Table of Content

    25 November 2019, Volume 29 Issue 11 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Research Articles
    Paddy rice multiple cropping index changes in Southern China: Impacts on national grain production capacity and policy implications
    JIANG Min, LI Xiubin, XIN Liangjie, TAN Minghong
    2019, 29 (11):  1773-1787.  doi: 10.1007/s11442-019-1689-8
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    Changes in rice production in Southern China are crucial to national food security. This study employed Landsat images to map the distributions of paddy rice-cropping systems in Southern China in 1990 and 2015. The impact of rice multiple cropping index changes on grain production capacity was then evaluated. Three important results were obtained for the 1990 to 2015 study period. First, the multiple cropping index for rice decreased from 148.3% to 129.3%, and 253.16×10 4 ha of land area was converted from double-cropping to single-cropping rice, termed “double to single”. The area with the most dramatic changes is in the Middle-Lower Yangtze Plain. The rice-cropping system distribution in Southern China showed a change from north to south with double-cropping rice shrinking and single-cropping rice expanding. Second, the “double to single” conversion led to a reduction of 6.1% and 2.6% in rice and grain production, respectively. Hunan and Jiangxi Provinces, located in the main rice producing areas, and Zhejiang, which has shown better economic development, exhibited large reductions in rice production due to the “double to single” conversion, all exceeding 13%. Third, the grain production capacity of converted “double to single” paddy fields is equivalent to that of 223.3 × 10 4 ha of newly reclaimed cultivated land, which is 54% of the total newly cultivated land reclaimed through the 2001-2015 land consolidation project. It is also 1.7 times the target goal for newly cultivated land in the national land consolidation plan for 2016-2020. Making full use of the converted “double to single” paddy fields can save 167.44 billion yuan in newly reclaimed cultivated land costs. Therefore, instead of pursuing low-quality new arable land, it is better to make full use of the existing high-quality arable land. Based on these results, the government should change the assessment method for cultivated land balance, and incorporate the sown area increased by improving the multiple cropping index into the cultivated land compensation indicator.

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    Identifying the most important spatially distributed variables for explaining land use patterns in a rural lowland catchment in Germany
    Chaogui LEI, Paul D. WAGNER, Nicola FOHRER
    2019, 29 (11):  1788-1806.  doi: 10.1007/s11442-019-1690-2
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    Land use patterns arise from interactive processes between the physical environment and anthropogenic activities. While land use patterns and the associated explanatory variables have often been analyzed on the large scale, this study aims to determine the most important variables for explaining land use patterns in the 50 km2 catchment of the Kielstau, Germany, which is dominated by agricultural land use. A set of spatially distributed variables including topography, soil properties, socioeconomic variables, and landscape indices are exploited to set up logistic regression models for the land use map of 2017 with detailed agricultural classes. Spatial validation indicates a reasonable performance as the relative operating characteristic (ROC) ranges between 0.73 and 0.97 for all land use classes except for corn (ROC = 0.68). The robustness of the models in time is confirmed by the temporal validation for which the ROC values are on the same level (maximum deviation 0.1). Non-agricultural land use is generally better explained than agricultural land use. The most important variables are the share of drained area, distance to protected areas, population density, and patch fractal dimension. These variables can either be linked to agriculture or the river course of the Kielstau.

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    Estimation and analysis of the ratio of transpiration to evapotranspiration in forest ecosystems along the North-South Transect of East China
    REN Xiaoli, LU Qianqian, HE Honglin, ZHANG Li, NIU Zhongen
    2019, 29 (11):  1807-1822.  doi: 10.1007/s11442-019-1691-1
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    The ratio of transpiration to evapotranspiration (T/ET) is a key parameter for quantifying water use efficiency of ecosystems and understanding the interaction between ecosystem carbon uptake and water cycling in the context of global change. The estimation of T/ET has been paid increasing attention from the scientific community in recent years globally. In this paper, we used the Priestly-Taylor Jet Propulsion Laboratory Model (PT-JPL) driven by regional remote sensing data and gridded meteorological data, to simulate the T/ET in forest ecosystems along the North-South Transect of East China (NSTEC) during 2001-2010, and to analyze the spatial distribution and temporal variation of T/ET, as well as the factors influencing the variation in T/ET. The results showed that: (1) The PT-JPL model is suitable for the simulation of evapotranspiration and its components of forest ecosystems in Eastern China, and has relatively good stability and reliability. (2) Spatial distribution of T/ET in forest ecosystems along NSTEC was heterogeneous, i.e., T/ET was higher in the north and lower in the south, with an averaged value of 0.69; and the inter-annual variation of T/ET showed a significantly increasing trend, with an increment of 0.007/yr (p<0.01). (3) Seasonal and inter-annual variations of T/ET had different dominant factors. Temperature and EVI can explain around 90% (p<0.01) of the seasonal variation in T/ET, while the inter-annual variation in T/ET was mainly controlled by EVI (53%, p<0.05).

