Table of Content

    10 August 2018, Volume 28 Issue 8 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Characteristics of dry-wet abrupt alternation events in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River Basin and the relationship with ENSO
    Lijie SHAN, Liping ZHANG, Jiyun SONG, Yanjun ZHANG, Dunxian SHE, Jun XIA
    2018, 28 (8):  1039-1058.  doi: 10.1007/s11442-018-1540-7
    Abstract ( 100 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (4803KB) ( 214 )   Save

    During recent decades, more frequent flood-drought alternations have been seen in China as a result of global climate change and intensive human activities, which have significant implications on water and food security. To better identify the characteristics of flood-drought alternations, we proposed a modified dry-wet abrupt alternation index (DWAAI) and applied the new method in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River Basin (YRB-ML) to analyze the long-term spatio-temporal characteristics of dry-wet abrupt alternation (DWAA) events based on the daily precipitation observations at 75 rainfall stations in summer from 1960 to 2015. We found that the DWAA events have been spreading in the study area with higher frequency and intensity since 1960. In particular, the DWAA events mainly occurred in May and June in the northwest of the YRB-ML, including Hanjiang River Basin, the middle reaches of the YRB, north of Dongting Lake and northwest of Poyang Lake. In addition, we also analyzed the impact of El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on DWAA events in the YRB-ML. The results showed that around 41.04% of DWAA events occurred during the declining stages of La Niño or within the subsequent 8 months after La Niño, which implies that La Niño events could be predictive signals of DWAA events. Besides, significant negative correlations have been found between the modified DWAAI values of all the rainfall stations and the sea surface temperature anomalies in the Nino3.4 region within the 6 months prior to the DWAA events, particularly for the Poyang Lake watershed and the middle reaches of the YRB. This study has significant implications on the flood and drought control and water resources management in the YRB-ML under the challenge of future climate change.

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    Applying energy theory to understand the relationship between the Yangtze River and Poyang Lake
    Mofei CHEN, Jinyun DENG, Shaoying FAN, Yitian LI
    2018, 28 (8):  1059-1071.  doi: 10.1007/s11442-018-1541-6
    Abstract ( 77 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (816KB) ( 82 )   Save

    The complex relationship between the Yangtze River and Poyang Lake controls the exchange of water and sediment between the two, and exerts effects on water resources, flooding, shipping, and the ecological environment. The theory of energy is applied in this paper to investigate the physical mechanisms that determine the nature of the contact between the Yangtze River and Poyang Lake and to establish an energy difference (Fe) index to quantify the interactions between the two systems. Data show that Fe values for this interaction have increased since the 1950s, indicating a weakening in the river effect while the lake effect has been enhanced. Enclosure of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) has also significantly influenced the relationship between the river and the lake by further reducing the impacts of the Yangtze River. The river effect also increases slightly during the dry season, and decreases significantly at the end of the flooding period, while interactions between the two to some extent influence the development of droughts and floods within the lake area. Data show that when the flow of the five rivers within this area is significant and a blocking effect due to the Yangtze River is also clearly apparent, floods occur easily; in contrast, when the opposite is true and the flow of the five rivers is small, and the Yangtze River can accommodate the flow, droughts occur frequently. Construction and enclosure of the TGR also means that the lake area is prone to droughts during September and October.

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    The effect of the Changjiang River on water regimes of its tributary Lake East Dongting
    Xue DAI, Guishan YANG, Rongrong WAN, Yanyan LI
    2018, 28 (8):  1072-1084.  doi: 10.1007/s11442-018-1542-5
    Abstract ( 106 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (1542KB) ( 79 )   Save

    The blocking or reversing effect of the downstream trunk river on its tributary lakes is an essential aspect of river-lake hydraulics. To measure how and the extent to which a trunk river can influence its tributary lakes, we made a case study in Changjiang River and one of its tributary lakes, Lake East Dongting (Lake ED) during a 35-year study period (1980-2014). Specifically, we investigated Lake ED’s discharge ability into Changjiang River using stage-discharge relationship curves, and hence the changes of the lake discharge ability under different hydrologic conditions of the Changjiang River. The results show that (1) the Changjiang River does exert a huge impact on the water regimes of Lake ED. And this impact varies seasonally. A variation of 3000 m3/s in Changjiang River’s runoff would change the lake water level by about 1.1 m in dry seasons, by 0.4 m in wet seasons, and by 0.6 m during severe summer floods. (2) Changes in the Changjiang River runoff triggered by the Three Gorges Dam since 2003 have led to dramatic water regime variations in Lake ED. Other factors, including reduction of lake inflow and the lake bed erosion, also exacerbated the water regime variations in Lake ED.

