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    25 June 2019, Volume 29 Issue 6 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Special Issue: Water Resources in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region
    Spatio-temporal patterns of drought evolution over the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, China
    Jie ZHANG, Fubao SUN, Wenbin LIU, Jiahong LIU, Hong WANG
    2019, 29 (6):  863-876.  doi: 10.1007/s11442-019-1633-y
    Abstract ( 94 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF (3242KB) ( 125 )   Save

    Spatio-temporal patterns of drought from 1961 to 2013 over the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region of China were analyzed using the Palmer Drought Severity index (PDSI) based on 21 meteorological stations. Overall, changes in the mean-state of drought detected in recent decades were due to decreases in precipitation and potential evapotranspiration. The Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) method was used to decompose drought into spatio-temporal patterns, and the first two EOF modes were analyzed. According to the first leading EOF mode (48.5%), the temporal variability (Principal Components, PC1) was highly positively correlated with annual series of PDSI (r=+0.99). The variance decomposition method was further applied to explain the inter-decadal temporal and spatial variations of drought relative to the total variation. We find that 90% of total variance was explained by time variance, and both total and time variance dramatically decreased from 1982 to 2013. The total variance was consistent with extreme climate events at the inter-decadal scale (r=0.71, p<0.01). Comparing the influence of climate change on the annual drought in two different long-term periods characterized by dramatic global warming (P1: 1961-1989 and P2: 1990-2013), we find that temperature sensitivity in the P2 was three times more than that in the P1.

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    Groundwater recharge under irrigated agro-ecosystems in the North China Plain: From a critical zone perspective
    Leilei MIN, Yongqing QI, Yanjun SHEN, Ping WANG, Shiqin WANG, Meiying LIU
    2019, 29 (6):  877-890.  doi: 10.1007/s11442-019-1634-x
    Abstract ( 111 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF (838KB) ( 85 )   Save

    From a critical zone perspective, the present paper aims to present the magnitude of groundwater recharge under different agricultural land-use types, reveal the process of water and solute transport in thick vadose zone, evaluate the “time lag” effect of recharge, and underscore the role of thickening vadose zone in recharge. The results indicated that different agricultural land-use types need to be further considered in recharge rate estimate. Under the typical irrigation condition in the piedmont plain, the recharge rate under flood irrigated winter wheat and summer maize (W/M_F), maize (M), non-cultivation (NC), native vegetation (NV), vegetables (V), and orchards (O) is 206.4, 149.7, 194.1, 46.4, 320.0, and 48.6 mm/yr, respectively. In the central plain, the value under W/M_F, M, NC, V, and cotton (C) is 92.8, 50.8, 85.0, 255.5, and 26.5 mm/yr, respectively. Soil water residence time (several years) and groundwater level response time (several months) should be distinguished to further understand the processes of groundwater recharge, because the soil water displacement velocities range from 0.2 to 2.2 m/yr while the rate of wetting front propagation is approximately 47 m/yr in the piedmont plain. The thickening vadose zone would prolong residence time of soil water and contaminant, which could postpone the time of or alleviate groundwater pollution, but have no significant influence on the magnitude of recharge in a long time scale. Recharge coefficient based on shorter time span (e.g. 2 or 3 years) should be used with caution as a parameter for groundwater resources evaluation, because it varies with total water input and target soil depth. Uncertainties in evapotranspiration and other water balance components should be evaluated in recharge estimation and the impact of land-use types on recharge should be emphasized. The critical zone science would greatly improve the understanding of groundwater recharge processes. The results of the present study will be helpful in sustainable groundwater resources management.

