Research Articles

Spatio-temporal pattern changes of land space in Hengduan Mountains during 1990-2015

  • SHI Zhenqin , 1, 2 ,
  • ZHANG Shaoyao , 1, 2
  • 1. Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment/Research Center for Mountain Development, CAS,Chengdu 610041, China
  • 2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China

Author: Shi Zhenqin (1988-), PhD, specialized in regional development and land space management in mountain areas. E-mail:

*Corresponding author: Deng Wei (1957-), Professor, specialized in mountain environment and regional development.


Received date: 2017-10-31

  Accepted date: 2017-12-20

  Online published: 2018-03-30

Supported by

Major State Basic Research Development Program of China, No.2015CB452706


Journal of Geographical Sciences, All Rights Reserved


Hengduan Mountains offer land space for a variety of ecological services. However, the sustainable development and management of land space has been challenged by increased human activities in recent years. This paper performs the spatial pattern analysis of the quantitative and structural changes of various landscapes at different altitudes, and uses the land use data in 1990, 2000, 2010 and 2015 to reveal how various land patterns have changed. The results show that, within the production-living-ecological space schema, the ecological space dominates Hengduan Mountains, while the production and living space was mainly distributed in south region. During 1990-2015, the production-living-ecological spatial changes had been gradually accelerated and the regional differences had become more prominent. The agricultural production space had continuously decreased by 1132.31 km2, and the industrial and mining production space had rapidly increased by 281.4 km2 during 1990-2015. The living space had steadily increased, and the ecological space had increased with fluctuations. The land space pattern in Hengduan Mountains was greatly restricted by the terrain, such as altitude and slope. The implementations of China Western Development Strategy and the Returning Farmland to Forest Program had favorably promoted the changes of land spatial pattern in Hengduan Mountains.

Cite this article

SHI Zhenqin , ZHANG Shaoyao . Spatio-temporal pattern changes of land space in Hengduan Mountains during 1990-2015[J]. Journal of Geographical Sciences, 2018 , 28(4) : 529 -542 . DOI: 10.1007/s11442-018-1488-7

1 Introduction

China’s land development is changing from production space-oriented alone to coordinated mode of production-living-ecological space development. Land use and cover change (LUCC) reflects the changes in spatial pattern due to coupled interactions between the human and environmental systems (Faludi et al., 2009; Fan et al., 2013; Pelucha et al., 2013). To optimize the land use, it is imperative to understand the evolution of ecosystems at geographical landscapes and at different economical levels and stages as a proportional measure of structure to functional space. Therefore, the analysis of land space pattern changes is very important for promoting orderly, moderate and sustainable development and utilization of land space.
The empirical methods of studying the production-living-ecological space can be divided into two types: top-down decomposition of functional space regionalization and bottom-up merge of land use classification (Huang et al., 2017). While the former is frequently used for qualitative analysis at the macro-scale of country, province and region, using administrative area as evaluation unit, the latter is used for quantitative analysis at the micro-scale of city, county, town and village, using land-use type as evaluation unit (Ma et al., 2015; Li et al., 2016; Xi et al., 2016). Although researchers have conducted comprehensive studies by combining these two methods, yet they have not formulated a study paradigm covering different scales with no consideration to land use type complexity limiting the production-living- ecological space. Especially, there is little empirical research on the macro-scale production-living-ecological space in mountainous area (Zhang et al., 2015).
Mountain area is a special land space unit, with remote geographical location, large resource gradient, disaster proneness, ecological vulnerability, and other characteristics (Jansky et al., 2002). China is a mountainous country, which accounts for about 65% of the land area, and the population accounts for about 45% of the total (Deng et al., 2013). Unsustainable land space development in mountainous area has resulted in vegetation destruction, severe soil erosion, and land rocky desertification (Deng et al., 2013). In recent years, the rapid urbanization, industrialization, agricultural modernization, “help-the-poor” migration and disaster prevention relocation in mountainous area significantly brought changes in land spatial pattern, and put forward new challenges to the sustainable development and management of land space in mountainous area (Deng et al., 2015). Therefore, the study of the spatial pattern characteristics and land use changes in mountainous area has both theoretical and practical significance thereby providing guidelines for the development of land space in mountainous area. In this paper, we chose Hengduan Mountains, which encompass relatively complicated interactions between ecological environment and human society, to explore the spatio-temporal patterns and changes in land space usage in mountainous area in the past 25 years.

2 Overview of research areas, data sources and research methods

2.1 Research areas

Hengduan Mountains are located in the east of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, west of the Sichuan Basin and the northwest of the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau. It is the transitional zone between the first and second ladder of Chinese terrain, with a total area of 449,841 km2, including some counties in Sichuan Province and Yunnan Province (Figure 1). Hengduan Mountains are a group of mountain ranges and valleys stretching from the north to the south. Within its territory, there are six water systems including the Salween, Lancang, Jinsha, Yalung, Dadu and Minjiang rivers. Hengduan Mountains with their soaring heights and deep valleys cover a wide range of altitude, which decreases from northwest to southeast, with the highest altitude of 7713 m and the lowest of 76 m (Figure 2). The research areas spanned over 10° of latitude, with complex terrain and large temperature difference. It is controlled by the winter and summer monsoon circulations composed of the southeast monsoon, the southwest monsoon and the south branch of the westerly jet, throughout the year, and the precipitation contributes to seasonal changes (Li et al., 2010).
Figure 1 Location and area of Hengduan Mountains
Figure 2 Hengduan Mountains terrain map
Hengduan Mountains play an important role in ecosystem services, including water conservation, climate regulation, soil and biodiversity conservation (Li et al., 2010). In 2010, the population in this area was 19.43 million, with a total gross national product of 313.20 billion yuan marked by accelerated population and economic growth. The conflict between the importance of an ecological space and the rapid socio-economic development in Hengduan Mountains has thus intensified ever since.

2.2 Data sources

The study utilized landsat TM5 with 30 m spatial resolution as data source of land use in 1990, 2000, 2010 and 2015, downloaded from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) website ( data/pub), to identify the production-living-ecological space in Hengduan Mountains. Because the landform complexity in mountainous area limited the production-living-ecological space pattern, we then used the DEM data with a resolution of 30 m to correct the effect of slope, and recalculated the slope area.

2.3 Research methods

Using the methods of dynamics, conversion matrix of land use and landscape pattern index, to summarize the horizontal and vertical gradient of the production-living-ecological space pattern in Hengduan Mountains, analyze the areal, structural, interchanges within landscape patterns, and explore the spatial difference of the production-living-ecological space (Cai et al., 2006; Peng et al., 2006; Liu et al., 2010). The standard deviational ellipse (Wang et al., 2014; Huo et al., 2016) was used to analyze the directional expansion of living space, and to reveal the tendency of land space pattern changes in Hengduan Mountains from 1990 to 2015. We also quantitatively study the natural and humanistic driving factors of spatio-temporal patterns and changes in land, by using the multi-step progressive regression to analyze the natural factors extracted by DEM data, and the counties’ panel data (Chen et al., 2014; Zhang et al., 2016).

