,and border areas,with coexistence of impoverished households,poor villages,poverty counties and areas. The proportion of poor people in the northwestern and southeastern regions of the Hu Huanyong line was 16.4% and 83.6%,respectively. The crux of the persistent poverty in rural China was largely due to harsh natural conditions,poor regional location,infrastructure backwardness,uneven regional development,and inaccurate early anti-poverty policies and measures. These findings demonstrated that it is urgent to innovate the institutional mechanisms for anti-poverty and promote scientifically the targeted poverty alleviating strategy in China. In present,five important aspects need to be strengthened further to implement China's targeted poverty alleviation strategy:(1) Deepening the frontier theory and practical exploration of the targeted poverty alleviation;(2) Strengthening the institution establishment,management innovation and platform creation of the targeted poverty alleviation;(3) Attaching importance to summarizing the new modes emerging in the process of poverty alleviation and development for different region types;(4) Creating a multi-target system for the assessment of targeted poverty alleviation and its dynamic evaluation mechanism;(5) Integrated planning and long-term design of the strategy for shaking off poverty and sustainable development in the rural areas.

Long H L, Li Y R, Liu Y S, 2009. Analysis of evolutive characteristics and their driving mechanism of hollowing villages in China.Acta Geographica Sinica, 64(10): 1203-1213. (in Chinese)

Lu D D, 1986. Scientific basis for the overall plan of industrial productive allocation of China up to 2000.Scientia Geographica Sinica, 6(2): 110-118. (in Chinese)The author argues that there shouldn't occur any essential change(shifting) in the overall plan of the industrial productive allocation and it is inappropriate to set the more balancing regional development as the major target during the rest of the century. Since the production of industrial enterprises, either mining. raw material production or its processing, emerges from and agglomerates on geographical points and is connected each other by linear infra-structures, identification of the major industrial regions means the defining of key axes of development. By means of axes development an optimum spatial combination of the allocation of industry and that of transportation can be realized. Through analysis the author concludes that the most effective pattern of the spatial organization of industry is a point-axis system consisting of two first-order key developing axes, i. e, the coastal belt and the Yangtze River banks, and eight second-order developing axes. Another strategic measure to promote the development of industry is the small-scale adjustment of the rpatial structure of the large and medium-sized cities and industrial agglomerations.

Lu D D, 2002. Theoretical studies of man-land system as the core of geographical science.Geographical Research, 21(2): 135-145. (in Chinese)

Lu D D, 2015. Moderate-speed growth: Sustainable development of China’s economy.Scientia Geographica Sinica, 35(10): 1207-1219. (in Chinese)China's national economy has experienced a long period of rapid growth, but prominent structural problems have already appeared. Instead of following the traditional research approach of investigating the speed of future economic growth through investment, consumption and export, this article analyzes the capacities of systems which support economic growth, including resource(energy), environment(bearing capacity)and the urbanization and development patterns on the basis of resources and environment. It includes seven aspects: 1 It points out that the long period of high-speed-but-low-efficiency economic growth has led to the structural problems at the current stage. 2 It analyzes the serious situation of China's environmental pollution. 3 It argues that excessive consumption of natural resources may bring about severe national security issues. 4 It indicates that urbanization is the most important supporting factor of the high-speed economic development of our country.5 It holds that the development patterns of"world factory"of low-end products and relying on investment which have been practiced for a long period of time are important concepts and supports of the high-speed economic development of China. 6 It also argues that China has taken full advantage of backwardness which has limits in fact. 7 Finally, based on practice and international experience, it analyzes the relationships between the speed of economic growth and employment, the influence of the country, and economic transformation briefly. Based on these analyses, a meta-synthetic research is conducted and the following conclusions are arrived at: China's economic development will enter a stage of moderate-speed growth rather quickly. The economic growth of a moderate speed will create significant opportunities and spaces for building economic superpower and achieving a harmonious society in China.

Lu D D, Du D B, 2013. Some thoughts on the strengthening of geopolitical and geo-economic studies.Acta Geographica Sinica, 68(6): 723-727. (in Chinese)The rise and fall of the great powers undoubtedly is not dominated by geo-political and geo-economic rules. Since the end of the Cold War, with the rapid economic development of China and other emerging countries, the international power structure is undergoing profound restructuring and the world is entering the new geo-political and geo-economic era. At present, China's geopolitical environment has become increasingly complex and its peaceful development urgently needs geopolitical and geo-economic theoretical support. Based on analysis of the current world geopolitical and geo-economic development trend, this paper discusses the ideological origins on the fundamental role of geography in the development of geopolitics and geo-economics; analyzes the deficiencies of the Chinese geographers in the field of geopolitics and geo-economics; and then puts forward some suggestions how to strengthen the geopolitical geo-economic studies.