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    Change of winter wheat planting area and its impacts on groundwater depletion in the North China Plain
    Xifang WU, Yongqing QI, Yanjun SHEN, Wei YANG, Yucui ZHANG, Akihiko KONDOH
    2019, 29 (6):  891-908.  doi: 10.1007/s11442-019-1635-9
    Abstract ( 116 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (4015KB) ( 108 )   Save

    The North China Plain is one of the most water-stressed areas in China. Irrigation of winter wheat mainly utilizes groundwater resources, which has resulted in severe environmental problems. Accurate estimation of crop water consumption and net irrigation water consumption is crucial to guarantee the management of agricultural water resources. An actual crop evapotranspiration (ET) estimation model was proposed, by combining FAO Penman-Monteith method with remote sensing data. The planting area of winter wheat has a significant impact on water consumption; therefore, the planting area was also retrieved. The estimated ET showed good agreement with field-observed ET at four stations. The average relative bias and root mean square error (RMSE) for ET estimation were -2.2% and 25.5 mm, respectively. The results showed the planting area and water consumption of winter wheat had a decreasing trend in the Northern Hebei Plain (N-HBP) and Southern Hebei Plain (S-HBP). Moreover, in these two regions, there was a significant negative correlation between accumulated net irrigation water consumption and groundwater table. The total net irrigation water consumption in the N-HBP and S-HBP accounted for 12.9×109 m3 and 31.9×109 m3 during 2001-2016, respectively. Before and after 2001, the decline rate of groundwater table had a decreasing trend, as did the planting area of winter wheat in the N-HBP and S-HBP. The decrease of winter wheat planting area alleviated the decline of groundwater table in these two regions while the total net irrigation water consumption was both up to 28.5×109 m3 during 2001-2016 in the Northwestern Shandong Plain (NW-SDP) and Northern Henan Plain (N-HNP). In these two regions, there was no significant correlation between accumulated net irrigation water consumption and groundwater table. The Yellow River was able to supply irrigation and the groundwater table had no significant declining trend.

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    Mapping the agricultural land use of the North China Plain in 2002 and 2012
    Yucui ZHANG, Yongqing QI, Yanjun SHEN, Hongying WANG, Xuepeng PAN
    2019, 29 (6):  909-921.  doi: 10.1007/s11442-019-1636-8
    Abstract ( 100 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF (3236KB) ( 76 )   Save
    Based on the MODIS NDVI data and Landsat TM/ETM data of 2002 and 2012, this paper extracts the planting area of winter wheat-summer maize, single spring maize, cotton and forest/fruit trees, vegetable and paddy, and made the agricultural land use map of the North China Plain (NCP). Agricultural land use area accounted for 63.32% compared to the total area of the NCP in 2002. And it increased to 65.66% in 2012, which mainly caused by the vegetables and forest/fruit trees increasing. Planting areas of winter wheat-summer maize, cotton, single spring maize, forest/fruit trees, vegetables and paddy were 5031.21×103, 865.90×103, 1226.10×103, 1271.17×103, 648.02×103, 216.51×103 ha in 2012. Rank of changes was: vegetables (+45%) > forest/fruit trees (+27.4%) > paddy (-23.7%) > cotton (-20.4%) > single spring maize (+17.3%) > winter wheat-summer maize (-0.6%). In developed region like Beijing and Tianjin, planting area of crops with high economic benefit (such as fruit trees and vegetables) increased significantly. Government policies for groundwater protection caused obvious decline of winter wheat cultivation in Hebei Province. Cotton planting in Shandong Province decreased more than 200,000 ha during 2002-2012. The data products will be published in the website: http://hydro.sjziam.ac.cn/Default.aspx. To clarify the agricultural land use in the NCP will be very helpful for the regional agricultural water consumption research, which is the serious problem in the NCP.
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    Effects of different land use types on potential evapotranspiration in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, North China
    Jingyan HAN, Yong ZHAO, Jianhua WANG, Bing ZHANG, Yongnan ZHU, Shan JIANG, Lizhen WANG
    2019, 29 (6):  922-934.  doi: 10.1007/s11442-019-1637-7
    Abstract ( 124 )   HTML ( 9 )   PDF (2832KB) ( 77 )   Save