3 The production-living-ecological land space classification system

China’s land classification system is based on the status of land use (Blum, 1998; Banko et al., 2001; Zhou, 2004; Fang et al., 2008; Fleskens et al., 2009). Currently, the wide used system is the second national land use survey classification of China ( and the land use and land cover classification system of Chinese Academy of Sciences.
The versatility of land is an important foundation for sustainable development, and the classification of the production-living-ecological space is based on the functional classification of land use (Kates et al., 2001; Chen et al., 2005; Marsden et al., 2008; Liu et al., 2010). In this paper, we gave consideration to the spatial versatility of land, the central position of ecological function and the classification principle of considering main function, and established the relationship between the production-living-ecological land space classification system and the classification based on present land use in mountainous areas (Table 1).
Table 1 Connection between the classification system of territory space and land use
The production-living-ecological land space classification The production-living-
ecological land space, secondary
Second national land survey
Chinese Academy of Sciences land classification
Production space (PP) Agricultural production space (APS) 011 paddy field, 012 irrigated field, 013 dry land, 021 orchard, 022 tea garden, 023 other fields, 104 rural road, 122 agricultural facility land, 123 field ridge 11 paddy field, 12 dry land
Industrial and mining production space (IMPS) 061 industrial field, 062 mining field, 063 warehouse field, 101 railroad field, 102 highway land, 105 airport land, 106 port and dock land, 107 pipeline transportation land, 118 waterwork field, 204 mining field 53 other construction field
Service production space(SPS) 088 scenic site facility field, 205 scenic site and special field
Living space (LP) City and town living space (CTLS) 201 city, 202 organizational town, 103 street and lane field, 087 park and green land, 21 idle land 51 city and town land
Rural living space (RLS) 203 village, 072 rural residential land 52 rural residential area land
Ecological space (EP) Green ecological space (GES) 031 forest land, 032 shrub land, 033 other woodland, 041 natural grassland, 042 artificial grassland, 043 other grassland 21 forest land, 22 shrub land, 23 sparse woodland, 24 other woodland, 31 high coverage grassland, 32 medium coverage grassland, 33 low coverage grassland
Water ecological space (WES) 111 river surface, 112 lake surface, 113 water reservoir surface, 114 pit and pod surface, 115 coastal shoal, 116 inland shoal, 119 glacier and firn, 125 swampland 41 river and canal, 42 lake, 43 water reservoir, pit and pod, 44 glacier and firn, 45 sea shoal, 46 beach land
Other ecological space (OES) 124 saline and alkaline land, 126 sandy land, 127 bare land 1 sandy land, 62 saline and alkaline land, 64 marshland, 65 bare land, 66 bare rock land, 67 others

4 Characteristics of the production-living-ecological space patterns

4.1 Characteristics of horizontal space

In Hengduan Mountains, the ecological space was the absolute subject, which accounts for 92.53% of the total area. The relief affects land pattern in Hengduan Mountains significantly, the north part has high altitude, is mostly the ecological space, the production and living space are mainly distributed in Yunnan, highly concentrated in Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture, Lijiang, Dali, Panzhihua city and Chuxiong Yi Autonomous Prefecture (Figure 3).
Figure 3 The production-living-ecological space pattern of Hengduan Mountains in four periods of time (a. 1990; b. 2000; c. 2010; d. 2015)

4.2 Vertical gradient features

The largest land area of Hengduan Mountains is at elevation belt of 4000-4500 m, followed by 3500-4000 m, and again 2000-2500 m. At the elevation belt of 3000-3500 m, the total land area is greatly reduced. With increasing altitude, agricultural production space (APS) area increases first and then decreases, the peaks at the altitude range of 1500-2000 m, and the percentage (58.60%) peaks at the altitude range less than 1000 m. Similarly, the living space (LP) area increases with elevation, increasing first and then decreasing, and urban and rural living space area values both peak at the altitude range of 1500-2000 m. The maximum of percentage value of urban living space is at the altitude range of 1000-1500 m, while that of rural living space (RLS) is at the altitude range of 1500-2000 m. The vertical structure characteristics of the land space in Hengduan Mountains suggest that the ecosystem is fragile.

5 The change of production-living-ecological space patterns

5.1 Quantitative structure change

From 1990 to 2015, the production space in Hengduan Mountains had continuously decreased, otherwise the living space gradually increased, and the ecological space had fluctuated (Table 2). The decrease in agricultural production space had ranged between 195.60 to 1132.31 km2, at altitude of 1200-1400 m, which accounts for 12% of the total agricultural production space at this region (Figure 5). Industrial and mining production space had gradually increased, significantly from 2000 to 2010, with an annual increase of 35.14% (Table 3). The living space in both urban and rural areas had gradually increased by 188.71 km2 and 168.87 km2, respectively. The increase of urban living area was higher than that of rural area, the green ecological space increased by 1632.67 km2 and the water ecological space decreased by 281.88 km2. The changes in the production-living-ecological spatial patterns had gradually accelerated, and the regional differences had been more prominent. The industrial and mining production space, city and town living space, water ecological space of the northern part had shown rapid growth from 2000 to 2010.
There are obvious spatial differences in the changes of production-living-ecological space area in Hengduan Mountains from 1990 to 2015 (Figure 6). Among total 99 county-level administrative units, agricultural production space area of 78 counties has decreased, the counties with significant increase in agricultural production space area were concentrated in the northeast of Hengduan Mountains. The counties with increased living space area were concentrated in the south, and the counties with decreased living space area were mostly concentrated in the northwest. The area of ecological space in 64 counties increased, the counties with significant decrease in ecological space were mainly concentrated in the northeast. The counties with decreased agricultural production space area have consistency to that with increased ecological space area. In general, there are significant regional differences in compositional changes of the production-living- ecological space in past 25 years. The agricultural production space and living space has decreased and the ecological space increased in the northwest; the agricultural production space and living space has increased and the ecological space significantly reduced in the northeast; the agricultural production space has decreased, living and ecological space increased in the southwest; the agricultural production and ecological space decreased, and the living space has increased in the southeast.
Figure 4 The changes of production-living-ecological space area at different altitudes
Figure 5 Area changes of agricultural production space each at 200 m altitude
Table 2 The proportion of production-living-ecological space in the past 25 years (%)
1990 2000 2010 2015
Production space 7.70 7.65 7.65 7.55
Living space 0.17 0.19 0.23 0.24
Ecological space 92.13 92.16 92.12 92.21
Table 3 Annual changes of the ecological-production-living space from 1990 to 2010 (%)
Space type 1990-2000 2000-2010
All Qinghai-Tibet Plateau Yunnan plateau All Qinghai-Tibet Plateau Yunnan plateau
Agricultural production space -0.07 0.14 -0.11 -0.06 0.30 -0.13
Industrial and mining production space 0.49 4.83 0.39 35.14 239.43 28.70
City and town living space 4.65 1.32 5.43 5.52 8.54 5.01
Rural living space 0.51 0.06 0.57 1.41 2.53 1.27
Green ecological space 0.01 -0.01 0.05 -0.01 -0.02 0.00
Water ecological space -1.27 0.24 -2.38 3.36 6.49 0.26
Other ecological space 0.11 0.11 -0.05 -0.28 -0.30 0.26

5.2 The interchange of the production-living-ecological space

The spatial change of the land in Hengduan Mountains is not only reflected in the quantita- tive structure, but also reflected in the mutual conversion of different land space types. The conversion matrix shows that the agricultural production space was greatly reduced from 1990 to 2015, and the interchange amount with green ecological space was the highest, 339.52 km2. Both industrial and mining production space and urban and rural living space increased mainly due to decrease of green ecological and agricultural production space. Mild increase in the green ecological space was mainly from the conversion from agricultural production and other ecological space. The water ecological space slightly decreased as it mainly transformed into green ecological space; other ecological space was also significantly reduced by 2748.55 km2 (Table 4). The scale of land transfer in 1990-2000 (Table 5) is far less than that in 2000-2010 (Table 6).
Figure 6 The difference of spatial change of the production-living-ecological space from 1990 to 2015 (a. agricultural production space; b. living space; c. ecological space)
Table 4 Conversion matrix of land space of Hengduan Mountains from 1990 to 2015 (km2)
Year 2015 Year 1990
APS 28520.12 12.57 8.11 188.09 6495.86 128.81 20.75
IMPS 123.67 41.33 0.63 2.52 175.78 2.18 0.78
CTLS 168.31 0.36 121.63 6.53 29.24 1.96 0.38
RLS 156.43 1.77 0.97 349.26 72.61 8.11 0.17
GES 6835.38 4.07 5.33 46.93 422397.51 921.09 6108.36
WES 200.87 1.44 0.89 4.15 615.26 2214.58 43.71
OES 20.28 0.00 0.60 2.71 3264.26 31.32 13292.07
Table 5 Conversion matrix of land space area of Hengduan Mountains from 1990 to 2000 (km2)
Year 2000 Year 1990
APS 35702.76 0.08 0.41 3.25 475.13 28.88 0.96
IMP 4.94 47.35 0.00 12.83
CTLS 61.64 136.97 1.49 4.02 0.30
RLS 26.00 1.57 609.55 4.17 7.12
GES 622.08 1.00 0.08 1.10 433296.83 574.62 237.20
WES 56.45 13.68 0.44 1.66 102.61 2744.67 11.91
OES 0.00 460.01 1.72 19252.74
Table 6 Conversion matrix of land space area of Hengduan Mountains from 2000 to 2010 (km2)
Year 2010 Year 2000
APS 33932.62 2.97 14.75 25.87 1985.39 36.41 8.39
IMPS 94.98 51.44 1.95 1.82 138.56 4.53 0.74
CTLS 110.93 0.09 177.82 6.70 21.09 0.55 0.18
RLS 92.42 1.88 2.80 591.34 49.54 1.51 0.06
GES 1896.59 8.00 5.47 14.92 429574.16 139.79 2567.86
WES 73.38 0.62 0.94 4.69 641.53 2744.57 453.11
OES 16.64 0.10 0.70 3.09 2444.73 4.90 16686.88