Lu D D, Guo L X, 1998. Man-earth areal system—the core of geographical study: On the geographical thoughts and academic contributions of Academician Wu Chuanjun.Acta Geographica Sinica, 53(2): 97-105. (in Chinese)Academician Wu Chuanjun is an outstanding geographer of China, well known home and abroad. In his academic career of 60 odd years, Professor Wu has made significant contributions to the development of geographical study and national construction in China, and has been taking a leading role in the process of increasing international recognition of Chinese geography and enhancing international communication of China's geographical circle with foreign colleagues through his continuous hard efforts and serious commitment. This paper elaborates briefly the profound geographical thoughts of Professor Wu, and gives a concise introduction to his remarkable contributions to the overall development of geography in China, with focus on his significant achievements in the aspects of strengthening agriculture geography and land use study, defining the development orientations of China's economic geography, opening up new research fields such as territorial planning and sustainable development, initiating and organizing the renewal of China's human geography, organizing the internal cooperation in China's geographical society, promoting international academic communication, etc.. This paper also gives insight discussions on the theory of man-earth areal system, the essence of geographical thoughts of Professor Wu, mainly referring to the background, conceptions and its relationship with sustainable development of the theory. Professor Wu creatively put forward the theoretical term of an earth areal system , and stresses that man earth relationship remains as the core of geographical study in all developmental stages of the discipline. He proposed that the major contents of geographical study should include following issues: general theories about the formation, functional structure and development of man earth areal system; study on the relationship among sub systems of man earth areal system, such as interaction intensity analysis, potential assessment, effect evaluation and risk analysis; study on the basic rules concerning the material and energy flow and convey in man earth areal system and approaches of overall systematic control; analysis of areal capacity of population; study on the dynamic models; analysis of areal differences and areal categorizing; study on the improved monitoring and modeling of coordinated man earth relationship of various types of regions of different spatial levels and scopes, and so on. Professor Wu has long been paying great efforts in training qualified personnel for the long term prosperity of China's geographical career, with remarkable results concerning various fields and levels. With his most respected age of eighty approaching, Professor Wu is still on his important career mission with full energy and wisdom, providing strategic support to the development of China's geographical study towards the 21st century.


Lu Y Q, 2002. The mechanism of the model of dual-nuclei structure.Acta Geographica Sinica, 57(1): 85-95. (in Chinese)The model of dual-nuclei spatial structure is a kind of phenomena of spatial structure that is composed of a regional central city, a port city and their relations at a certain region It is generally founded in the coastal belt, the region along the Yangtze River in China and other countries and regions in the world. From the view of the mechanism, the phenomena of dual-nuclei spatial structure comes from spatial compag of a regional central city and a port city. Because giving attention to centered nature of a regional central city and fringe nature of a port city, it can carry out complements in station and function. From the view of type of formation, the dual-nuclei spatial structure can be classified into two types, namely, endogenic pattern and ectogenetic pattern. China and America are their typical deputies. From the latter, it derives the special phenomena of dual-nuclei spatial structure that is made up of the new capital and the old. The formation of dual-nuclei spatial structure has something to do with the drainage basin. According to it, we can build up an ideal model about the formation of dual-nuclei spatial structure that is based upon the drainage area. The integrated action which includes the natural condition character of drainage area, the change of transport structure and the direction of mostly transport route can make the forming area of dual-nuclei spatial structure spread from the drainage area to other common area.


Ning Y M, 2011. Definition of Chinese metropolitan areas and large urban agglomerations: Role of large urban agglomerations in regional development.Scientia Geographica Sinica, 31(3): 257-263. (in Chinese)The large urban agglomerations are the main form of spatial organization of urbanization,and they have become the powerful engine of national economic development.Since reform and opening-up,China has re-integrated into the world economic system,and both industrialization and urbanization have accelerated the enlargement of scale of large urban agglomerations and upgraded their function level.This paper firstly defines the concept of Chinese metropolitan areas based on the data attained from the fifth national census,and distinguishes the three types of Chinese metropolitan areas.In 2000,China had a total of 117 metropolitan areas,of which twenty-six areas had a population of 2 million or more.Then,the paper defines the concept of large urban agglomerations in China,and summarizes the basic features of 13 large urban agglomerations.This paper uses the metropolitan area as the basic unit to define the concept of large urban agglomerations in China,then analyzes their spatial distribution and roles in regional development.And the author thinks that Chinese large urban agglomerations play important roles as the centre of gravity of the national economy and the growth engines in regional development.