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    Lakes of the Jom-Bolok Volcanoes Valley in the East Sayan Mts., Baikal region: Morphogenesis and potential for regional paleoenvironmental studies
    2019, 29 (11):  1823-1840.  doi: 10.1007/s11442-019-1681-3
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    This article describes the lake basins of the Jom-Bolok volcanic region in the East Sayan (the largest manifestation of the Holocene eruptions in Central Asia). The geomorphological position, origins, aspects of the structure and development are reviewed considering its sedimentary filling. The limnic morphogenesis here develops under the conditions of contrasting relief, high energy of neotectonic and exogenous processes. We established that Lake Khara-Nur, formed as a result of lava-damming of the Jom-Bolok river valley, emerged in its present form approximately 6500 years ago. A complex record on the environment and climatic changes, acquired from its sediments, made it possible to determine for the first time in this region the long-term trends in the development of the Middle and Late Holocene mountain geosystems and also the distinction of several paleogeographic stages of the formation of the natural environment. An average geochemical record resolution for the bottom sediments of the lake was made uniquely for the East Siberian lake records and is equal to 35 years, while the palynological record approximates 110 years.

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    The spatial local accuracy of land cover datasets over the Qiangtang Plateau, High Asia
    LIU Qionghuan, ZHANG Yili, LIU Linshan, LI Lanhui, QI Wei
    2019, 29 (11):  1841-1858.  doi: 10.1007/s11442-019-1992-0
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    We analyzed the spatial local accuracy of land cover (LC) datasets for the Qiangtang Plateau, High Asia, incorporating 923 field sampling points and seven LC compilations including the International Geosphere Biosphere Programme Data and Information System (IGBPDIS), Global Land cover mapping at 30 m resolution (GlobeLand30), MODIS Land Cover Type product (MCD12Q1), Climate Change Initiative Land Cover (CCI-LC), Global Land Cover 2000 (GLC2000), University of Maryland (UMD), and GlobCover 2009 (GlobCover). We initially compared resultant similarities and differences in both area and spatial patterns and analyzed inherent relationships with data sources. We then applied a geographically weighted regression (GWR) approach to predict local accuracy variation. The results of this study reveal that distinct differences, even inverse time series trends, in LC data between CCI-LC and MCD12Q1 were present between 2001 and 2015, with the exception of category areal discordance between the seven datasets. We also show a series of evident discrepancies amongst the LC datasets sampled here in terms of spatial patterns, that is, high spatial congruence is mainly seen in the homogeneous southeastern region of the study area while a low degree of spatial congruence is widely distributed across heterogeneous northwestern and northeastern regions. The overall combined spatial accuracy of the seven LC datasets considered here is less than 70%, and the GlobeLand30 and CCI-LC datasets exhibit higher local accuracy than their counterparts, yielding maximum overall accuracy (OA) values of 77.39% and 61.43%, respectively. Finally, 5.63% of this area is characterized by both high assessment and accuracy (HH) values, mainly located in central and eastern regions of the Qiangtang Plateau, while most low accuracy regions are found in northern, northeastern, and western regions.

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    Trends and risk evolution of drought disasters in Tibet Region, China
    CHEN Qiong, LIU Fenggui, CHEN Ruijie, ZHAO Zhilong, ZHANG Yili, CUI Peng, ZHENG Du
    2019, 29 (11):  1859-1875.  doi: 10.1007/s11442-019-1993-z
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    The risk posed by natural disasters can be largely reflected by hazard and vulnerability. The analysis of long-term hazard series can reveal the mechanisms by which risk changes. Drought disasters are one of the main types of disaster in the Tibet Region (TR) of China. In this study, using statistical drought disasters data in the TR from 1912 to 2012 and socio-economic statistics for five periods between 1965 and 2015, and adopting standard statistical analyses, a wavelet analysis, and a risk assessment model, we first construct the index system for drought disaster risk assessment, and then assess the risk of drought disasters and analyze the mechanisms of changes in risk. The results showed that the occurrence of drought in the TR had three distinct cycles during this study periods, with durations of 5, 15, and 27 years respectively. The frequency of drought in the TR showed increasing trends, and the cycle of drought had been prolonged. From 1965 to 2015, the risk of drought disaster in the TR is significantly increased with the growth rate of 6.8% in high-risk area. In addition, the severity of drought had enhanced, especially in Qamdo. The increased vulnerability locally and significantly enhanced hazard of drought disaster, with a shrinkage of 16.3% in the low-value area and an expansion of 7.4% in the high-value area, being the determinants of drought disaster risk. Therefore, agricultural areas of the TR are the focal locations where risk of drought disaster needs to be managed.