5.3 Changes in landscape pattern

The analysis of landscape pattern index based on data of land use and cover is an important method for the study of landscape pattern (Ma et al., 2000). In this paper, we chose a total of 5 landscape indices: the number of patches (NP), the mean patch space (MPS), landscape contagion index (CONTAG), Shannon evenness index (SHEI) and Shannon diversity index (SHDI), to analyze landscape fragmentation, connectivity, dominance and diversity of the production-living-ecological space in Hengduan Mountains, and to interpret the changing process of the landscape pattern of production-living-ecological space from 1990 to 2015 (Zhou et al., 2012).
Firstly, the number of landscape patches in Hengduan Mountains had decreased, and the mean patch space increased slightly from 1990 to 2000, then the number of landscape patches increased rapidly from 46947 to 57653, and the mean patch space reduced from 957 m2 to 777 m2 during the period 2000-2015. It was mainly caused by an aggregate growth of 1.79 million permanent resident population in the same period. Thus, the conversion between the landscape increased significantly, and the landscape pattern was more fragmented. Secondly, the landscape contagion index variation increased, meaning the overall landscape connectivity was enhanced. Thirdly, the Shannon evenness index variation decreased, and the landscape dominance increased slightly. The Shannon diversity index variation decreased, slightly increasing from 2000 to 2010 and decreasing rapidly from 0.490 to 0.472 from 2010 to 2015 with a decrease in the overall landscape diversity (Figure 7).
Figure 7 Landscape pattern index variation of territorial space in Hengduan Mountains

5.4 Changes in living space pattern

The data for spatial expansion research were mainly derived from remote sensing image (Li et al., 1997; Zeng et al., 2012). However, the boundary of city and town living space is indistinct, and the changes between patches are not clear. Therefore, the point pattern analysis method that originated in plant ecology has been more applied to the study of spatial expansion (Ersbøll et al., 2009). Due to the unique complexity of the mountain, the difference of geographical phenomena spatial dispersion becomes more significant in all directions. The standard deviational ellipse of the point pattern analysis (PPA) methods can better analyze the spatial expansion characteristics in each direction. Therefore, we used the Directional Distribution (Standard Deviational Ellipse) tool in ArcMap of ArcGIS software, to establish the standard deviational ellipses of living space in Hengduan Mountains in four periods, and based on the three parts of calculation results of standard deviational ellipse, we analyzed the difference of living space pattern changes in all directions (Zhao et al., 2012).
The living space pattern of Hengduan Mountains changed slightly from 1990 to 2000, but the elliptical area of standard deviation increased significantly and the living space expanded rapidly from 2000 to 2015 (Table 7).
Table 7 The parameters of standard deviational ellipse of the living space pattern in Hengduan Mountains
Year Area (km2) X axis standard deviation (km) Y axis standard deviation (km) Rotation angle (°)
1990 139494.08 150.21 295.62 7.09
2000 139297.11 150.26 295.1 7.36
2010 145819.36 151.76 305.88 7.51
2015 150733.23 156.95 306.74 7.61
The increase in the standard deviation of Y axis was higher than that of X axis, and the increase in Y axis was more prominent, which indicated that the living space of Hengduan Mountains expanded rapidly along the Y axis direction, i.e., the northeast direction. As the elliptical rotation angle gradually increased, the living space formed of north-south spatial pattern, Chengdu, Kunming and other regional central cities had clearly attracted the extension and expansion of living space of Hengduan Mountains in their directions (Figure 8).
Figure 8 Change in standard deviational ellipse of living space in Hengduan Mountains

6 The driving factors of land space change

6.1 Natural factors

The formation and change of land space was the result of interaction between natural and humanistic factors. Therefore, altitude (X1), slope (X2), relief (X3) were extracted from the DEM, annual precipitation (X4) and average temperature (X5) were gained from China meteorological science data sharing service platform (, for the purpose to explore the effects of natural factors on agricultural production space and living space area. Results showed that the agricultural production space and living space area in Hengduan Mountains mostly distributed in the area where the altitude is below 3500 m, the slope less than 28°, the relief is less than 5000 m, where the annual precipitation is 700-1100 mm.
Figure 9 Relationship among natural elements, agricultural production and living space in Hengduan Mountains in 2010 (a. altitude; b. slope; c. relief; d. annual precipitation)

6.2 Human factors

Apart from natural factors, GDP (X6), permanent residents (X7), population density (X8), the urbanization rate (X9), urban employment rate (X10), rural employment rate (X11), per capita net income of rural residents (X12) and urban residents (X13), grain yield (X14), the whole society fixed asset investment (X15), location advantage (X16), road network density (X17) and other indicators were taken into the multiple stepwise regression, to explore the affecting factors of agricultural production space (Y1) and living space (Y2) change.
According to stepwise regression results, the affecting factors of agricultural production space change could be expressed as follows.
Y1 = 0.003X14 - 0.081X1 - 7.25X17 + 433.936 (1)
where X14 is the first independent variable introduced into the stepwise regression model, followed by X1 and X17 at county level. X14 and production space are significantly correlated, meaning the increase of grain yield (X14) would encouraged farmers to explore farmland in Hengduan Mountains, where agricultural production is the main income. X1 and X17 are significantly negatively correlated with agricultural production space, because the increase of road network density (X17) would lead residents to expand their living space but encroached the agricultural production space.
In the same way, the regression model of affecting factors of living space is as below.
Y2 = 0.0004X7 - 0.6X2 + 1.941X10 - 0.033X8 + 0.902X17 + 0.001X13 - 1.899 (2)
Independent variables that permanent residents (X7), slope (X2), urban employment rate (X10), population density (X8), road network density (X17), and per capita net income of urban residents (X13) were introduced into the stepwise regression model (Table 9). X7, X10, X17, and X13 are significantly positively related to living space. Since the large amount of population of permanent residents and urban employment increased demand for living space, and the raising road network density and ascension of urban residents' disposable income provided convenient traffic and economic foundation for living space expansion. Both X2 and X8 have negatively correlated with living space. Living space in the northern Hengduan Mountains mostly located in the low altitude valleys, where both terrain conditions and feature of disaster avoidance are of benefit to living space expansion.
Table 8 Coefficients of the production space regression model in Hengduan Mountains in 2010
Variable Unstandardized coefficient Standardized coefficient t Sig.
B Std. Error Beta
Grain yield 0.003 0.000 0.705 10.731 0.000
Elevation -0.081 0.023 -0.252 -3.457 0.001
Road network density -7.250 2.289 -0.192 -3.167 0.002
(Constant) 433.936 86.152 5.037 0.000

Notes: Dependent Variable: Production space areas R2=0.729 Adjusted R2=0.721

Table 9 Coefficients of the living space regression model in Hengduan Mountains in 2010
Variable Unstandardized coefficient Standardized coefficient t Sig.
B Std. Error Beta
Permanent residents 0.00004 0.000 0.461 5.523 0.000
Slope -0.600 0.189 -0.215 -3.177 0.002
Urban employment rate 1.941 0.960 0.256 2.022 0.046
Population density -0.033 0.007 -0.627 -4.452 0.000
Road network density 0.902 0.322 0.504 2.801 0.006
Urban per capita disposable income 0.001 0.000 0.130 2.111 0.037
(Constant) -1.899 9.935 -0.191 0.849

Notes: Dependent Variable: Living space areas R2=0.732 Adjusted R2=0.715

7 Conclusions

We used the land use data of Hengduan Mountains in 1990, 2000, 2010 and 2015 to perform the spatial pattern analysis of the quantitative and structural changes of various landscapes at different altitudes and revealed the distribution of land pattern changes from 1990 to 2015.
(1) Hengduan Mountains have relatively high altitude and significant vertical difference. The area of land space at the altitude belt of 4000-4500 m is the largest (24.93%), followed by 3500-4000 m (19.15%).
(2) The ecological space is of absolute importance in the production-living-ecological space system in Hengduan Mountains. The pattern of land space is mainly affected by its terrain. While ecological space absolutely dominates the northern region, the production and living space is mainly distributed in the southeastern Yunnan.
(3) The production space in Hengduan Mountains has continuously decreased, the living space has gradually increased and the ecological space fluctuated from 1990 to 2015. The spatial change of the production-living-ecological spaces has gradually increased, and the regional difference has been more prominent. During the period 2000-2010, the area of industrial and mining production space, the city and town living space, and water ecological space in north region has rapidly increased by 47.66 km2, 25.38 km2 and 946.62 km2, respectively. The fragmentation and connectivity of landscape has increased, the landscape dominance has increased slightly, and the diversity has decreased.
(4) Land pattern in Hengduan Mountains is restricted by natural factors. According to this research, marginal value for agricultural production space and living space was that altitude of 3500 m, slope of 28°, relief of 5000 m, and annual precipitation of 700 mm. At county scale, both elevation and slope are the main restricting factors for agricultural production and living space. Besides, grain yield, the density of road network are the main human factors affecting agricultural production space, and the population of permanent residents, urban employment rate, population density, the density of road network, and urban residents’ disposable income as the main human factors affecting living space.

