Climate and Environmental Change

Monitoring and simulation of water, heat, and CO2 fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems based on the APEIS-FLUX system

  • 1. National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba 305-8506, Japan;

    2. Inst. of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;

    3. Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, CAS, Urumqi 830011, China;

    4. Northwest Institute of Plateau Biology, CAS, Xining 810008, China;

    5. Institute of Subtropical Agricultural Ecology, CAS, Changsha 410125, China

Received date: 2004-03-10

  Revised date: 2004-10-08

  Online published: 2005-06-25

Supported by

Integrated Environmental Monitoring (IEM) Subproject; the Asia-Pacific Environmental Innovation Strategy Project (APEIS); ChinaFLUX


The Integrated Environmental Monitoring (IEM) project, part of the Asia-Pacific Environmental Innovation Strategy (APEIS) project, developed an integrated environmental monitoring system that can be used to detect, monitor, and assess environmental disasters, degradation, and their impacts in the Asia-Pacific region. The system primarily employs data from the moderate resolution imaging spectrometer (MODIS) sensor on the Earth Observation System- (EOS-) Terra/Aqua satellite, as well as those from ground observations at five sites in different ecological systems in China. From the preliminary data analysis on both annual and daily variations of water, heat and CO2 fluxes, we can confirm that this system basically has been working well. The results show that both latent flux and CO2 flux are much greater in the crop field than those in the grassland and the saline desert, whereas the sensible heat flux shows the opposite trend. Different data products from MODIS have very different correspondence, e.g. MODIS-derived land surface temperature has a close correlation with measured ones, but LAI and NPP are quite different from ground measurements, which suggests that the algorithms used to process MODIS data need to be revised by using the local dataset. We are now using the APEIS-FLUX data to develop an integrated model, which can simulate the regional water, heat, and carbon fluxes. Finally, we are expected to use this model to develop more precise high-order MODIS products in Asia-Pacific region.

Cite this article

WATANABE Masataka, WANG Qinxue, HAYASHI Seiji, MURAKAMI ShogoLIU Jiyuan, OUYANG Zhu, LI Yan, LI Yingnian, WANG Kelin . Monitoring and simulation of water, heat, and CO2 fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems based on the APEIS-FLUX system[J]. Journal of Geographical Sciences, 2005 , 15(2) : 131 -141 . DOI: 10.1360/gs050201


[1] Andre J C, Goutorbe J P, Schmugge T et al., 1989. HAPEX-MOBILHY: results from a large-scale field experiment. In: A Rango (ed.), Remote Sensing and Large-scale Global Processes. Wallingford, UK, International Association of Hydrological Sciences, 13-20.

[2] Bolle H J, Andre J C, Arrue J L et al., 1993. FEDA: European field experiment in a desertification-threatened area. Annales Geophysicae, 11: 173-189.

[3] Cuenca R H, Brouwer J, Chanzy A J L et al., 1996. Soil measurements during HAPEX-Sahel Intensive Observation Period. J. Hydrol. (HAPEX-Sahel Special Issue).

[4] Desjardins R L, Schuepp P H, MacPherson J I, 1990. Spatial and temporal variations of CO2, sensible and latent heat fluxes over the FIFE site. In: Proceedings of Symposium on FIFE, sponsored by American Meteorological Society, Anaheim, CA, February 7-9, 1990. 46-50.

[5] ECO ASIA, 2001. Towards a Sustainable Asia and the Pacific, Report of ECO ASIA Long-term Perspective Project Phase II, Published by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES), Japan, pp166.

[6] GEWEX Continental-Scale International Project (GCIP) website, 2002.

[7] Goutorbe J P, Lebel T, Tinga A J L et al., 1994. HAPEX-Sahel: a large scale study of land-atmosphere interactions in the semi-arid tropics. Ann. Geophys., 12: 53-64.

[8] Henderson-Sellers et al., 1995. The Project for Intercomparison of Land Surface Parameterization Schemes (PILPS) Phases 2 and 3. Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc., 76: 489-503.

[9] Henderson-Sellers et al., 1996. The Project for Intercomparison of Land-surface Parameterization Schemes (PILPS): 1992 to 1995. Climate Dynamics, 12: 849-859.

[10] Holtslag A M, Ek M, 1996. The simulation of surface fluxes and boundary-layer development over the pine forest in HAPEX-MOBILHY. J. Appl. Meteorol., 35: 202-213.

[11] MA Secretariat, 2002. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Methods, Penang, Malaysia. a)

[12] Watanabe M, Liu J, Murakami S et al., 2002. Integrated Environmental Monitoring of the Asia-Pacific Region Asia-Pacific Environmental Innovation Strategy (APEIS): building scientific infrastructure for innovative policies for sustainable development. IHDP Update Newsletter of the International Human Dimensions Programme on Global Environmental Change, No.2.

[13] NASA MODIS team, 2001. MODIS Design Concept, USA.

[14] Noilhan J, Andre J C, Bougeault P et al., 1991. Some aspects of the HAPEX-MOBILHY programme: The data base and the modeling strategy. Surv. Geophys., 12: 31-61.

[15] Pinty J P, Mascart P, Richard E et al., 1989. An investigation of mesoscale flows by vegetation inhomogeneities using an evaporation model calibrated against HAPEX-MOBILHY data. J. Appl. Meteor., 28: 976-992.

[16] Pitman A J, Henderson-Sellers A, 1998. Recent progress and results from the project for the intercomparison of land surface parameterization schemes. J. Hydrology, 128-135.

[17] Sellers P, Hall F G, Margolis H et al., 1995. The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmospheric Study (BOREAS): an overview and early results from the 1994 field year. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 76: 1549-1577

[18] Sellers P J, Hall F G, Asrar G et al., 1992. An overview of the First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) Field Experiment (FIFE). J. Geophys. Res., 97: 18345-18371.

[19] Sellers P J, Hall F G, Asrar G et al., 1988. The first ISLSCP field experiment (FIFE). Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 69: 22-27.

[20] Smith E A, Hsu A Y, Crosson W L et al., 1992. Area-averaged surface fluxes and their time-space variability over the FIFE experimental domain. J. Geophys. Res., 97: 18599-18622.

[21] Sun J, Mahrt L, 1995. Relationship of surface heat flux to microscale temperature variations: application to BOREAS. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 76: 291-301.

[22] UNEP, 2002. GEO-3: Global Environment Outlook. London: Earthscan, 416.

[23] United Nations, 1992. Agenda 21. New York: United Nations Publications.

[24] Wilson K, Goldstein A, Falge E et al., 2002. Energy balance closure at FLUXNET sites. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 113: 223-243.