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    Hydrochemical characteristics and controlling factors of natural water in the border areas of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
    TIAN Yuan, YU Chengqun, ZHA Xinjie, GAO Xing, DAI Erfu
    2019, 29 (11):  1876-1894.  doi: 10.1007/s11442-019-1994-y
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    The special geography and human environment of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau has created the unique hydrochemical characteristics of the region’s natural water, which has been preserved in a largely natural state. However, as the intensity of anthropogenic activities in the region has continued to increase, the water environment and hydrochemical characteristics of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau have altered. In this study, water samples from the western, southern, and northeastern border areas of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, where human activities are ongoing, were collected, analyzed, and measured. The regional differences and factors controlling them were also investigated. The key results were obtained as follows. (1) Differences in the physical properties and hydrochemical characteristics, and their controlling factors, occurred in the different boundary areas of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. These differences were mainly the consequence of the geographical environment and geological conditions. (2) The water quality was good and suitable for drinking, with most samples meeting GB (Chinese national) and WHO (World Health Organization) drinking water standards. (3) The chemical properties of water were mainly controlled by the weathering of carbonates and the dissolution of evaporative rocks, with the former the most influential. (4) The biological quality indicators of natural water in the border areas were far superior to GB and WHO drinking water standards.

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    Influence of the regional climate variations on lake changes of Zabuye, Dangqiong Co and Bankog Co salt lakes in Tibet
    WANG Yunsheng, ZHENG Mianping, YAN Lijuan, BU Lingzhong, QI Wen
    2019, 29 (11):  1895-1907.  doi: 10.1007/s11442-019-1995-x
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    The lake hydrological and meteorological data of the Tibetan Plateau are not rich. This research reports the observed climatic data and measured water levels of saline lakes from the local meteorological stations in the Zabuye salt lake, the Dangqiong Co salt lake and the Bankog Co salt lake in recent two decades. Combining with satellite remote sensing maps, we have analyzed the changes of the water level of these three lakes in recent years and discussed the origins of the changes induced by the meteorological factors. The results show that the annual mean temperature and the water level reflect a general ascending trend in these three lakes during the observation period. The rising rates of the annual mean temperature were 0.08℃/yr during 1991-2014 and 0.07℃/yr during 2004-2014, and of the water level, were 0.032 m/yr and 0.24 m/yr, respectively. Analysis of changes of the meteorological factors shows the main cause for the increase of lake water quantity are the reduced lake evaporation and the increased precipitation in the lake basins by the rise of average temperature. Seasonal variation of lake water level is powered largely by the supply of lake water types and the seasonal change of regional climate.

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    Population distribution patterns and changes in China 1953-2010: A regionalization approach
    LIU Cuiling, XU Yaping, WANG Fahui
    2019, 29 (11):  1908-1922.  doi: 10.1007/s11442-019-1696-9
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    This study uses six censuses (1953, 1964, 1982, 1990, 2000, and 2010) at the county level since the foundation of the People’s Republic of China to examine the changes of population density pattern in mainland China over time. Based on the Gini coefficient, the change of disparity in population density followed a “U-shaped” trend, i.e., decreasing during 1953-1982 and increasing during 1982-2010. The shrinking disparity in the pre-reform periods was largely attributable to various ill-conceived political movements, and the enlarging gap in population growth rates in the post-reform era reflected a natural outcome of urbanization, which will continue in the foreseeable future. In addition, this research employs a GIS-automated regionalization method, REDCAP, to uncover a natural demarcation line like the classic “Hu Line” that divides China into two regions of similar area sizes but a strong contrast in population. The results show that the regionalization-derived lines were largely consistent with the Hu Line over time. Therefore, the disparity between the high-density southeast and low-density northwest regions is likely due to differing physical environments that form a natural barrier. Any public policy to overcome this barrier at a large scale is destined to be a vain attempt.

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    Review Article
    Important progress and future prospects for studies on urban public recreational space in China
    YU Ling, LIU Jiaming, LI Tao
    2019, 29 (11):  1923-1946.  doi: 10.1007/s11442-019-1697-8
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    As the main sites of urban residents’ recreational activity in a mass leisure era, urban public recreational space (UPRS) is the primary component of urban public spatial systems. To satisfy current demands for the construction of livable cities and to meet the challenges of UPRS development in an urbanizing context, a scientific and systematic review of the latest developments in UPRS research is important for developing this field. Based on 1264 papers from the China National Knowledge Internet and the Web of Science from 1985 to 2018, this study examined research developments on UPRS in China. Through a quantitative literature analysis, we divided UPRS-related research in China into three stages of development: the starting period (1985-2000), the growth period (2001-2009), and the consolidation period (2010-2018). Next, we identified nine “hot” research topics on UPRS and reviewed developments in each of these. These topics were the classification of UPRS, spatial structure and layout, comprehensive evaluation, planning and development, the impacts of UPRS development, spatial-temporal evolution laws and mechanisms, space imagery features, sustainable utilization, and governmental decision making on UPRS. We also systematically reviewed the research methods and spatial scales used in UPRS-related studies in China. In response to deficiencies in existing research, we put forward several suggestions regarding future research: Chinese UPRS studies should focus on basic theoretical research; construct a new research system that accounts for Chinese characteristics, based on interdisciplinary and multilevel spatial integration; develop a humanistic philosophy and build management systems for UPRS that can lead to the development of world-class cities based on a global vision.

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