Journal of Geographical Sciences >
Water resource utilization efficiency and spatial spillover effects in China
Author: Sun Caizhi (1970), Professor, specialized in water resources evaluation and management. Email: suncaizhi@lnnu.edu.cn
Received date: 20140330
Accepted date: 20140422
Online published: 20140520
Supported by
National Social Science Foundation of China, No.11BJY063.Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University, No.NECT130844
Copyright
Based on provincial panel data of water footprint and grey water footprint, and with the help of data envelopment analysis model considering and without considering the undesirable output, this paper estimates the water resources utilization efficiency in China from 1997 to 2011. The spatial weighting matrix based on economyspatial distance function is established to discuss spatial autocorrelation of water resources utilization efficiency. With the help of absolute βconvergence model, this paper concludes that there exists βconvergence in the water resources utilization efficiency. Under the conditions of considering and without considering the undesirable output, it takes about 52.6 and 5.6 years respectively to achieve the extent of half of convergence. By mean of the spatial Durbin econometric model, this paper studies spatial spillover effects of the provincial water resources utilization efficiency in China. The results are as follows. 1) With considering and without considering the undesirable output, there is significant spatial correlation in provincial water resource efficiency in China. 2) Under the two cases, the spatial autoregressive coefficients (ρ) are 0.278 and 0.507 respectively, at 1% significance level. There exist the spatial spillover effects of provincial water resources utilization efficiency. 3) With considering the undesirable output, these factors of the education funds, the transportation infrastructure, and the industrial and agricultural water consumption proportion have positive impacts. These factors of foreign direct investment, the industry valueadded water consumption per ten thousand yuan, per capita water consumption, and the total precipitation have negative impacts. 4) Without considering the undesirable output, the factor of GDP per laborer has a greater positive significant influence on the water resources utilization efficiency. However the facts of industry valueadded water consumption in ten thousand yuan and the transportation infrastructure have no significant influence. 5) Regardless of undesirable output of water resources utilization efficiency, the assessment of the present real water resources utilization in China will be distorted and policymaking will be misled. The water efficiency measure considering environmental factors (such as gray water footprint) is more reasonable.
SUN Caizhi , ZHAO Liangshi , ZOU Wei , ZHENG Defeng . Water resource utilization efficiency and spatial spillover effects in China[J]. Journal of Geographical Sciences, 2014 , 24(5) : 771 788 . DOI: 10.1007/s114420141119x
Figure 1 The composition of the water footprints in China 
Table 1 The l water resource utilization efficiency in various provinces of China from 1997 to 2011 
Regions  1997  2001  2004  2008  2011  Average value 