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Banko G, Mansberger R, 2001. Assessment of ‘Non monetary value of land’ for natural resources management using spatial indicators. International Conference on Spatial Information for Sustainable Development, Nairobi, 2-5.ABSTRACT In the paper the different functions of land, which include social, economic and ecological issues are summed up in order to improve the understanding for different interests and different views on the importance and value of land. The traditional valuation of land in Austria, which is mainly based on economic parameters, is outlined. The main drawbacks of theses traditional valuations are discussed and possible solutions scenarios for the assessment of social and ecologic values of land are presented. The integration of these values in a comprehensive valuation model is demonstrated using practical examples from social and ecological studies carried out.

Blum W E H, 1998. Methods for Assessment of Soil Degradation. New York: CRC Press.

Chen Cong, Liu Yansui, 2014. The spatio-temporal patterns of urbanization of China’s agricultural area and its influential factors: The case of Henan Province.Economic Geography, 34(12): 48-54. (in Chinese)The agricultural area of China has a large population with relatively little(arable) land, weak industry development, and its urbanization is lack of motivation, mostly below the national average. It is necessary to deeply probe the pattern and developmental factors of urbanization in agricultural area, so as to promote the process of urbanization. Taking Henan Province as an example, the author uses the methods of coefficient of variation, spatial autocorrelation and stepwise regression analysis to analyze the spatio-temporal pattern of urbanization in Henan Province and its influential factors during 2000-2010. The results show that: in recent decade, the overall level of urbanization in the counties of Henan Province has increased significantly,and the evolution of urbanization rate shows a"high- slowlow-fast"(areas with high urbanization level grow slow, areas with low urbanization level grow fast) trend, and the gap of urbanization level among the counties is narrowing. The overall spatial agglomeration characteristics of Henan's urbanization were not significant, but the spatial agglomeration of individual location, especially the characteristics of spatial agglomeration of low level of urbanization was obvious, lack of a high level of urbanization clusters. Population density, per capita GDP, non- agricultural industry development and the income of urban residents have become the important factors affecting Henan's urbanization.

Chen Jing, Shi Peijun, 2005. Discussion on functional land use classification system.Journal of Beijing Normal University, 41(5): 536-540. (in Chinese)A functional land use classification system is established,which includs 3 classes,namely "industrial land","living land" and "ecological land".In the "industrial land",there are 43 subclasses according to their industrial sector."Living land" has 11 subclasses,and "Ecological land" also has 11 subclass.An experiment in Wali county,Chaoyang District of Beijing has been performed,the results show the feasibility of the functional land use classification system.

Cai Weimin, Tang Huajun, Lv Ganget al., 2006. Application of approach of landscape pattern analysis and land use conversion matrix in research of land use characteristics.China Land Science, 20(1): 39-44. (in Chinese)The purpose of the study is to apply the approach of landscape pattern analysis and land use conversion matrix in research of land use characteristics,taking Yellow River Delta as a case.Methods of landscape pattern analysis and land use conversion matrix were employed.The results show the arable land,urban land,rural residential land have increased and natural grassland decreased in large amount in recent 20 years.The pattern of land use type trends to be less diversified,which is unfavorable to the development of Yellow River Delta and the protection of wetlands.The combination of landscape pattern analysis with land use conversion matrix approach can be contributive to qualitative and quantitative analysis to land use characteristics in an area quickly,also to the decision making of administrative departments of the government.

Deng Wei, Dai Erfu, Jia Yangwenet al., 2015. Spatiotemporal coupling characteristics, effects and their regulation of water and soil elements in mountainous area.Mountain Research, 33(5): 513-520. (in Chinese)China is a mountainous country in which the mountainous area totally accounts for 65% of its territorial area. The differences and complexities of geographical environment as well as the intense activities by human beings have led to a distinct specificity relationship of human鈥攍and in mountain areas. Mountainous area is a natural complex with diverse functions,exerting resource supplying,ecosystem services,environmental regulation and other irreplaceable functions,and is the important natural foundation of the national survival and development. Mountain problems increasingly get more attention as well as mountain development because China devotes itself to the construction of ecological civilization and build of a well-off society in an all-round way of the country. This study combined with national key basic research and development program( 973 Program) 鈥攕patiotemporal coupling characteristics,effects and regulation of water and soil elements in typical mountain area,centers on the water and soil elements according to the country's significant demand,explores the differences of spatiotemporal coupling characteristics as well as resources and ecology effects of the water and soil elements,and reveals the mechanism of coupling structure and process of the water and soil elements in mountain area. The research achievements answered the corresponding scientific questions and provided a scientific basis for the optimization and regulation of territorial space structure.

Deng Wei, Tang Wei, 2013. General directions and countermeasures for urbanization development in mountain areas of China. Mountain Research, 31(2): 168-173. (in Chinese)Mountains encompass nearly 70% of the total land surface of China and are home to approximately 45% of the China's population..The central economic work conference in 2012 proposed that urbanization is a historic task with the country's modernization drive,and a main driver to boost domestic consumption.However,Urbanization in mountain areas face enormous challenges(such as remoteness,fragile ecosystem and mountain hazard) because of its complex topography.Urbanization is not only an insurmountable historical stage in the process of mountain development,but also significant path to achieve the goal of building a well-off society of mountains with the national synchronized by 2020.In this study,firstly,the current situation of urbanization in mountain areas was analyzed;then we discussed the natural,social and cultural specificity of mountains as well as the challenges which mountain area have to face during the urbanization process.After that,we mapped out a general direction for urbanization development in mountain areas.Finally,some countermeasures were proposed for the urbanization development in mountain areas.

Ersbøll A K, Ersbøll B K, 2009. Simulation of the K-function in the analysis of spatial clustering for non-randomly distributed locations: Exemplified by Bovine Virus Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV) infection in Denmark.Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 91(1): 64-71.The objective of the present study was to develop a null hypothesis version of the K -function that overcomes the assumption about a specific underlying spatial distribution characterising complete spatial randomness. Furthermore, the objective was to develop an approach that does not include the estimation of the size of the study area. The paper presents a simulation procedure to derive the null hypothesis version of the K -function. The null hypothesis version of the K -function is simulated by random sampling of N + locations from the distribution of N observed locations (infected ( N + ) and non-infected ( N-N + )). The differences between the empirical and the estimated null-hypothesis version of the K -function are plotted together with the 95% simulation envelopes versus the distance, h . In this way we test if the spatial distribution of the infected herds differs from the spatial distribution of the herd locations in general. The approach also overcomes edge effects and problems with complex shapes of the study region. An application to bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) infection in Denmark is described.