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    Characteristic of tradeoffs between timber production and carbon storage for plantation under harvesting impact: A case study of Huitong National Research Station of Forest Ecosystem
    Jianjia ZHU, Erfu DAI, Du ZHENG, Xiaoli WANG
    2018, 28 (8):  1085-1098.  doi: 10.1007/s11442-018-1543-4
    Abstract ( 80 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (1257KB) ( 92 )   Save

    The tradeoffs and optimizations of ecosystem services are the key research fields of ecology and geography. It is necessary to maximize the overall benefit of timber production and carbon storage for forest ecological development in China. We selected the Huitong National Research Station of Forest Ecosystem as our study area, and used InVEST model to evaluate timber production and carbon storage quantitatively. The results showed that: (1) While timber production increased with harvesting intensity over the planning horizon, carbon storage decreased. There were tradeoffs between timber production and carbon storage according to the significant negative relationship. (2) While the overall benefit of timber production and carbon storage increased with harvesting intensity, the value of tradeoffs decreased. T1 and T2 scenarios, with harvesting intensity of 10%-20% every 10 years, are the optimum management regimes for the two ecosystem services to gain more benefit and less tradeoffs. (3) The current harvesting intensity in Huitong County was slightly higher than the optimum harvesting intensity. On practical dimension, these findings suggested that obvious objectives are needed to formulate the corresponding countermeasures of tradeoffs, in order to realize the improvement of ecosystem services and the optimization of ecosystem structures.

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    Determination of land salinization causes via land cover and hydrological process change detection in a typical part of Songnen Plain
    Zhiyong WANG, Lijuan LI
    2018, 28 (8):  1099-1112.  doi: 10.1007/s11442-018-1544-3
    Abstract ( 77 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (2591KB) ( 70 )   Save

    Causes of land salinization were determined via land cover and hydrological process change detection in a typical part of Songnen Plain. The area of saline land increased from 4627 km2 in 1980 to 5416 km2 in 2000, and then decreased to 5198 km2 in 2015. The transformation between saline land and other land covers happened mainly before 2000, and saline land had transformation relationship mainly with cropland, grassland, and water body. From 1979 to 2007, groundwater depth fluctuated to increase and was mainly deeper than 3.3 m. Spatially, the area of the region where groundwater depth was deeper than 3.3 m increased from 46.7% in 1980 to 84% in 2000, while the area of the region almost occupied the whole region after 2000. Precipitation and evaporation changed little, while runoff decreased substantially. Shallow groundwater, change of cropland, grassland, and water body induced from human activities and decrease of runoff and increase of irrigation and water transfer from outer basin were the main reasons for land salinization before 2000. After 2000, groundwater with relatively great depth could not exert great influence on land salinization. Protection of grassland and wetland prevented the increase of the area of saline land.

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    Spatiotemporal patterns in urbanization efficiency within the Yangtze River Economic Belt between 2005 and 2014
    Gui JIN, Xiangzheng DENG, Xiaodong ZHAO, Baishu GUO, Jun YANG
    2018, 28 (8):  1113-1126.  doi: 10.1007/s11442-018-1545-2
    Abstract ( 113 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (2354KB) ( 228 )   Save