Beijing  0.134/0.196  0.210/0.316  0.287/0.383  0.587/0.539  1.000/0.759  0.414/0.423 
Tianjin  0.115/0.165  0.182/0.284  0.257/0.398  0.487/0.639  0.885/1.000  0.344/0.476 
Hebei  0.103/0.146  0.145/0.216  0.193/0.296  0.317/0.455  0.511/0.608  0.235/0.330 
Shanxi  0.064/0.116  0.095/0.171  0.130/0.247  0.208/0.369  0.287/0.494  0.150/0.272 
Inner Mongolia  0.050/0.080  0.076/0.117  0.114/0.186  0.227/0.367  0.356/0.534  0.152/0.240 
Liaoning  0.111/0.190  0.163/0.295  0.217/0.390  0.352/0.606  0.581/0.877  0.265/0.449 
Jilin  0.058/0.112  0.087/0.168  0.113/0.227  0.194/0.376  0.290/0.492  0.138/0.263 
Heilongjiang  0.069/0.111  0.099/0.159  0.131/0.215  0.199/0.314  0.272/0.407  0.149/0.235 
Shanghai  0.176/0.271  0.298/0.433  0.427/0.549  0.714/0.832  1.000/1.000  0.498/0.605 
Jiangsu  0.164/0.206  0.258/0.319  0.369/0.430  0.646/0.665  1.000/1.000  0.457/0.497 
Zhejiang  0.142/0.202  0.215/0.296  0.306/0.404  0.531/0.589  0.777/0.840  0.381/0.446 
Anhui  0.069/0.100  0.099/0.141  0.129/0.181  0.205/0.266  0.293/0.358  0.153/0.202 
Fujian  0.094/0.167  0.141/0.231  0.184/0.296  0.301/0.444  0.428/0.574  0.221/0.332 
Jiangxi  0.045/0.073  0.067/0.105  0.087/0.142  0.135/0.211  0.192/0.278  0.102/0.157 
Shandong  0.136/0.218  0.207/0.324  0.306/0.475  0.597/0.768  1.000/1.000  0.413/0.539 
Henan  0.079/0.112  0.105/0.159  0.140/0.221  0.239/0.350  0.352/0.481  0.173/0.256 
Hubei  0.087/0.126  0.129/0.186  0.163/0.243  0.264/0.365  0.386/0.468  0.197/0.268 
Hunan  0.066/0.088  0.093/0.126  0.117/0.162  0.192/0.256  0.291/0.371  0.142/0.190 
Guangdong  0.183/0.237  0.278/0.351  0.413/0.484  0.699/0.714  1.000/1.000  0.492/0.537 
Guangxi  0.053/0.076  0.073/0.105  0.099/0.139  0.157/0.220  0.238/0.316  0.118/0.163 
Hainan  0.045/0.071  0.059/0.098  0.072/0.123  0.105/0.179  0.149/0.251  0.082/0.139 
Chongqing  0.063/0.125  0.092/0.176  0.121/0.229  0.198/0.348  0.344/0.593  0.152/0.273 
Sichuan  0.093/0.143  0.133/0.203  0.179/0.272  0.295/0.420  0.490/0.635  0.221/0.315 
Guizhou  0.030/0.054  0.042/0.072  0.053/0.091  0.084/0.138  0.135/0.233  0.064/0.107 
Yunnan  0.054/0.081  0.071/0.106  0.088/0.135  0.130/0.190  0.181/0.270  0.101/0.149 
Tibet  0.025/0.031  0.037/0.044  0.049/0.059  0.068/0.079  0.087/0.106  0.052/0.062 
Shaanxi  0.048/0.090  0.074/0.141  0.100/0.196  0.168/0.319  0.241/0.458  0.120/0.227 
Gansu  0.040/0.061  0.057/0.087  0.073/0.114  0.110/0.172  0.140/0.231  0.081/0.128 
Qinghai  0.032/0.043  0.046/0.061  0.063/0.079  0.093/0.120  0.133/0.167  0.069/0.089 
Ningxia  0.028/0.031  0.037/0.044  0.047/0.060  0.067/0.094  0.086/0.125  0.051/0.068 
Xinjiang  0.055/0.065  0.210/0.089  0.089/0.113  0.126/0.160  0.156/0.201  0.097/0.123 
Table 2 The Moran’s I of water utilization efficiency in China 
Year  Consider the undesirable output  Year  Without considering the undesirable output  

Moran’s I  zStatistic  Pvalue  Moran’s I  zStatistic  Pvalue  
1997  0.0647  2.8350  0.0023  1997  0.0686  2.9467  0.0016 
1998  0.0647  2.8355  0.0023  1998  0.0713  3.0254  0.0012 
1999  0.0660  2.8740  0.0020  1999  0.0719  3.0426  0.0012 
2000  0.0663  2.8831  0.0020  2000  0.0735  3.0902  0.0010 
2001  0.0677  2.9211  0.0017  2001  0.0752  3.1393  0.0008 
2002  0.0637  2.8075  0.0025  2002  0.0730  3.0746  0.0011 
2003  0.0632  2.7931  0.0026  2003  0.0768  3.1855  0.0007 
2004  0.0616  2.7451  0.0030  2004  0.0771  3.1934  0.0007 
2005  0.0660  2.8745  0.0020  2005  0.0819  3.3312  0.0004 
2006  0.0636  2.8047  0.0025  2006  0.0788  3.2415  0.0006 
2007  0.0650  2.8429  0.0022  2007  0.0800  3.2777  0.0005 
2008  0.0655  2.8586  0.0021  2008  0.0807  3.2969  0.0005 
2009  0.0674  2.9134  0.0018  2009  0.0802  3.2815  0.0005 
2010  0.0623  2.7669  0.0028  2010  0.0740  3.1034  0.0010 
2011  0.0725  3.0606  0.0011  2011  0.0659  2.8702  0.0021 
Figure 2 LISA map of water utilization efficiency in China 
Table 3 Model regression results 
Regression result  Considering the undesirable output  Regression result  Without considering the undesirable output  