    Potential evapotranspiration (ET0) is vital for hydrologic cycle and water resource assessments as well as crop water requirement and irrigation demand assessments. The Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region (Jing-Jin-Ji)-an important, large, regional, economic community in China has experienced tremendous land use and land cover changes because of urbanisation and ecological restoration, affecting the hydrologic cycle and water resources of this region. Therefore, we analysed ET0 in this region using climate data from 22 meteorological stations for the period 1991-2015 to understand this effect. Our findings show that ET0 increased significantly at a rate of 7.40 mm per decade for the region. Based on the major land use type surrounding them, the meteorological stations were classified as urban, farmland, and natural stations using the 2015 land use dataset. The natural stations in the northern mountainous area showed a significant increase in ET0, whereas most urban and farmland stations in the plain area showed a decrease in ET0, with only a few of the stations showing an increase. Based on the different ET0 trends for different land use types, these stations can be ranked as follows: urban stations (trend value: -4.663 to -1.439) > natural stations (trend value: 2.58 to 3.373) > farmland stations (trend value: -2.927 to -0.248). Our results indicate that land use changes affect meteorological parameters, such as wind speed and sunshine duration, which then lead to changes in ET0. We noted that wind speed was the dominant parameter affecting ET0 at all the natural stations, and wind speed and sunshine duration were the dominant parameters affecting ET0 at most of the urban stations. However, the main controlling parameters affecting ET0 at the farmland stations varied. These results present a scope for understanding land use impact on ET0, which can then be applied to studies on sustainable land use planning and water resource management.

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    Optimizing water resources allocation in the
    Haihe River basin under groundwater sustainability constraints
    MARTINSEN Grith, Suxia LIU, Xingguo MO, Peter BAUER-GOTTWEIN
    2019, 29 (6):  935-958.  doi: 10.1007/s11442-019-1638-6
    Abstract ( 99 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (1785KB) ( 129 )   Save

    This study applies a hydroeconomic optimization method for water resources management in the highly water stressed Haihe River basin. A multi-objective, multi-temporal deterministic hydroeconomic optimization model has been built to quantify the economic trade-offs and reveal “minimum cost strategies” when reducing groundwater abstraction to sustainable levels. A complex basin representation, with ~140,000 decision variables is formulated where each decision variable represents a flow-path from a water source to a sink. Available water sources are runoff generated by the sub-basins upstream the nine major surface water reservoirs, the inter-basin transfers from Yellow River and South to North Water Transfer Project (SNWTP) and the natural groundwater recharge to the three main groundwater aquifers. Water demands, i.e. sinks, are aggregated for each model sub-basin in categories of the major agricultural users, domestic, industrial and ecological water demands. Each demand is associated with a curtailment cost and groundwater abstraction with a pumping cost. Groundwater overdraft is constrained in each model scenario, ranging from unlimited overdraft in the plain area groundwater aquifer to sustainable abstractions over an 8-year period. Inflow upstream Yuqiao reservoir, and the inter-basin transfers from SNWTP and Yellow River are identified as the water resources with the highest increase in average shadow prices when limiting groundwater overdraft. An increase in inflow shadow prices of 37.5% indicates that these water sources will be most valuable if sustainable groundwater abstraction should be achieved. The shadow prices of water sources reveal when and where in the Haihe River basin users are curtailed if water resources are managed in the most optimal way. Average shadow prices of 1.6 yuan/m3 for all surface water sources in the sustainable abstraction scenarios shows that overdraft can be avoided by curtailment of users with a willingness-to-pay ≤1.6 yuan/m3. The shadow prices of the existing surface water reservoirs represented in the model shows that no costs can be saved from expanding their capacities. Finally, the cost of achieving sustainable groundwater abstraction with present water resource availability is found to be minimum 8.2 billion yuan/year.