She Z X, Luo Y M, 2007. The Resources and Environment of Water-Land and Sustainability of the Yangtze River Delta. Beijing: Science Press. (in Chinese)

Song C Q, Leng S Y, 2004a. Some ideas on the subject building taking advantage of general programs of NSFC.Science Foundation in China, (6): 362-365. (in Chinese)Key Words】:


Song C Q, Leng S Y, 2004b. Features of recent human geography researches granted by NSFC.Acta Geographica Sinica, 59(Suppl.): 8-10. (in Chinese)

Wang J C, Zhang Y, 2008. Exported-oriented clusters’ forming getting out of dilemma and upgrading prospect in Chinese coastal areas.Reform, (5): 53-59. (in Chinese)In a substantial degree,the formation of cluster in coastal China is thanks to offshore outsourcing of MNC who utilizes local resources.So its features are different from innovative cluster.The clusters should be viewed by taking the global value chain and local supply chain into consideration.Cities in the supply chain and cluster of cluster are new phenomena during the clustering process.At certain development level,clusters in coastal China will probably be caught in the dilemmas,such as racing at the bottom,cluster relocation.In the face of multi-challenges, coastal cluster have to transform to innovative cluster,while the public policy should provide the needed support.

Wang S J, Song Y, Feng Z Xet al., 2011. Pattern and progress of large urban agglomerations and urban flows intensity in Northeast China.Scientia Geographica Sinica, 31(3): 287-294. (in Chinese)The urban agglomerations in Northeast China group grew up in the special historical period,under a special economic background,and its unique structure and function has been the regional labor division of the old industrial bases in Northeast China,even controled the economy development in Northeast China.According to the connotation of urban agglomeration,cities group and urban agglomeration group,this paper pointed out there currently exist objectively three large urban agglomerations,namely,urban agglomerations of Central Southern Liaoning,Central Jilin and Harbin-Daqing-Qiqihar in Northeast China.According to the formation,development process and the present situation,Central Southern Liaoning has already developed into a mature urban agglomeration,while Central Jilin and Harbin-Daqing-Qiqihar are still in intermediate stage of urban group development.Thus it has been formed a spatial structure with 'an agglomeration and two groups' in Northeast China.By the analysis on the urban extroversion meritorious energy and urban flows intensity in three large urban agglomerations in Northeast China,it was found that there is not any city's location quotient for the main extrovert service of the urban agglomeration being greater than 1.And their development levels were lower than that of domestic advanced urban agglomeration.The future development should focus on urban agglomeration organization structure,network development pattern,function division and complementary,development relationship coordination,etc.,and further control and optimization are needed.Central Southern Liaoning should strengthen the benefit mechanism and efficiency mechanism when the heavy industry and equipment manufacturing continuously develop;Central Jilin should consolidate industrial relation,sticking to the development of automobile industry and emerging industries;Harbin-Daqing-Qiqihar should lay emphasis on resources-substitute industry and emerging industries.


Wang X Z, 2000. Study on Socio-spatial Structure in Urban China. Beijing: Science Press. (in Chinese)

Wang Z, Gu G X, Wu Jet al., 2015. CIECIA: A new climate change integrated assessment model and its assessments of global carbon abatement schemes.Science China: Earth Sciences, 45(10): 1575-1596. (in Chinese)From the perspective of global economic general equilibrium, this study developed a new climate change IAM named CIECIA. The economic core of this IAM is a multi-country-sector general equilibrium model. The endogenous technology progress mode is introduced into CIECIA. Based on this model, three assessment principles of the global cooperating abatement scheme are proposed, including effectiveness, feasibility, and fairness. This study simulated and analyzed six types of primary global cooperating abatement schemes. The simulated results indicate that all of the selected schemes can satisfy the climate mitigation targets by 2100. Thus, they are all effective schemes. However, the schemes have quite different feasibilities and fairness. The Stern Scheme benefits the developed countries, but is unfair to the developing countries. The Nordhaus Scheme promotes the developments of the developing countries. However, it leads to negative impacts on the interests of the developed countries. The principle of convergence on accumulated carbon emissions per capita and the principle of convergence on carbon emissions per capita benefit the economic developments of the middle and low developing countries most. However, these two types of schemes cause tremendous losses to the main economic entities in the world including China. The Pareto Improvement Scheme, which was developed from the Global Economic Growth Scheme, balances the fairness and feasibility in the carbon abatement process and realizes the Pareto improvement of accumulated utilities in all the participating countries. Thus, the Pareto Improvement Scheme is the most reasonable global cooperating carbon abatement scheme.