Regression coefficient  tStatistic  Regression coefficient  tStatistic  
α  0.083**  2.125  α  0.074*  1.740 
b  0.013  0.691  b  0.109***  4.131 
Convergence rate β  0.013  Convergence rate β  0.115  
R^{2}  0.552  R^{2}  0.424  
Likelihood ratio  905.059  Likelihood ratio  913.031 
Note: *** refers to 1% significant level; ** to 5% significant level; * to 10% significant level. 
Table 4 Model regression results 
Variable  Considering the undesirable output  Variable  Without considering the undesirable output  

Regression coefficient  tStatistic  Regression coefficient  tStatistic  
Foreign direct investment (10^{8} yuan)  0.017*  1.684  Foreign direct investment (10^{8} yuan)  0.003  0.632 
GDP per laborer (10^{8} yuan)  0.449***  9.011  GDP per laborer (10^{8} yuan)  0.685***  34.565 
Transportation infrastructure (km)  0.021  1.053  Transportation infrastructure (km)  0.021***  2.661 
Per capita water consumption (m^{3})  0.156***  3.504  Per capita water consumption (m^{3})  0.178***  10.005 
Per ten thousand yuan industry valueadded water consumption (m^{3})  0.045**  1.974  Per ten thousand yuan industry valueadded water consumption (m^{3})  0.044***  4.790 
Per acre farmland irrigation water consumption (m^{3})  0.154***  4.359  Per acre farmland irrigation water consumption (m^{3})  0.013  0.955 
Education funds (10^{4} yuan)  0.140***  5.063  Education funds (10^{4} yuan)  0.001  0.003 
Industrial water consumption proportion (%)  0.007  0.256  Industrial water consumption proportion (%)  0.024***  2.199 
Agricultural water consumption proportion (%)  0.181***  7.496  Agricultural water consumption proportion (%)  0.089***  9.247 
Marketization degree (%)  0.225***  4.291  Marketization degree (%)  0.060***  2.855 
Total precipitation (10^{8} m)  0.038**  2.148  Total precipitation (10^{8} m)  0.002  0.219 
Lag foreign direct investment (10^{8} yuan)  0.359***  6.304  Lag foreign direct investment (10^{8} yuan)  0.069***  3.066 
Lag GDP per laborer (10^{8} yuan)  0.269  1.548  Lag GDP per laborer (10^{8} yuan)  0.266***  2.886 
Lag transportation infrastructure (km)  0.247***  4.013  Lag transportation infrastructure (km)  0.030  1.222 
Lag per capita water consumption (m^{3})  0.223  1.639  Lag per capita water consumption (m^{3})  0.102*  1.695 
Lag per ten thousand yuan industry valueadded water consumption (m^{3})  0.027  0.543  Lag per ten thousand yuan industry valueadded water consumption (m^{3})  0.046**  2.346 
Lag per acre farmland irrigation water consumption (m^{3})  0.238  1.442  Lag per acre farmland irrigation water consumption (m^{3})  0.179***  2.669 
Lag education funds (10^{4} yuan)  0.517***  10.979  Lag education funds (10^{4} yuan)  0.103***  5.353 
Lag industrial water consumption proportion (%)  0.524***  7.102  Lag industrial water consumption proportion (%)  0.171***  5.563 
Lag agricultural water Lag consumption proportion (%)  0.641***  8.041  Lag agricultural water Lag consumption proportion (%)  0.213***  6.701 
Lag marketization degree (%)  0.059  0.410  Lag marketization degree (%)  0.020  0.354 
Lag total precipitation (10^{8} m)  0.214***  2.932  Lag total precipitation (10^{8} m)  0.116***  3.903 
ρ  0.278***  3.198  ρ  0.507***  7.492 
R^{2}  0.994  R^{2}  0.998  
Likelihood ratio  651.753  Likelihood ratio  1076.924 
Note: *** refers to 1% significant level; ** to 5% significant level; * to 10% significant level. 
Table 5 Total effect, direct effect and indirect effect of explanative variables 
Considering the undesirable output  Without considering the undesirable output  

