In this paper, we analyzed the spatial patterns of cultivated land change between 1982 and 2011 using global vector-based land use/land cover data. (1) Our analysis showed that the total global cultivated land area increased by 528.768×104 km2 with a rate of 7.920×104 km2/a, although this increasing trend was not significant. The global cultivated land increased fastest in the 1980s. Since the 1980s, the cultivated land area in North America, South America and Oceania increased by 170.854×104 km2, 107.890×104 km2, and 186.492×104 km2, respectively. In contrast, that in Asia, Europe and Africa decreased by 23.769×104 km2, 4.035×104 km2 and 86.76×104 km2, respectively. Furthermore, the cultivated land area in North America, South America and Oceania exhibited significant increasing trends of 7.236× 104 km2/a, 2.780×104 km2/a and 3.758×104 km2/a, respectively. On the other hand, that of Asia, Europe and Africa exhibited decreasing trend rates of -5.641×104 km2/a, -0.831×104 km2/a and -0.595×104 km2/a, respectively. Moreover, the decreasing trend in Asia was significant. (2) Since the 1980s, the increase in global cultivated lands was mainly due to converted grasslands and woodlands, which accounted for 53.536% and 26.148% of the total increase, respectively. The increase was found in southern and central Africa, eastern and northern Australia, southeastern South America, central US and Alaska, central Canada, western Russia, northern Finland and northern Mongolia. Among them, Botswana in southern Africa experienced an 80%-90% increase, making it the country with the highest increase worldwide. (3) Since the 1980s, the total area of cultivated lands converted to other types of land was 1071.946×104 km2. The reduction was mainly converted to grasslands and woodlands, which accounted for 57.482% and 36.000%, respectively. The reduction occurred mainly in southern Sudan in central Africa, southern and central US, southern Russia, and southern European countries including Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia and Hungary. The greatest reduction occurred in southern Africa with a 60% reduction. (4) The cultivated lands in all the continents analyzed exhibited a trend of expansion to high latitudes. Additionally, most countries displayed an expansion of newly increased cultivated lands and the reduction of the original cultivated lands.
Geographically explicit historical land use and land cover datasets are increasingly required in studies of climatic and ecological effects of human activities. In this study, using historical population data as a proxy, the provincial cropland areas of Qinghai province and the Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) for 1900, 1930, and 1950 were estimated. The cropland areas of Qinghai and the TAR for 1980 and 2000 were obtained from published statistical data with revisions. Using a land suitability for cultivation model, the provincial cropland areas for the 20th century were converted into crop cover datasets with a resolution of 1 × 1 km. Finally, changes of sediment retention due to crop cover change were assessed using the sediment delivery ratio module of the Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Trade-offs (InVEST) model (version 3.3.1). There were two main results. (1) For 1950-1980 the fractional cropland area increased from 0.32% to 0.48% and land use clearly intensified in the Tibetan Plateau (TP), especially in the Yellow River-Huangshui River Valley (YHRV) and the midstream of the Yarlung Zangbo River and its two tributaries valley (YRTT). For other periods of the 20th century, stability was the main trend. (2) For 1950-1980, sediment export increased rapidly in the Minhe autonomous county of the YHRV, and in the Nianchu River and Lhasa River basins of the YRTT, which means that sediment retention clearly decreased in these regions over this period. The results of this assessment provide scientific support for conservation planning, development planning, or restoration activities.
Though many studies have focused on the causes of shifts in trend of temperature, whether the response of vegetation growth to temperature has changed is still not very clear. In this study, we analyzed the spatial features of the trend changes of temperature during the growing season and the response of vegetation growth in China based on observed climatic data and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from 1984 to 2011. An obvious warming to cooling shift during growing season from the period 1984-1997 to the period 1998-2011 was identified in the northern and northeastern regions of China, whereas a totally converse shift was observed in the southern and western regions, suggesting large spatial heterogeneity of changes of the trend of growing season temperature throughout China. China as a whole, a significant positive relationship between vegetation growth and temperature during 1984 to 1997 has been greatly weakened during 1998-2011. This change of response of vegetation growth to temperature has also been confirmed by Granger causality test. On regional scales, obvious shifts in relationship between vegetation growth and temperature were identified in temperate desert region and rainforest region. Furthermore, by comprehensively analyzing of the relationship between NDVI and climate variables, an overall reduction of impacts of climate factors on vegetation growth was identified over China during recent years, indicating enhanced influences from human associated activities.