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    The effects of urban water cycle on energy consumption in Beijing, China
    Guohua HE, Yong ZHAO, Jianhua WANG, Yongnan ZHU, Shan JIANG, Haihong LI, Qingming WANG
    2019, 29 (6):  959-970.  doi: 10.1007/s11442-019-1639-5
    Abstract ( 104 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (544KB) ( 132 )   Save

    Energy is consumed at every stage of the cycle of water production, distribution, end use, and recycled water treatment. Understanding the nexus of energy and water may help to minimize energy and water consumption and reduce environmental emissions. However, the interlinkages between water and energy have not received adequate attention. To address this gap, this paper disaggregates and quantifies the energy consumption of the entire water cycle process in Beijing. The results of this study show that total energy consumption by water production, treatment and distribution, end use, and recycled water reuse amounts to 55.6 billion kWh of electricity in 2015, or about 33% of the total urban energy usage. While water supply amount increased by only 10% from 2005 to 2015, the related energy consumption increased by 215% due to water supply structural change. The Beijing municipal government plans to implement many water saving measures in the area from 2016 to 2020, however, these policies will increase energy consumption by 74 million kWh in Beijing. This study responds to the urgent need for research on the synergies between energy and water. In order to achieve the goal of low-energy water utilization in the future, water and energy should be integrated in planning and management.

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    Regular Articles
    Spatial-temporal variations in cold surge events in northern China during the period 1960-2016
    Wenlan GAO, Keqin DUAN, Shuangshuang LI
    2019, 29 (6):  971-983.  doi: 10.1007/s11442-019-1668-0
    Abstract ( 128 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF (6312KB) ( 59 )   Save

    Among the most devastating extreme weather events, cold surge (CS) events frequently impact northern China. It has been reported that extreme weather events will increase in the global warming context. However, the direct evidence of this hypothesis is limited. Here, we investigated the changes in frequency, number, duration, and temperature of CS events in northern China using the daily minimum temperature dataset of 331 stations from 1960 to 2016. The results indicate that the annual CS events in terms of frequency and number decreased, and the duration shortened as the starting date was later and the ending date earlier. Meanwhile, the annual CS temperature increased. In addition, spatial trends in the CS events in terms of frequency, number, and duration decreased while the CS temperature increased in most regions of northern China. We interpreted these variations as a response to global warming. However, the extreme CS events in terms of frequency, number and the earliest starting date and the latest ending date showed little change though the extreme CS temperature increased, implying climate warming had not limited extreme CS events. The adverse effect of CS events on agriculture and human health remain concerning.

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    Glacier changes from 1975 to 2016 in the Aksu River Basin, Central Tianshan Mountains
    Qifei ZHANG, Yaning CHEN, Zhi LI, Yupeng LI, Yanyun XIANG, Wei BIAN
    2019, 29 (6):  984-1000.  doi: 10.1007/s11442-019-1640-z
    Abstract ( 89 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (1958KB) ( 107 )   Save

    In this study, we analyzed glacier changes in the Aksu River Basin during the period 1975-2016, based on Landsat MSS/TM/ETM+/OLI imagery analysis and the Chinese Glacier Inventory (CGI). The results showed that the total number, area, and volume of the studied glaciers in the Aksu River Basin decreased by 202 (7.65%), 965.7 km2 (25.88%), and 74.85-78.52 km3 (23.72%-24.3%), respectively. The rate of glacier retreat in the basin was slower in the north, northwest and west, but reached the highest in the east (measuring 0.86% yr-1). Furthermore, there were significant regional differences in the distribution and change of glaciers, the Kumalak River Basin had the largest glacier number and area, about 63.15% and 76.47% of the studied basin, and the rate of glacier retreat in the Kumalak River Basin was 0.65% yr-1, it was higher than the Toxkan River Basin which reached 0.57% yr-1. We found the shrinkage rate of glacier for different periods in the past 41 years, during 1975-1990 the glaciers showed the greatest retreat, while the rate of glacier area retreat slowed down significantly from 1990 to 2000. In recent 16 years since 2000, the rate of glacier retreat in the Toxkan River Basin was higher compared with 1990-2000. The RGI50-13.04920 glacier of Kumalak River Basin had been in a state of retreat since 1990. Over the past 41 years, the temperature and precipitation in the Aksu River Basin increased obviously, and the warming temperatures were clearly the main reason for glacier retreat in the region, while the increased precipitation in the mountain area may have a direct relation with the retreating rate of glaciers.