Wang Z, Zhu Y B, Liu C Xet al., 2010. Integrated projection of carbon emission for China under the optimal economic growth path.Acta Geographica Sinica, 65(12): 1559-1568. (in Chinese)This paper performed a comprehensive projection of carbon emission through 2050 from the aspects of energy consumption,cement production process and forest carbon sink.Emission from energy consumption is estimated under the energy-economy framework by introducing the economic dynamics model and forecasting the energy demand on the optimal growth path,meanwhile the evolution of energy structure and the variation of carbon contents among energy types are also considered.Emission from cement production is projected on the basis of the forecast of cement output,which is deemed to be relative to urbanization process,while the latter follows the traditional S-curve development law.The estimation of forest carbon sink capability,involving the existing and newly afforested one,is conducted by employing the CO2FIX model.Eventually,all the three carbon sources or sink are composed to obtain the net carbon emission.Our results indicate that carbon emission from energy consumption peaks in 2031,with an emission of 2637 MtC (Million tons of Carbon equivalent) and the GDP per capita in that year is lower than the empirical experience of OECD countries;while the per capita energy-induced emission peaks in 2030,with a volume of 1.73 tC,which is far behind the US level of 2006 and still lower than the EU and Japan level of 2006.Besides,emission from cement production demonstrates a slow-down growth trend,and its emission is confined within 254 MtC,which is equivalently 12% of gross emission (here it refers to those emitted from energy consumption and cement production).Accumulated forest carbon sink is able to absorb 6806.2 MtC CO2 through 2050,but the annual absorption is dropping gradually.It is estimated that the net emission of CO2 will peak in 2033,which is 2748 MtC.


Wen H, Zeng G, 2005. Study of global value chain governance and local industrial network upgrading: Case of Pudong integrated circuit industrial network.China Industrial Economy, (7): 20-27. (in Chinese)With the development of globalization,local industrial networks characterized by geographical agglomeration of economic activities are being embedded in global value chain. Therefore the global linkages are more and more important to local industrial network upgrading. At first the paper define the conception of value chain governance and its' types. Then analyzes the influences of global linkages in local industrial network upgrading by focusing on governance of global value chain. Based on that,the paper makes a case study on Pudong Integrated Circuit(IC) local industrial network and inquires into the great influences in upgrading of Pudong IC network of the leading companies in global value chain. At last,the paper draw a conclusion,which is not completely agree with those in similar researches in some other developing countries. The paper argues that promotion or hindrance to upgrading of local industrial networks of leading corporations as the governor of global value chain is determined by whether upgrading of local industrial networks injures their key competitiveness,but not by the types of upgrading. Hopefully,this will be a modification to some findings in the international academic circles in this field.


Wu C J, 1991. On the core of geographical study: The man-earth areal system.Economic Geography, 11(3): 1-5. (in Chinese)

Xu X Q, Anthony G O Y, Zhang R, 1995. Economic globalization and its impacts on the urban system in China.Geographical Research, 14(3): 1-13. (in Chinese)Wkh the implementation of open-door policy,China has expandedher foreign trade,uti-lized a lot of foreign capital, and therefore is playing a more and more important role in the world economy system. Because the coastal region is different in the level of socioeconomicdevelopment,location and accessibility from the inland region,the former has got more op-portunities of development.In the coastal region,the existing urban clusters are spreadingand new ones are appearing. However,a large floating population,traffic jam,sprawl spreadin land use and environmental pollution have become serious problems in coastal cities.本文分析了自我國實行開放政策以來,經濟加快融入世界經濟體系,進出口貿易與利用外資迅速擴展的情況。由于沿海地區與內陸地區社會經濟發展水平及區位條件的差異,沿海地區獲得更多的發展機會,從而在一定程度上影響了我國城鎮體系的變化,加速沿海原有新城鎮群的發展,新城鎮群的形成,但由此也帶來了沿海城鎮的外來暫住人口大量增加、交通擁擠、土地利用難以控制以及環境污染加重等問題,城鎮之間的競爭多于協調,對城鎮體系的發展不利。