    The question of how to generate maximum socio-economic benefits while at the same time minimizing input from urban land resources lies at the core of regional ecological civilization construction. We apply stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) in this study to municipal input-output data for the period between 2005 and 2014 to evaluate the urbanization efficiency of 110 cities within the Yangtze River Economic Belt (YREB) and then further assess the spatial association characteristics of these values. The results of this study initially reveal that the urbanization efficiency of the YREB increased from 0.34 to 0.53 between 2005 and 2014, a significant growth at a cumulative rate of 54.07%. Data show that the efficiency growth rate of cities within the upper reaches of the Yangtze River has been faster than that of their counterparts in the middle and lower reaches, and that there is also a great deal of additional potential for growth in urbanization efficiency across the whole area. Secondly, results show that urbanization efficiency conforms to a “bar-like” distribution across the whole area, gradually decreasing from the east to the west. This trend highlights great intra-provincial differences, but also striking inter-provincial variation within the upper, middle, and lower reaches of the Yangtze River. The total urbanization efficiency of cities within the lower reaches of the river has been the highest, followed successively by those within the middle and upper reaches. Finally, values for Moran’s I within this area remained higher than zero over the study period and have increased annually; this result indicates a positive spatial correlation between the urbanization efficiency of cities and annual increments in agglomeration level. Our use of the local indicators of spatial association (LISA) statistic has enabled us to quantify characteristics of “small agglomeration and large dispersion”. Thus, “high- high” (H-H) agglomeration areas can be seen to have spread outwards from around Zhejiang Province and the city of Shanghai, while areas characterized by “low-low” (L-L) patterns are mainly concentrated in the north of Anhui Province and in Sichuan Province. The framework and results of this research are of considerable significance to our understanding of both land use sustainability and balanced development.

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    Coastline and landscape changes in bay areas caused by human activities: A comparative analysis of Xiangshan Bay, China and Tampa Bay, USA
    Jialin LI, Yongchao LIU, Ruiliang PU, Qixiang YUAN, Xiaoli SHI, Qiandong GUO, Xiayun SONG
    2018, 28 (8):  1127-1151.  doi: 10.1007/s11442-018-1546-1
    Abstract ( 82 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (3040KB) ( 110 )   Save

    Using multitemporal Landsat TM/OLI images at a 10-year interval, in this study, we (1) extracted information of spatial location, length, and sinuosity of coastline and landscape configuration, diversity and fragmentation in the bay areas of Xiangshan Bay (XB), China and Tampa Bay (TB), USA from 1985 to 2015; (2) constructed indices of artificial coastlines and human disturbance on bay area landscapes; and (3) explored and discussed the impacts of human activities on changes of coastlines and landscape types in the two bay areas. Our analysis results demonstrate the following five points. (1) During the past 30 years, the lengths of natural coastline in XB and TB shrank, while the lengths of their artificial coastline increased first and then maintained stable. Since there were different influences of human activities on coastlines and landscape types between the two bay areas, XB experienced dramatic changes in parts of coastline geomorphologies and continuous decrease of coastline sinuosity, while, in TB, there was a little change in coastline geomorphologies and its coastline sinuosity was almost unchanged. (2) The intensity of human activities in XB was continuously enhanced from 1985 to 1995, and then the degree of enhancement had slowed down after 1995. However, in the time period, the impacted extent of human activities gradually increased and finally covered almost entire coastlines in XB. In TB area, although the intensity of human activities was enhanced, the degree of enhancement slowed down from 1985 to 2015 and the impacted areas of human activates were concentrated in several coastal city areas. (3) The average area of landscape patches strongly disturbed by human activities in both XB and TB generally showed a trend of decreasing from 1985 to 2005. However, during the period of 2005 to 2015, the average patch area of landscapes disturbed by different degrees of human activities in XB changed differently, while in TB it almost did not change. (4) From 1985 to 2005, the indices of landscape diversity in various areas of human disturbance in XB gradually increased, while in TB, changes in indices of the landscape diversity varied. From 2005 to 2015, the changes in the intensity of human disturbance in both bay areas were from weak to strong, whereas the indices of landscape diversity in XB and TB increased first and then decreased. (5) The landscape fragmentation index in different human disturbance areas in both XB and TB gradually increased from 1985 to 2005, while from 2005 to 2015, in both bay areas, the landscape fragmentation index presented a decreasing trend.