Faludi A, 2009. A turning point in the development of European spatial planning? The ‘Territorial Agenda of the European Union’ and the ‘First Action Programme’.Progress in Planning, 71(1): 1-42.The European Union has always had a territorial agenda, albeit implicit. Existing spatial planning systems in Europe, in particular French aménagement du territoire, have shaped the thinking about how to tackle it more systematically, lately under the flag of an EU territorial cohesion policy. Drawing on work by the European Spatial Planning Observation Network (ESPON), the member states collectively have produced an ‘evidence-based’ document, ‘The territorial state and perspectives of the European Union’. This forms the basis of a political document entitled the ‘Territorial Agenda of the European Union: Towards a more competitive and sustainable Europe of diverse regions’. The subsequent First Action Programme came at a time when it appeared that the Treaty of Lisbon would make EU territorial cohesion policy official. This paper gives an account of the process, pointing out that a turning point has been reached, in that the member states have come to accept the need for EU territorial cohesion policy. Section 1 sets out the theoretical framework and the research approach. Section 2 sets the scene as regards the EU and it institutions. Section 3 looks at spatial planning systems in Europe and, in particular—since it has been instrumental in formulating EU regional and territorial cohesion policy—French aménagement du territoire. Section 4 identifies the implicit EU territorial agenda and how this has been articulated further by the member states formulating the ESDP. Section 5 gives an account of the fledgling EU territorial cohesion policy. Section 6 focuses on the member state initiative to produce the ‘evidence-based’ document, ‘The territorial state and perspectives of the European Union’, which forms the basis for the Territorial Agenda. As a background to this, the section discusses ESPON, which provided the research base for this undertaking. Sections 7 to 9 are about the Territorial Agenda process as such, particularly its making, the substantive policies and the institutional measures proposed therein, and the First Action Programme adopted in the wake of the Territorial Agenda. Section 10 identifies challenges ahead, followed by the final section, which explores issues whose resolution is not immediately in sight.


Fan Jie, Zhou Kan, Sun Weiet al., 2013. Scientific values and research innovations of human-economic geography in construction of ecological civilization.Progress in Geography, 32(2): 147-160. (in Chinese)The achievements in the forward-looking human-economic geographic studies on the interactions between natural sphere and human sphere as well as the distribution and evolution mechanism of human living and production activities on the earth鈥檚 surface have been playing a prominent role in guiding the scientific decision-making and promoting the orderly territorial development.The Eighteenth National Congress of the Communist Party of China has put the optimization of spatial development pattern as the primary task of ecological civilization;this provides an unprecedented opportunity of development and huge demand for human-economic geography.Based on the analyses of the microscopic differentiation and humanizing tendency caused by the emphasis on mechanism and process studies,and the requirements of multidisciplinary supporting system for the construction of ecological civilization,this paper discusses the comprehensive values of human-economic geography as a research field,and re-recognizes the basic categories of the subject from the aspects of factors and mechanisms,interface and process,functions and structure,scale and its conversion.Specifically,this paper discusses the topics such as:(1) the Equilibrium Model for the balance between comprehensive benefits of economy,ecology and society and the stereo system of production,distribution and consumption;(2) carrying capacity evaluation method,oriented toward the interaction between human system and natural system;(3) the theory for the emergence of territorial functions and the identification method;(4) the research innovation by which the planar space of territorial functions is incorporated into the theoretical framework of spatial structures.Finally,in response to the challenges from the replacements among different subjects,four aspects of disciplinary development path are put forward for the future,including: paying equal attention to academic and ideological contents,making comprehensive use of computer methods and experimental methods,emphasizing on the unity of basic theories and applied research,and integrating the innovation of interdisciplinary researches and the dependence on classical paths.


Fang Zhongquan, Ding Sibao, 2008. Principal function area division and innovation of regional planning in China.Scientia Geographica Sinica, 28(4): 483-487. (in Chinese)China will put more emphasis on regional plan in the national"Eleventh Five Year"Plan period,it is the imperative of solving important region problems and promoting regional coordinated development.Meanwhile,The "Plan" divide Chinese land space into four principal functional zones of optimal development,key development,restricted development and prohibited development.Principal Function Area Division will produce effect of innovation on Chinese regional planning:1)perfecting theory system of regional planning;2)creating new idea of regional planning;3)enriching the contents of regional planning;4)Rebuilding spatial system of regional planning;5)promoting Join and coordination between regional planning and other spatial planning;6)guarantying implement of regional planning.


Fleskens L, Duarte F, Eicher I, 2009. A conceptual framework for the assessment of multiple functions of agro-ecosystems: A case study of Tra’s-os-Montes olive grove.Journal of Rural Studies, 25(1): 141-155.Multifunctionality in agriculture has received a lot of attention the last decade from researchers and policy-makers alike, perhaps most notably evidenced by the important changes made to the EU's Common Agricultural Policy. While the concept has been embraced by environmentalists envisioning positive impulses for decoupling and a range of local stakeholders recognizing implicit marketing opportunities involved, it has also been criticized as a mere argument in favour of disguised protectionism. Problematic in this discussion is the lack of an operationalising framework for the assessment of multiple functions. In this paper, we discuss such a framework and the role it can play in the decision-making process. Focusing on a case study about olive farming on sloping and mountainous land in northeastern Portugal, the contribution discusses methods for studying multiple functions of agro-ecosystems. While function assessment is presented from a research perspective, its relevance for stakeholders is also stressed here. By using the metaphor of a house, the method could appeal to a wide range of actors. In the case study, we conclude that olive groves on sloping and mountainous land particularly fall short in supplying ecological functions. They do however contribute significantly to the local economy, generate employment and perform an important role in maintaining the cultural landscape and identity, and are thus vital to regional development and to stop outmigration of the population. Policy-makers could use the function assessment tool to design effective cross-compliance rules and relevant agro-environmental measures to reinforce ecological and social functions, and to communicate ideas to other stakeholders. As such, it provides an extension of public debate and can reinforce decision-making by visualizing trends, development alternatives or scenarios. The role of research in this method is to facilitate dialogue between stakeholder groups and to feed the process with relevant indicators.


Huang Jinchuan, Li Haoxi, Qi Xiaoxiao, 2017. A literature review on optimization of spatial development pattern based on ecological-production-living space.Progress in Geography, 36(3): 378-391. (in Chinese)


Huo Renlong, Yang Yida, Man Zhimin, 2016. Pattern evolution of settlement space in the Zhangjiuhe Basin, Yunnan province, during the past 300 years.Geographical Research, 35(9): 1647-1658. (in Chinese)It is of significance to study the settlement space evolution processes in mountainous areas in exploring the changes in land use and the man-land relationship in different historical stages. The Zhangjiuhe Basin, Yunnan province is studied as the subject in reconstruction of settlement distribution pattern and evolution process over 300 years in the basin through establishment of settlement information database based on the comprehensive utilization of toponymy records, historical documentaries and field investigation data. The results show that,the increase of the number of settlements in the Zhangjiuhe Basin in the past 300 years can be identified in three stages, namely slow growth stage(1701 to 1800), fast growth stage(1801 to1950) and another slow growth stage(1951 to 2000). Spatial study shows the valleys at middle and lower reaches of the river has the greatest density of settlements, which expanded from the middle and lower reaches to middle and upper reaches, and vice versa, as well as from the valley areas to the remote mountainous areas at both sides. As for the primary factors affecting evolution of settlements in the basin, the boundary of natural environmental condition was always broken through, but the areas at the height of 2200 m and 2500 m and with the slope of20 degrees are the important limits for the expansion of settlements. The growth of population is the main driving forces for the settlements expansion. Immigration and settlement of minorities enhanced the feature in the vertical direction of the mountainous settlements.

Jansky L, Ives J D, Furuyashiki Ket al., 2002. Global mountain research for sustainable development.Global Environmental Change, 12: 231-239.A questionnaire was sent to almost 600 people representing different target groups in Finland, to investigate their interest in obtaining global change scenarios. There was a 30% response rate to the questionnaire, of which 93% indicated that they could or might make use of scenarios. Priorities for scenarios differed between researchers and non-researchers. The research community required information over a wide spectrum of spatial and temporal resolutions and for time horizons ranging from 10 to 100 years. Non-researchers attached most importance to projections at low spatial and temporal resolution extending over time horizons up to 2025. Three of the five scenario types surveyed were regarded as of above-average importance by both researchers and nonresearchers: atmospheric composition, acidification and eutrophication, and climate. Socio-economic scenarios were also of interest to non-researchers but less so to researchers, while both groups expressed below-average interest in sea level scenarios. Overall, the questionnaire provided a valuable initial contact with potential scenario users as well as useful preliminary information about their likely scenario needs. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.


Kates R W, Clark W C, Corell Ret al., 2001. Environment and development: Sustainability science.Science, 292(5517): 641.