Xue D S, Huang G Z, Weng X Let al., 2010. Urban globalization process of China’s cities since the early 1980s.Acta Geographica Sinica, 65(10): 1155-1162. (in Chinese)

Xue D S, Huang H M, Wang Y, 2014. Spatial transformation in globalization: A case study of Dongshan, Guangzhou in 1890s-1930s.Scientia Geographica Sinica, 34(6): 687-695. (in Chinese)Criticizing the classical world city theories as"presentism", the historical studies of world cities have become emerging research subjects in this new century. Although many researches have examined the spatial transformation of world cities in a"long-term"perspective, few lights are shed on the cultural, social and political elements. Using the historical materials, such as maps, literatures and reports, this article chooses Dongshan, a well-known historical district in the east side of Guangzhou, as a case, and attempts to rediscover its spatial transformation in globalization at the turn of the 19thand 20thcenturies. It finds that, in the historical period, the transformation of Dongshan, from village to residential area of bureaucratic elites, extends the urban area sharply and changes the spatial structure of the whole city. Four kinds of dynamics are identified and integrated as a special model in promoting the spatial transformation: 1) The Christianity, as the beginning one,invests in the district first and provides medical and educational facilities to returnees and bureaucratic elites; 2)The oversea Chinese, as the basic one, chooses to dwell here and provides capital to the Christianity and governmental projects; 3) The government, as the guiding one, promotes modern urban planning to reshape the space and plays as a policy constitutor. Its permissions for mission work and encouragement in investment from overseas Chinese are crucial for the former two dynamics; 4) The bureaucratic elites build houses here and finally create the image of the district as a prosperous place. The story of Dongshan could challenge the classical world city theories in three aspects: 1) It provides a Chinese case to prove the importance of historical views again; 2) Not just global economic links, the global cultural factors, such as the Christianity, the cultural links between overseas Chinese and homeland, could also promote urban developments. The economic variable is not as decisive as Friedmann argues; 3) Especially in Chinese cities, the role of government and bureaucratic elites are important, but neglected in classical theories. Influenced by the classical theories, most of the historical studies on world cities still focus on the economic factors, this article attempts to argue that, non-economic factors, including cultural, social and political ones, should be involved in future analysis.

Yang Y, Liu Y, Jin F J, 2015. Study on energy cooperation between China and the central Asia and Russia under the view of energy geopolitics.Geographical Research, 34(2): 213-224. (in Chinese)At present, China is facing an increasingly severe international energy situation with the rapid economic growth and increasing urbanization level. Central Asia and Russia with rich oil and gas resources are important strategic areas of China to carry out future international energy cooperation to diversify import oil gas and enhance energy transport safety. Especially,the cooperation of energy is the highlight of China's proposal of building Silk Road economic belt which arouses global attention, and the cooperation among China, the Central Asia and Russia may change the world oil and gas trade pattern. However, energy cooperation is not only an international economic and trade issue, but also a great policy strategy under the geopolitical situations. Firstly, the existing geopolitical order and its revolution in the Central Asia is drawn systematically in the paper, and the key countries, which are the United States, Russia and China, are also analyzed. Secondly, we have a detailed description on the cooperation process among China, the Central Asia and Russia. Also the characteristics and the trend of the cooperation are described. The cooperation between China and the Central Asia goes well and presents a trend of diversification from oil gas trade to the upstream-downstream industries and even other fields, while the cooperation between China and Russia is full of complications because of the political strategy and price. After Ukrainian crisis, the cooperation tends to be approved. Thirdly, we pointed out the potential risks in the area, including the risk of geopolitical pattern and its change, uncertainty of the Russian policies, the inner conflicts of Central Asia countries, risk of resource nationalization, and the great competitions from international oil gas company. Fourthly, based on the analysis above, the main cooperation modes are pointed out, which are loans for oil gas mode, bilateral cooperation mode, joint ventures strategy mode with national company, the integration mode of energy supply and demand under the framework of Shanghai Cooperation Organization, and oil gas-trade mode, so as to reduce risk as much as possible.