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    Urban land expansion and its driving factors of mountain cities in China during 1990-2015
    Ziwei WANG, Changhe LU
    2018, 28 (8):  1152-1166.  doi: 10.1007/s11442-018-1547-0
    Abstract ( 72 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (1084KB) ( 121 )   Save

    Land expansion of mountain cities in China is not systematically studied yet. This study identified 55 major mountain cities at and above prefecture level, and analyzed the land expansion characteristics and driving forces, based on visually interpreted data from TM images in 1990, 2000, 2010 and 2015. From 1990 to 2015, total built-up land area of the mountain cities increased by 3.87 times, 5.56% per year. The urban land growth was apparently accelerated after 2000, from 4.35% per year during 1990-2000 increased to 6.47% during 2000-2010 and 6.2% during 2010-2015. Compared to the urban population growth, the urban land expansion rate was 44% higher. As a result, the urban land area per capita increased, but it was still within the government control target, and also was much lower than the average of all cities in China. Urban development policy, changes to administrative divisions, GDP and population growth, and road construction were identified as the major driving forces of land expansion. Terrain conditions were not found a relevance to the urban land expansion rate during 1990-2015, but had a significant impact on the layout and shape, and also probably on the urban land efficiency.

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    Spatial function regionalization and governance of coastal zone: A case study in Ningbo City
    Wei SUN, Cheng CHEN, Lei WANG
    2018, 28 (8):  1167-1181.  doi: 10.1007/s11442-018-1548-z
    Abstract ( 90 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (2325KB) ( 174 )   Save

    Reasonable development and utilization of spatial resources in the coastal zone not only affects the development quality of the marine economy but also impacts the utilization efficiency of spatial resources, playing an important role in regional sustainable development. Depending on the natural, economic, and societal characteristics of a region, research topics such as using relevant methods to divide the coastline, proper spatial development of the coast, protecting coastal zones, and achieving higher spatial resource distribution efficiency have recently become hot topics in geographic research. Most of the scholars construct the evaluation index system from the perspective of economic and ecological factors and undertake some exploration of the division methods. However, the selection of indicators for a coastal zone needs a different and more scientific approach. There is a need for emphasizing the overall strategy of land-ocean integration in developing spatial resources in a coastal zone. Taking the coastal zone in Ningbo as an example, this paper develops a new evaluation framework and spatial function regionalization method that is used to divide the coastline and coastal zone. Based on the perspective of overall strategy for the land and ocean, we evaluate the suitability of coastline development. We then propose the spatial function regionalization of the coastal zone. Finally, based on the status quo of spatial development in Ningbo, we divide the coastal zone into ecological space, production space and living space, and propose adjustment directions and control requirements for the different types of spatial layouts.

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    Comprehensive methods for measuring regional multidimensional development and their applications in China
    Yong XU, Jian DUAN, Xiaoren XU
    2018, 28 (8):  1182-1196.  doi: 10.1007/s11442-018-1549-y
    Abstract ( 73 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (1912KB) ( 85 )   Save

    National and international research on regional development has matured from the use of single elements and indicators to the application of comprehensive multi-element and multi-indicator measures. We selected 12 indicators from six dimensions for analysis in this study, including income, consumption, education, population urbanization, traffic, and indoor living facilities. We then proposed the polyhedron method to comprehensively measure levels of regional multidimensional development. We also enhanced the polygon and vector sum methods to render them more suitable for studying the status of regional multidimensional development. Finally, we measured levels of regional multidimensional development at county, city, and provincial scales across China and analyzed spatial differences using the three methods above and the weighted sum method applied widely. The results of this study reveal the presence of remarkable regional differences at the county scale across China in terms of single and multidimensional levels of regional development. Analyses show that values of the regional multidimensional development index (RMDI) are high in eastern coastal areas, intermediate in the midlands and in northern border regions, and low in the southwest and in western border regions. Districts characterized by enhanced and the highest levels of this index are distributed in eastern coastal areas, including cities in central and western regions, as well as areas characterized by the development of energy and mineral resources. The regional distribution of reduced and the lowest levels of this index is consistent with concentrations of areas that have always been impoverished. Correlation analyses of the results generated by the four methods at provincial, city, and county scales show that all are equivalent in practical application and can be used to generate satisfactory measures for regional multidimensional development. Additional correlation analyses between RMDI values calculated using the polyhedron method and per capita gross domestic product (GDP) demonstrate that the latter is not a meaningful proxy for the level of regional multidimensional development.

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