Li Guangdong, Fang Chuanglin, 2016. Quantitative function identification and analysis of urban ecological-production-living spaces.Acta Geographica Sinica, 71(1): 49-65. (in Chinese)The identifying of land multifunctionality is a basic tool for organization,coordination and configuration of urban land, and is a key criterion for urban land functions forms, composite pattern and dynamic tradeoffs. This topic is of important theoretical and practical significance. An available identification system of urban land multifunctionality,however, had not been built for a long time. This paper develops a function classification system for urban ecological- production- living spaces from an integrated perspective of land function, ecosystem services and landscape function. We integrated a value function group of space function based on ecosystem services valuation. A comparison method of vertical and cross direction is proposed to identify dominant function type of urban land. The empirical results show that in the study area, function classification system of urban ecologicalproduction- living spaces can reflect differentiated function types of different land use classes.The identified result of dominant function for urban space is matched with the functions of different land types. Meanwhile, we also found that there are some problems on urban land use,such as the low adjacency degree with different spaces, and poor complementarity with different space functions. The result indicates that the spatial distribution of urban ecologicalproduction-living spaces is congregated in the study area.


Li Xia, Ye Jiaan, 1997. Application of remote sensing for monitoring and analysis of urban expansion: A case study of Dongguan.Geographical Research, 16(4): 56-62. (in Chinese)he current fast economic growth is accompanied with rapid urban expansion and great loss of agricultural land in the Pearl River Delta. The lack of information and technology hinders planners and local officers to achieve sustainable development. This paper tries to demonstrate the potential of the integration of remote sensing and GIS for monitoring and analysing of land development in the Pearl River Delta. It is found that wasteful use of land resource exists with ‘blind’ development patterns. The fast diffusion of urban areas has caused loss of large amount of agricultural land. Based on GIS analysis, some protection measures can be formulated to curb the tendency of swallowing agricultural land for urban development.The area of urban use rapidly increased from 16 2346 ha to 41 0879 ha. in 1988~1993 in the study area, Dongguan. This means that 104% of the total land area was converted to urban use just within this short period. Moreover, most of the conversion only occurred in 1990~1993.It is found that the land loss in Dongguan in 1988~1993 mainly took place within a few kilometers nearby urban (town) centres or roads. Actually, 90 percent of the total land loss occurred within an average distance of 138 km from roads and 563 km from urban (town) centres. The result is not very surprising given that the proximity is a very important factor for land development.It is very clear that the city proper is under a quick expansion of its urban areas in recent years. A transition period with more land loss occurring in a further distance exists because of the diffusion process. It is interesting to see that there is a strong contrast between the diffusion in 1988~1990 and that in 1990~1993. The diffusion of the urban areas was limited in 1988~1990 while the diffusion was astonishingly strong in 1990~1993. It is because a large amount of agricultural land has been encroached for the development of real estate since 1992. However, the diffusion pattern is not identical as there is obvious variation for each town.


Li Zongxing, He Yuanqing, Xin Huijuanet al., 2010. Spatio-temporal variations of temperature and precipitation in Mts. Hengduan region during 1960-2008.Acta Geographica Sinica, 65(5): 563-579. (in Chinese)Based on daily temperature and precipitation data of 27 stations in the Mts. Hengduan region, methods of spline interpolation, regression analysis, least square, moving average were employed to analyze the climatic changing trend and spatial differences under the background of global warming. Results indicated that temperature patterns are consistent with warming at statistical significance level during 1960-2008, and relatively low in the 1960s and 1980s, whereas it started to rise after the 1980s which can be proved by a 0.46 oC temperature increase in 2000-2008. The average temperature of all the year, spring, summer, autumn and winter exhibited an obvious increasing trend roughly centered in the area of Mt. Meili and the southernmost between Mt. Shaluli and Mt. Daxue with the velocity of 0.15 oC 10a-1, 0.589 oC 10a-1, 0.153 oC 10a-1, 0.167 oC 10a-1 and 0.347 oC 10a-1, respectively. And what's more, temperature increase is more obvious from lower to higher altitude. Precipitation is relatively more after the 1980s, which can be confirmed by a 29.84 mm increase in the 1990s, but it started to decrease after 2000. The average precipitation of all the year, spring, summer, autumn and winter changed by 9.09 mm 10a-1, 8.62 mm 10a-1,-1.5 mm 10a-1, 1.53 mm 10a-1 and 1.47 mm 10a-1, respectively, roughly centered in the area of Mt. Meili and the southernmost between Mt. Shaluli and Mt. Daxue, and only the spring is significant at the 0.05 level. Under the influence of the longitudinal range-gorge, the regional trend in precipitation was on the decrease from southwest to northeast and from south to north in the Mts. Hengduan region. In summer monsoon, the regional trends of temperature and precipitation are 0.117 oC 10a-1 and 6.01 mm 10a-1, respectively, but the precipitation also started to decrease after 2000. There is also a 0.25 oC 10a-1 and 7.47 mm 10a-1 increase of temperature and precipitation in winter monsoon.


Liu Jiyuan, Zhang Zengxiang, Xu Xinlianget al., 2010. Spatial patterns and driving forces of land use change in China during the early 21st century.Journal of Geographical Sciences, 20(4): 483-494.


Liu Pei, Duan Jiannan, Wang Weiet al., 2010. Study on systems of the land-use system functional classification and evaluation.Journal of Hunan Agricultural University, 36(1): 113-118. (in Chinese)At present the research of land function is not yet perfect,which is lack of systematic classification and evaluation system. This paper summarizes the last decade of land/soil function developments from the scholars at home and abroad firstly. Moreover,from the perspective of land-use system,the functional classification and Index system of evaluation have been established by using systematic theory and methods.


Ma Keming, Fu Bojie, 2000. Landscape pattern and fragmentation in Donglingshan Montane Region.Acta Phytoecologica Sinica, 24(3): 320-326. (in Chinese)As a result of the disturbance associated with human activities, the zonal vegetation in Donglingshan montane region, Beijing,——warm temperate zone deciduous broad leaf forest——has been completely destroyed. Present vegetation consists of secondary vegetation and plantations. By examining vegetation maps, on a GIS platform, and utilizing a number of landscape pattern indices, the landscape pattern of the Donglingshan montane region was analyzed and the degree of fragmentation evaluated. Fragmentation was assessed through measures of patch area, perimeter, number of patches, fractal dimension and landscape diversity. Results showed that, forest and shrub types are the main components of the present vegetation in the montane region. The area of different landscape elements was very uneven, with most landscape types are dispersed among many small areas. The area, perimeter and number of patches of forest areas are smaller than those of shrublands, grasslands and farmlands, however the perimeter and patch densities are higher, indicating a higher degree of fragmentation of forest areas. A power law relationship was found among the mean patch areas and perimeters of all the landscape elements, with a fractal dimension of 1.30, indicating a low degree of patch perimeter complexity in the landscape. The Shannon index of landscape diversity were ranked as follows: element type area (2.262) element type perimeter (2.435) element type patch number (2.675), while all were smaller than that of equal probability (2.940). All of these results emphasize the highly fragmented condition of the forest landscape in this montane region.

Ma Shifa, Ma Mei, Cai Yumeiet al., 2015. Delimitating red line of ecological protection for territorial spatial planning: A case study of Hunan Province.Tropical Geography, 35(1): 43-50. (in Chinese)It is very import to delimitate red line of ecological protection for territorial spatial planning. This paper proposed a quantitative framwork to delimit red line of ecological protection. First, we defined biodiversity, flood storage, conservation of water and soil, headwater conservation and desertification control as the main factors to ecological problems at the provincial scale. Then, based on the theories of ecological service and security, core elements were chosen for analyzing the ecological problems referring to the requirements of macro decision-making, participatory "bottom-up" method was further utilized to map the ecological red line. In this model, main ecological problems and most sensitive areas in territorial space were identified by the means of "top-down" method. And then the red line of ecological protection was delimitated by using "bottom-up" model integrating GIS with RS. Hunan Province was selected as the case study area to delimit the red line of ecological protection using the proposed framework. Three scenarios(i.e. ecological protection at low level, at medium level, and at high level, respectively) were set for analyzing the distribution of each individual ecological element. Results indicate that medium-level protection scenario is befitting for delimiting red line from the perspective of biodiversity. Ecological corridors is required to be further conserved on the basis of present conservation areas; whereas low-level protection scenario was selected for flood storage, Dongting Lake and its inundated area should be included in the protection region; and the spatial pattern of headwater conservation shows great difference. The large-scale mountains in the east, west and south parts have high values while the hills in the central part as well as the plain in the north show low values of headwater conservation; As for conservation of water and soil, mountains such as the Wuling, Xuefeng in the west and the Luoxiao in the east, which are especially the transitional zones to plain, are the areas accompanied with frequent water and soil erosion. With the consideriation of evaluation results above, the red line of ecological protection in Hunan Province was generated. Approximately 50% of the total area is classified into the scope of the red line, which plays important roles in ecological security. The red line breaks the administrative boundaries of counties to some extent, but keeps the integrality of physical geographic boundaries and particularly lays stress on ecological protection. The delimited region of the red line presents a network pattern in the space and conforms to the strategic layout of "one lake, three mountains and four rivers" of the province. The delimitation results of Hunan Province demonstrate that the method can obtain a reasonable spatial pattern for ecological protection at provincial scale.