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    Sediment load change with erosion processes under simulated rainfall events
    Liying SUN, Haiyan FANG, Qiangguo CAI, Xihua YANG, Jijun HE, John L. ZHOU, Xunming WANG
    2019, 29 (6):  1001-1020.  doi: 10.1007/s11442-019-1641-y
    Abstract ( 65 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF (2951KB) ( 62 )   Save

    It is of great significance to quantify sediment load changing with erosion processes for improving the precision of soil loss prediction. Indoor rainfall experiments were conducted in 2 rainfall intensities (90 mm·h-1 and 120 mm·h-1), four slope gradients (17.60%, 26.80%, 36.40%, 46.60%) and 2 slope lengths (5 m, 10 m). Erosion processes are divided into five stages. Results show that sediment yield is mainly sourced from rill erosion, contributing from 54.60% to 95.70% and the duration of which is extended by slope gradients. Sediment load and sediment concentration are significantly different along erosion stages, with the highest values in rill development stage (SIV). Surface flow velocities (interrill and rill) demonstrate less significant differences along erosion stages. Rainfall intensity increases sediment load in all stages, with up to 12.0 times higher when changing from 90 to 120 mm·h-1. There is an increasing trend for sediment load and sediment concentration with the rising slope gradient, however, fluctuations existed with the lowest values on 26.80% and 36.40%, respectively, among different treatments. The slope gradient effects are enhanced by rainfall intensity and slope length. Results from this study are important for validating and improving hillslope erosion modelling at each erosion stage.

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    A Bayesian belief network approach for mapping water conservation ecosystem service optimization region
    Li ZENG, Jing LI
    2019, 29 (6):  1021-1038.  doi: 10.1007/s11442-019-1642-x
    Abstract ( 69 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (1882KB) ( 106 )   Save

    Water conservation is one of the most important ecosystem services of terrestrial ecosystems. Identifying the optimization regions of water conservation using Bayesian belief networks not only helps develop a better understanding of water conservation processes but also increases the rationality of scenario design and pattern optimization. This study establishes a water conservation network model. The model, based on Bayesian belief networks, forecasts the distribution probability of the water conservation projected under different land use scenarios for the year 2050 with the CA-Markov model. A key variable subset method is proposed to optimize the spatial pattern of the water conservation. Three key findings were obtained. First, among the three scenarios, the probability of high water conservation value was the largest under the protection scenario, and the design of this scenario was conducive to the formulation of future land use policies. Second, the key influencing factors impacting the water conservation included precipitation, evapotranspiration and land use, and the state set corresponding to the highest state of water conservation was mainly distributed in areas with high annual average rainfall and evapotranspiration and high vegetation coverage. Third, the regions suitable for optimizing water conservation were mainly distributed in the southern part of Maiji District in Tianshui, southwest of Longxian and south of Weibin District in Baoji, northeast of Xunyi County and northwest of Yongshou County in Xianyang, and west of Yaozhou District in Tongchuan.

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    Review Article
    A review of underlying surface parameterization methods in hydrologic models
    Lingling ZHAO, Changming LIU, Leszek SOBKOWIAK, Xiaoxiao WU, Jiafu LIU
    2019, 29 (6):  1039-1060.  doi: 10.1007/s11442-019-1643-9
    Abstract ( 88 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF (1790KB) ( 73 )   Save

    Numerous topography, land-cover, land-use, and soil-type parameterization methods are required to simulate the hydrologic cycle. In this paper, using the principles of hydrologic cycle simulation, 20 methods commonly applied to runoff-yield simulation are analyzed. Additionally, parameterization methods used in 17 runoff-yield simulation methods and 15 confluence methods are discussed, including the degree of parameterization. Next, the parameterization methods are classified into four categories: not clearly expressed; calibrated; deterministic; and physical-conceptual. Furthermore, we clarify responses and contributions of different parameterization methods to hydrologic cycle simulation results. Finally, major weaknesses of simplified descriptions of complex rational and physical mechanisms in the parameterization methods of the underlying surfaces in hydrologic models are outlined, and two directions of future development are estimated, looking toward simple practicality and complex mechanization.

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