Zhang H O, Huang G Z, Wu K Met al., 2017. Characteristics of China’s OFDI and related economic geography research themes: Based on an analysis of Chinese investment in the world and ASEAN countries.Tropical Geography, 37(4): 443-451. (in Chinese)

Zhou Q, Huang X J, Pu L Jet al., 2004. Tendency and driving mechanism of land utilization change in the rapid-urbanization country area: The case of former Xishan city, Jiangsu Province.Resources Science, 26(1): 22-30. (in Chinese)

Zhou Y X, 1998. Major directions of economic linkages: Some theoretical considerations.City Planning Review, (2): 22-26. (in Chinese)Abstract The spatial structure of urban system has natural laws affected by the development trend of the main economies,especially under the condition of the unbalanced spatial distribution and the reasonable human activities.Urban,regional planning and urban system planning must follow the law.The paper reminds planners to be aware of it and regards that the central located cities have the advantages in internal economic development at the time of the planned economy while the border located cities enjoys vitality in external economy in market system.

Zhou Y X, Zhang L, 2003. China’s urban economic region in the open context.Acta Geographica Sinica, 58(2): 271-284. (in Chinese)

Zhong T Y, Huang X J, 2012. Impact of off-farm employment on the diversity of crop choices: A case study of Taixing city and Suyu district in Jiangsu Province, China.Journal of Natural Resources, 27(2): 187-195. (in Chinese)The purpose of this study aims to investigate the influence of non-farm work of farm household on the diversity of crop choices at farm household level.A farm household survey was carried out to collect information about off-farm employment and crop choice,and 365 farm households from Taixing City and Suyu District of Jiangsu Province were interviewed.This study differs from the previous research for this investigation was carried out at farmer level,and the farmer is not the household head but the family member in charge of agricultural production.Furthermore,the crop diversity was valued by crop kinds instead of diversity index.Poisson regression model was used to estimate the effect of non-agricultural work of farm household on crop diversity.The result shows that several factors influence farm household's decision of crop diversity.First of all,the crop types grown by farm household increase significantly with the increase of the year of education of farmers managing agricultural production,and the expected number of crop types increases by about 1.5% with an increase of the education year of farmers managing agricultural production,holding all other variables constant.The types of crops grown by farm households also increase significantly with the increase of crop acreage,and the expected number of crop types increases approximately 28% with an increase of 1 hm2 of crop acreage,holding all other variables constant.As far as off-farm employment is concerned,if other factors being equal,the expected number of crop types for a farm household whose family member managing agricultural production engaged in off-farm work is about 11% lower than for a farm household whose family member managing agricultural production didn't engage in off-farm work.Furthermore,the expected number of crop types decreases approximately by 1.4% with an increase of 1 month of non-farm work for the farmer managing agricultural production.In conclusion,engagement in off-farm work for the farmer in charge of agricultural production did significantly decrease farm household's crop diversity.

Zhu Y B, Wang Z, Pang Let al., 2009. Simulation on China’s economy and prediction on energy consumption and carbon emission under optimal grwoth path.Acta Geographica Sinica, 64(8): 935-944. (in Chinese)

Zou J L, Liu W D, 2016. Trade network of China and countries along “Belt and Road Initiative” areas from 2001 to 2013.Scientia Geographica Sinica, 36(11): 1629-1636. (in Chinese)Since the proposition of"Belt and Road Initiative", researches on trade between China and countries along the Initiative area have increased. However, it is relatively rare to study trade network taking China and those countries as a whole. In this article, we utilize a social network analysis method to analyze the characteristics, trade groups as well as core-periphery structure and its evolution of this trade network. Then we analyze the structure of sub trade network of China and the Southeast Asian countries. The results show that density of the trade network established by China and countries along"Belt and Road Initiative"areas has increased, coupled with growing number of core countries. Meanwhile, China's core degree in this trade network has increased with China being the most important core country in 2013. What's more, China becomes the core country in the sub trade network of China and the Southeast Asian countries as well. Based on this analysis, we propose that during the process of promoting"Belt and Road Initiative"construction, China should rely on policy communication to reduce trade barriers and improve trade facilitation with countries along the Initiative area. In particular, it should be set as the priority to facilitate trading conditions with core countries in the Initiative area trade network for further enhancing China's core position in this network. What's more, China should make good use of the advantage of being the core position in the network, play an active role of being the area core country and promote the construction and development of"Belt and Road Initiative".