Marsden T, Sonnino R, 2008. Rural development and the regional state: denying multifunctional agriculture in the UK.Journal of Rural Study, 24: 422-431.Under the emerging rural development paradigm, we argue that to be multifunctional an activity must add income to agriculture, it must contribute to the construction of a new agricultural sector that corresponds to the needs of the wider society and it must reconfigure rural resources in ways that lead to wider rural development benefits. By evaluating UK rural policies on the basis of whether or not they attempt to meet these conditions, this paper shows that an implicit recognition of agriculture's multifunctional character has occurred recently through the shift from a sectoral to a regional and territorial perspective that reintegrates farming into rural development. However, in practice, and especially in England, the UK government has been unable to turn multifunctional activities into a real rural development option. In fact, by continuing to support agri-industrial/retailer interests on the one hand, and post-productivist— environmental and amenity— interests on the other, the State is governing mostly by setting up competitively organized ‘projects’ and schemes that continue to justify the concentration (and limitation) of resources allocated to agriculture. Based upon a critique of policy developments over the past decade, this paper emphasizes the need for more innovative forms of state innovation that provide opportunities for new, creative and more spatially embedded forms of supply and demand management in agri-food. In the conclusions, the paper also argues that more critical research is needed to uncover the existing and potential role of both governments and producer networks in progressing sustainable rural development through agricultural multifunctionality.


Pelucha M, Kveton V, Jilkova J, 2013. Territorial dimensions of agro-environmental measures and LFA in rural development policy in the Czech Republic.Land Use Policy, 34(1): 91-103.Outlined by the Common Agriculture Policy (CAP), the rural development policy enables the application of the territorial dimension. The goal of this paper is the analysis and determination of the appropriateness of the CAP development policy tools specifically within the Czech Republic. Furthermore, there is emphasis on the compliancy with the EU territorial cohesion objectives. The analyses concentrate on the agro-environmental measures (AEM) and less-favoured areas (LFA) support. In addition, payments during the 2004鈥2006 periods are evaluated. Relevant statistical indicators that include geographical, demographical, and economical are designated. Testing and verification of the indicators undertakes comparative examination based on municipal size-categories. The results of this process indicate that AEM and LFA schemes do not benefit the underdeveloped municipalities as intended by the EU territorial cohesion objectives.


Peng Jian, Wang Yanglin, Zhang Yuanet al., 2006. Research on the influence of land use classification on landscape metrics.Acta Geographica Sinica, 61(2): 157-168. (in Chinese)Landscape pattern analysis based on landscape metrics is a basic content of the research on landscape ecology. More and more researches proved that not only scale effects and the precision of remote sensed data had significant influence on landscape metrics, but also the difference of land use classification would make the change of landscape metrics. However, we still have not found out how land use classification affects landscape metrics and associated influence mechanism. In this paper, we chose Bao'an of Shenzhen city as an experimental area, to analyze the characteristics of the change of 24 landscape metrics associated with the change of land use classification. The results showed that land use classification indeed influenced landscape metrics.And based on the shape of the land use classification effect curves and the predictability of these relations, the 24 landscape metrics can be divided into three groups. The first group included 12 indices, i.e., number of patches (NP), patch density (PD), edge density (ED), mean patch size (MPS), landscape shape index (LSI), mean patch shape index (MSI), perimeter-area fractal dimension (PAFRAC), mean patch fractal dimension (MPFD), aggregation index (AI), Shannon's diversity index (SHDI), Simpson's diversity index (SIDI), and modified Simpson's diversity index (MSIDI). The behavior of this group of indices with the change of the number of land use types was very predictable with simple function relations in regression analysis, which were mainly logarithm function, S function, and inverse function. The second group included seven indices, i.e., patch size standard deviation (PSSD), patch size coefficient of variation (PSCV), largest patch index (LPI), area-weighted mean patch shape index (AWMSI), area-weighted mean patch fractal dimension (AWMPFD), landscape division index (DIVISION), and patch cohesion index (COHESION). The behavior of this group was not easy to predict with significant subsection. And function relations used in regression analysis mainly included S function, linear function, inverse function and compound function. The third group included five indices, i.e., contagion index (CONT), landscape dominance index (DI), Shannon's evenness index (SHEI), Simpson's evenness index (SIEI), and modified Simpson's evenness index (MSIEI). The behavior of this group could not be predicted. Significant influence of the changing land use classification on landscape metrics indicated that only landscape with the same land use classification could be used for comparing landscape pattern characteristics.


Wang Jinliang, Shao Jingan, Li Yangbing, 2014. On the Expansion Characteristics of Clustered Cities in the Mountainous Metropolitan Area and Their Spatial Distribution Trend.Journal of Southwest University (Natural Science Edition), (12): 122-127. (in Chinese)

Xi Jianchao, Wang Shoukun, Zhang Ruiying, 2016. Restructuring and optimizing production-living-ecology space in rural settlements: A case study of Gougezhuang Village at Yesanpo Tourism Attraction in Hebei Province.Journal of Natural Resources, 31(3): 425-435. (in Chinese)Currently, optimization and adjustment of spatial pattern in rural settlements is necessary for promoting the ecological civilization and the new urbanization. Integrating the methods of participatory rural assessment(PRA), GIS spatial analysis and remote sensing images interpreting, this study analyzes the rural spatial restructuring process of tourism villages through a case study of Gouge Village in Yesanpo tourism area in the past 28 years.The results indicate that Gouge Village had gone through a rapid spatial restructuring process induced by tourism. It is manifested in the reduction of traditional production and living space,and the increase of new production-living and production-ecology space. Rural restructuring is characterized by three aspects: the migration of production space from the periphery to central area of the village, the transformation of living space from scattered distribution to agglomeration, the change of the utilization of ecological space from scattered to integrated mode. The traditional rural spatial restructuring is for assembling industrial development,centralizing farmers living and intensive resources utilization. Different from the restructuring of traditional rural settlements, the spatial restructuring in tourist settlements are characterized with spatial fusion, tridimensional expansion and moderate intensive. This process of rural restructuring, representing an ideal pattern of urbanization, is precisely anastomosed with the starting point of new urbanization. The spatial evolution path of tourism urbanization should follow the outward direction, putting much emphasis on the construction and reconstruction of public space for living space, the integrated function for production space, and the consolidation and protection of ecological landscape and traditional culture for ecological space, so as to establish a comprehensive institutional system. The research conclusion will provide theoretical basis to promote Chinas new tourism urbanization and rural planning.

Zeng Yongnian, He Lili, Jin Wenpinget al., 2012. Quantitative analysis of the urban expansion models in Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan metropolitan areas.Scientia Geographica Sinica, 32(5): 544-549. (in Chinese)The urban expansion pattern is important to understand the urbanization processes.It is important to reveal and study quantitativly on urban spatial expansion models for understanding the regional urbanization process and the urban spatial planning.In this article,the changes of urban landscape from 1993 to 2006 in the core area of Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan metroplan areas are quantified using landscape expasion index(LEI).The results indicate: 1) the proportions of urban expansion area in outlying model is 22.38%,30.26%,13.74%,18.68% respectively,those of in edge-expansion model are 60.60%,52.42%,66.83%,63.69% and in infilling model are 17.02%,17.32%,19.43%,17.63% respectively from 1993 to 2006.This shows that after a messy dispersed primary development phase,urban development is more compact and reasonable layout.2) the urban expasion appears mainly edge-expansion model from 1993 to 2006 in Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan metroplan areas.However,there are different unban expansion models in four different periods: the urban expasion appears edge-expansion and outlying model from 1993 to 1996,which indcates that urbanization is in the early stage of rapid urbanization; the urban expasion appears mainly outlying model from 1996 to 1998,which indcates that urban development is messy and dispersion; the urban expasion appears mainly edge-expansion model from 1998 to 2001.This period is the proliferation phase in the rapid development of urbanization; the urban expasion appears edge-expansion and infilling model from 2001 to 2006.This period is the polymeric phase in rapid urbanization.3) The MEI and AWMEI of Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan metroplan areas show an ascendant trend,which rises to 34.72 and 30.59 respectively.This means that urban landscape expansion tends to be more compac.4) The urbanization level of Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan metroplan areas was 49.69% in 2006.The annual growth rate is 2.57%.A rapid development of urbanization leads to land used for construction increasing and the investment of urban construction expanding ceaselessly.Rapid development of urbanization is an important reason for urban landscape expansion.Another important reason is industrialization development,especially a quick development when Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan metroplan areas go into"Two Type" society.The proportion of secondary industry is 47%,which is 3.5% higher than the provincial average.