Total effects  Regression coefficient  tStatistic  Total effects  Regression coefficient  tStatistic 
Foreign direct investment (10^{8} yuan)  0.475***  4.786  Foreign direct investment (10^{8} yuan)  0.138**  2.678 
GDP per laborer (10^{8} yuan)  0.243  1.042  GDP per laborer (10^{8} yuan)  0.848***  6.277 
Transportation infrastructure (km)  0.312***  3.289  Transportation infrastructure (km)  0.018  0.349 
Per capita water consumption (m^{3})  0.518**  2.646  Per capita water consumption (m^{3})  0.571***  4.713 
Per ten thousand yuan industry valueadded water consumption (m^{3})  0.104*  1.708  Per ten thousand yuan industry valueadded water consumption (m^{3})  0.005  0.148 
Per acre farmland irrigation water consumption (m^{3})  0.541**  2.251  Per acre farmland irrigation water consumption (m^{3})  0.391***  2.746 
Education funds (10^{4} yuan)  0.525***  6.006  Education funds (10^{4} yuan)  0.212***  4.483 
Industrial water consumption proportion (%)  0.717***  6.389  Industrial water consumption proportion (%)  0.400***  5.899 
Agricultural water consumption proportion (%)  0.641***  4.442  Agricultural water consumption proportion (%)  0.258***  3.472 
Marketization degree (%)  0.225  1.179  Marketization degree (%)  0.165  1.461 
Total precipitation (10^{8} m)  0.349***  3.068  Total precipitation (10^{8} m)  0.234***  3.506 
Direct effects  Regression coefficient  tStatistic  Direct effects  Regression coefficient  tStatistic 
Foreign direct investment (10^{8} yuan)  0.012  1.178  Foreign direct investment (10^{8} yuan)  0.001  0.033 
GDP per laborer (10^{8} yuan)  0.449***  9.07  GDP per laborer (10^{8} yuan)  0.688***  34.042 
Transportation infrastructure (km)  0.018  0.908  Transportation infrastructure (km)  0.021**  2.519 
Per capita water consumption (m^{3})  0.159***  3.674  Per capita water consumption (m^{3})  0.185***  9.806 
Per ten thousand yuan industry valueadded water consumption (m^{3})  0.046*  2.018  Per ten thousand yuan industry valueadded water consumption (m^{3})  0.043***  4.716 
Per acre farmland irrigation water consumption (m^{3})  0.157***  4.382  Per acre farmland irrigation water consumption (m^{3})  0.020  1.368 
Education funds (10^{4} yuan)  0.133***  4.628  Education funds (10^{4} yuan)  0.004  0.360 
Industrial water consumption proportion (%)  0.001  0.001  Industrial water consumption proportion (%)  0.031**  2.704 
Agricultural water consumption proportion (%)  0.173***  6.906  Agricultural water consumption proportion (%)  0.082***  8.797 
Marketization degree (%)  0.225***  4.42  Marketization degree (%)  0.061***  2.913 
Total precipitation (10^{8} m)  0.041**  2.253  Total precipitation (10^{8} m)  0.003  0.413 
Indirect effects  Regression coefficient  tStatistic  Indirect effects  Regression coefficient  tStatistic 
Foreign direct investment (10^{8} yuan)  0.487***  5.103  Foreign direct investment (10^{8} yuan)  0.138***  2.795 
GDP per laborer (10^{8} yuan)  0.205  0.898  GDP per laborer (10^{8} yuan)  0.160  1.218 
Transportation infrastructure (km)  0.33***  3.491  Transportation infrastructure (km)  0.038  0.776 
Total effects  Regression coefficient  tStatistic  Total effects  Regression coefficient  tStatistic 
Per capita water consumption (m^{3})  0.359*  1.925  Per capita water consumption (m^{3})  0.386***  3.379 
Per ten thousand yuan industry valueadded water consumption (m^{3})  0.058  0.885  Per ten thousand yuan industry valueadded water consumption (m^{3})  0.048  1.287 
Per acre farmland irrigation water consumption (m^{3})  0.385  1.654  Per acre farmland irrigation water consumption (m^{3})  0.372**  2.714 
Education funds (10^{4} yuan)  0.658***  8.17  Education funds (10^{4} yuan)  0.208***  4.821 
Industrial water consumption proportion (%)  0.717***  6.759  Industrial water consumption proportion (%)  0.369***  5.760 
Agricultural water consumption proportion (%)  0.814***  5.918  Agricultural water consumption proportion (%)  0.340***  4.791 
Marketization degree (%)  0.001  0.005  Marketization degree (%)  0.103  0.929 
Total precipitation (10^{8} m)  0.308***  2.851  Total precipitation (10^{8} m)  0.231***  3.625 
Note: *** refers to 1% significant level; ** to 5% significant level; * to 10% significant level. 
The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 

21 

22 

23 

24 

25 

26 

27 

28 

29 

30 

31 

32 

33 

34 

35 

/
〈  〉 