In this paper, we selected the middle and upper reaches of the Wuyuer River basin in the black soil region of Northeast China as the study area. We adopted the soil and water integrated model (SWIM) and evaluated the parameter sensitivity using partial correlation coefficient. We calibrated and validated our simulation results based on the daily runoff data from Yi’an hydrological station at the outlet of the river basin and the evaporation data recorded by various weather stations from 1961 to 1997. Following evaluation of the modeling data against the observed data, we present the applicability of SWIM in the river basin of the black soil region, and discuss the resulting errors and their probable causes. Results show that in the periods of calibration and validation, the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) coefficients of the monthly and daily runoffs were not less than 0.71 and 0.55, and the relative errors were less than 6.0%. Compared to daily runoffs, the simulation result of monthly runoffs was better. Additionally, the NSE coefficients of the potential monthly evaporation were not less than 0.81. Together, the results suggest that the calibrated SWIM can be utilized in various simulation analyses of runoffs on a monthly scale in the black soil region of Northeast China. On the contrary, the model had some limitations in simulating runoffs from snowmelt and frozen soil. Meanwhile, the stimulation data deviated from the measured data largely when applied to the years with spring and summer floods. The simulated annual runoffs were considerably higher than the measured data in the years with abrupt increases in annual precipitation. However, the model is capable of reproducing the changes in runoffs during flood seasons. In summary, this model can provide fundamental hydrological information for comprehensive management of the Wuyuer River basin water environment, and its application can be potentially extended to other river basins in the black soil region.
Traffic is an indispensable prerequisite for a tourism system. The “four vertical and four horizontal” HSR network represents an important milestone of the “traffic revolution” in China. It will affect the spatial pattern of tourism accessibility in Chinese cities, thus substantially increasing their power to attract tourists and their radiation force. This paper examines the evolution and spatial characteristics of the power to attract tourism of cities linked by China’s HSR network by measuring the influence of accessibility of 338 HSR-linked cities using GIS analysis. The results show the following. (1) The accessibility of Chinese cities is optimized by the HSR network, whose spatial pattern of accessibility exhibits an obvious traffic direction and causes a high-speed rail-corridor effect. (2) The spatial pattern of tourism field strength in Chinese cities exhibits the dual characteristics of multi-center annular divergence and dendritic diffusion. Dendritic diffusion is particularly more obvious along the HSR line. The change rate of urban tourism field strength forms a high-value corridor along the HSR line and exhibits a spatial pattern of decreasing area from the center to the outer limit along the HSR line. (3) The influence of the higher and highest tourism field strength areas along the HSR line is most significant, and the number of cities that distribute into these two types of tourism field strengths significantly increases: their area expands by more than 100%. HSR enhances the tourism field strength value of regional central cities, and the radiation range of tourism attraction extends along the HSR line.
China’s economy has undergone rapid transition and industrial restructuring. The term “urban industry” describes a particular type of industry within Chinese cities experiencing restructuring. Given the high percentage of industrial firms that have either closed or relocated from city centres to the urban fringe and beyond, emergent global cities such as Shanghai, are implementing strategies for local economic and urban development, which involve urban industrial upgrading numerous firms in the city centre and urban fringe. This study aims to analyze the location patterns of seven urban industrial sectors within the Shanghai urban region using 2008 micro-geography data. To avoid Modi?able Areal Unit Problem (MAUP) issue, four distance-based measures including nearest neighbourhood analysis, Kernel density estimation, K-function and co-location quotient have been extensively applied to analyze and compare the concentration and co-location between the seven sectors. The results reveal disparate patterns varying with distance and interesting co-location as well. The results are as follows: the city centre and the urban fringe have the highest intensity of urban industrial firms, but the zones with 20-30 km from the city centre is a watershed for most categories; the degree of concentration varies with distance, weaker at shorter distance, increasing up to the maximum distance of 30 km and then decreasing until 50 km; for all urban industries, there are three types of patterns, mixture of clustered, random and dispersed distribution at a varied range of distances. Consequently, this paper argues that the location pattern of urban industry reflects the stage-specific industrial restructuring and spatial transformation, conditioned by sustainability objectives.
The logistics nodes and logistics enterprises are the core carriers and organizational subjects of the logistics space, and their location characteristics and differentiation strategies are of key importance to optimizing urban logistics spatial patterns and ensuring reasonable resource allocation. Based on Tencent Online Maps Platform from December 2014, 4396 logistics points of interest (POI) were collected in Beijing, China. By the methods of industrial concentration evaluation and kernel density analysis, the spatial distribution pattern of logistics in Beijing are explored, the interaction mechanism among the type difference, supply-demand side factors and location choice behavior are clarified, and the internal mechanism of spatial differentiation under the combined influence of transportation, land rent and assets are revealed. The following conclusions are drawn in the paper. (1) Logistics enterprises and logistics nodes exhibit the characteristic of both co-agglomeration and spatial separation in location, and logistics activities display the spatial pattern of "marginal area of downtown area, suburbs and exurban area", which have a weak coupling degree with logistics employment space. (2) The public logistics space, namely, logistics parks and logistics centers, is produced under the guidance of the government, and the terminal logistics space consisting of logistics distribution centers serving for the specific industries and terminal users is dominated by enterprises. The locational differentiation between the two modes of logistics space is significant. (3) In the formation of the logistics spatial location, the government can change the traffic condition by re-planning the transport routes and freight station locations, and control the land rent and availability of different areas by increasing or decreasing the land use of logistics, to impact the enterprise behavior and form different types of logistics space and function differentiation. In comparison, logistics enterprises meet the diverse demands of service objects through differentiation of asset allocation to promote the specialization of division and form the object differentiation of logistics space.