Zhang Bailin, Cai Weimin, Zhang Fengronget al., 2016. Spatio-temporal evolution of rural settlements and its driving forces in Yishui county, Shandong province from Sui dynasty to 1949.Economic Geography, 35(6): 1141-1150. (in Chinese)Taking Yishui county of Shandong province as a survey region, historical materials, GIS technology and quantitative methods were used to conduct research on the spatio-temporal evolution of Yishui rural settlements from Sui dynasty to 1949 (the period of New China founded). In this study, three indices - the settled time and topography types of rural settlements, and the source regions of rural households of the new rural settlements - were selected to analyze the driving forces of the spatio-temporal evolution of rural settlements. The results revealed the following: (1) There were 1484 rural settlements of Yishui county in 1949. The rural settlements of Yishui settled as early as the Sui dynasty. (2) According to the statistical analysis of rural settlements in different periods, the number of rural settlements continued to grow during the whole study period and the growth incidence of the Ming dynasty was the highest. As time goes on, the growth incidence of rural settlements showed an inverted "U" shaped pattern. New rural settlements were built in every period, but concentrated in the Ming and Qing dynasties, especially, the Ming dynasty the number new rural settlements came to a peak. (3) In terms of spatial distribution, new rural settlements were firstly found in plain areas, then in hilly areas, and lastly they appeared in mountainous areas. The residents of new rural settlements firstly came from regions outside the province, then outside the county, and lastly inside the county. (4) The key factors driving the evolution of rural settlements included man-land relationship and cultivated land resources. In the short-term scale, wars, policies and climatic disasters influenced the evolution of rural settlements through driving man-land relationship. New rural settlements firstly appeared in plain areas with rich cultivated land. Then residents gradually moved to and settle in hilly and mountainous areas.

Zhang Hongqi, Xu Erqi, Zhu Huiyi, 2015. An ecological-living-industrial land classification system and its spatial distribution in China.Resources Science, 37(7): 1332-1338. (in Chinese)Rapid development of industrialization,urbanization and economy causes tension in the human-land relationship. To take into account the relationship between food security,economic development and ecological protection,one needs to coordinate contradictions and conflicts between different functional land types. The current land use classification system emphasizes the industrial and living function of lands but insufficiently considers ecological function. This study built an Ecological-living-industrial Land Classification System from the perspective of land functions incorporating the concept of ecological land. The new land classification is more suitable to coordinate ecological,living and industrial land spaces. The Ecological-living-industrial Land Classification System includes three levels. The first level includes four major types:ecological regulation land,ecological-industrial land,industrial land,and living-industrial-ecological land.The second level subdivides dominant functions into 15 functional land categories. The third level is based on land cover types. According to zoning and re-classification,we extracted ecological-living-industrial land and their spatial distribution at a national scale. The area of ecological regulation land,ecological-industrial land,industrial land,and living-industrial land area are 6 037 000km2,1 353 800km2,2 001 900km2 and 207 300km2respectively;accounting for62.89%,14.10%,20.85% and 2.16% of total area,respectively. Ecological land are mainly locate in central and western China,ecological-industrial land reflects obvious regional differentiation,and industrial-ecological land and living-industrial land are concentrated in eastern China.

Zhao Yuan, Yang Zuying, Hao Lishaet al., 2012. The evolution of spatial displacement pattern of China’s crude oil flow source-sink system.Acta Geographica Sinica, 67(4): 25-36. (in Chinese)Taking provinces as the flow nodes,this paper examines the spatial evolution of China's crude oil flow in five typical years selected from the research period 1985-2009. According to the oil self-sufficiency ratio and liquidity ratio,flow nodes are divided into three types:source regions,sink regions and transit regions in five typical years,respectively. Then,adopting the gravity center and standard deviational ellipse,this paper analyzes the central tendency and dispersion pattern of the spatial distribution of the sources and sinks,in order to clarify the spatial displacement and shape change of source-sink system.Some conclusions can be drawn as follows.(1) Although mainly located in the northeast of China,the gravity center of source system of crude oil flow had moved northwest from 1985 to 1995,and then southwest from 1995 to 2009.As a whole,its moving speed in the north-south direction was higher than that in the east-west direction.The gravity center of sink system of crude oil flow was mainly located in east China,its moving ranges were relatively small compared to the source system,and it mainly moved in the north-south direction from 1985 to 1999,while mainly in the east-west direction from 1999 to 2003,and lastly inclined southwest.(2) The analysis of standard deviational ellipses shows that the spatial pattern of source system became centralized in 2003-2009 after decentralized in 1985-1999,and its dominant distribution direction had changed from northeast-southwest to approximate northwest-southeast.The distribution pattern of sink system was relatively stable,which became slightly centralized in 1985-2003,and then somewhat decentralized,and its dominant distribution direction has always maintained as northeast-southwest.(3) As expressed by the evolution of the link between the gravity centers of source system and sink system,the mean direction of crude oil flow in China had gradually changed to north-south from northeast-southwest,and the mean flow length tended to decline.As shown by the evolution of the links between the principal axes of source system and sink system,the dominant direction of crude oil flow in China gradually changed from northeast-southwest to northwest-southeast and east-west.


Zhou Baotong, 2004. Study on basic theoretical concepts of sustainable land use.Journal of Southwest China Normal University, 29(2): 310-314. (in Chinese)Sustainable land use is an important foundation to realize sustainable development of human society and economy. On the basis to analyse characteristics of land resources sort, the measure standards of sustainable land use were expounded from land resources resume and use characteristics and land use benefit characteristics in this paper. Intensions of sustainable land use such as maintain of environment stability, resources reasonable development, resources quantity and structure optimization and regular operation of system function were discussed lastly.

Zhou Nianxing, Huang Zhenfang, Jiang Mingpinget al., 2012. The relationships between forest landscape visual quality and landscape spatial pattern index of Mount Lushan.Geographical Research, 31(7): 1224-1232. (in Chinese)Aesthetic appreciation and ecological sustainable development jointly mark the two key main goals in forest landscape management.However,how to reconcile the two goals has always been the crucial research issue on the relationship between landscape visual quality and spatial pattern index.More than 49 landscape pictures were taken from a wide range of Mount Lushan Scenic Area,and the spots represented in the photos were digitized on the forest field survey map.The Scenic Beauty Evaluation(SBE) of the 49 pictures were calculated according to the visual assessment test,the landscape spatial pattern index,such as patch density,large patch index,edge density,landscape shape index,Shannon's diversity index,have been calculated,and the relationship between landscape visual quality and landscape spatial pattern index have also been figured out.The results are shown as follows.(1) As far as the landscape composition is concerned,we find a significant positive correlation between SBE values and the percentage of water area(r=0.472,p0.01),and a significant negative correlation between SBE values and the percentage of built-up area(r=-0.422,p0.01).We also find a positive correlation between SBE values and the naturalness index(r=0.368,p0.05).(2) With the point view of landscape pattern index,we find a significant negative correlation between SBE values and patch density(r=-0.489,p0.01),and a significant positive correlation between the SBE values and the edge density(r=0.481,p0.01) and Shannon's diversity index(r=0.602,p0.01).(3) We find no correlation in the total dataset between SBE values and the openness index,large patch index and landscape shape index.The results of this study may be useful in forest landscape management for realizing the goal that landscape aesthetic appreciation can go well with ecological sustainable development.