The Yangtze delta’s response to accelerating river damming and irrigation is a topic of global concern. This research analyzed the general erosion-accretion of the submerged delta front, the spatio-temporal changing pattern in different sub-regions, the geomorphological changes in typical cross-sections, and the geomorphological causes of the four main sub-regions (the eastern tidal wetland of Chongming-CM, the Hengsha shoal-HS, the Jiuduansha wetland-JDS, and the eastern tidal wetland of Nanhui-NH). Data sources include topographic data measured at high-resolution, sediment load at Datong Station, and the corresponding estuary construction information. Major findings are: (1) in general, the study area had slightly eroded (the erosion area ratio was 51.83% and the accretion area ratio was 48.17%) from 1982 to 2010, and it had experienced a shift of “erosion-accretion- erosion”. The spatio-temporal change of geomorphology was also significant in the eight sub-regions, excluding constant erosion in the North Channel; (2) evolution in eastern and northern CM and HS, northern JDS, and the region within the 5 m isobath of NH was dominated by vertical deposition, which was the opposite of that in southern CM and HS, and the region within the 5 m isobath of eastern and southern JDS; (3) on the whole, the encompassed surface areas (ESAs) of the 2 m and 5 m isobaths kept increasing, and the annual growth rates reached 10.42 km2/yr and 7.99 km2/yr respectively during 1982-2010 (however, four sub-regions exhibited disagreements), and in the whole region and all sub-regions, the ESA of the 10 m isobath decreased, while the ESA of the 15 m isobath changed slightly during the period and remained stable; (4) being less influenced by the estuarine engineering, CM was the only sub-region where the ESA of the isobath decreased in accordance with the decline of the sediment load. Major conclusions are that estuarine engineering projects play an increasingly important role in affecting the submerged delta against the macro-background of the reduction of sediment load, the change of ESA and the distribution of isobaths. Along with the accelerating construction of the Shanghai International Shipping Centre and reclamation project, the geomorphological evolution of the submerged delta will become more complex and thus deserves frequent monitoring in the future.
Based on field-survey hydrological series in the Dongting Lake watershed from 1951 to 2011, the variations of lakebed sediment siltation/erosion (S/E) regimes of the Dongting Lake after the operation of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) were analyzed. Significantly positive correlations were found between the flow rate from Zhicheng and the Three Outlets (r2=0.859, p<0.0001), and between the flow rate and sediment delivery rate at the Three Outlets (r2=0.895, p<0.0001). This indicated that the flow rate and sediment delivery rate at the Three Outlets were largely determined by the flow rate from the upstream Yangtze River. Sediment deposition amount in the Dongting Lake basin dropped from +4796.4×104 t during the period before the operation of TGR (1999-2002) to +684.1×104 t, +449.8×104 t and -559.6×104 t during the impoundment Phases I, II and III of TGR. The S/E regimes changed from a siltation-dominant to an erosion-dominant state under the pre-discharge, water-storage and water-supplement dispatch over the impoundment from Phase I to III. The sediment deposition amount decreased dramatically under the flood-storage dispatch over the impoundment Phase I to III. The estimated annual mean flow rate, sediment delivery rate and sediment concentration thresholds were respectively 970.81 m3/s, 466.82 kg/s and 0.481 kg/m3 for the upstream Three Outlets to maintain an erosion-dominant state in the downstream linked the Dongting Lake.
The impact of reservoirs on downstream river channel change has been a scientific issue in fluvial geomorphology during the last few decades. However, it is still a difficult issue as to how to express quantitatively the channel adjustment in the Inner Mongolian reach of the Yellow River induced by the joint operation of upstream reservoirs. Based on the shape parameters of channel cross-sections at four gauging stations in this river reach over a flooding season in two periods, 1978-1982 and 2008-2012, the present work investigated the channel changes in terms of shape parameter change rate under the same controlling water level in each flooding season at the channel cross-sections. Results showed that most of the change rates of the parameters evidently increased over a flooding season in both periods. However, the change rate of each parameter at the cross-sections decreased evidently in the latter period, compared with the former period. At the same time, the distribution pattern of the change rate of the shape parameters along the cross-sections thus changed from a convex curve in the former period to an S-shaped curve in the latter period. The obvious decrease of the change rates is related to the joint operation of the Liujiaxia and Longyangxia reservoirs. The reservoirs stored a large volume of water and decreased the peak discharge and maximum velocity in the flooding season; as a result, the erosion ability of the flood decreased accordingly. With the joint operation of the large reservoirs, the Inner Mongolian channel shrunk markedly. Therefore, the channel will present the possibility of an extreme flood in the future. Consequently, it is reasonable to adjust the function of the reservoirs in future. The total water and sediment discharges and the peak discharge in flooding seasons should be effectively controlled. Continuous shrinkage of the channel can thus be avoided and it can be ready for a potential extreme flood.
The formation of Danxia landscapes is too slow to be observed in our life time and the paleoclimates in which Danxia landscapes developed are significantly different from the present. Thus, this study adopted experimental approaches to examine the lithological and paleoclimatic control on the formation of various landscape morphologies in the Mt. Danxiashan, South China. A total of 122 rock samples were collected from a range of Danxia landscape morphologies such as white spots, small and large through caves, honeycomb caves, horizontal grooves, natural bridges, stone pillars, and squama stones. Analyses of the collected samples were conducted in different kinds of experiments, including uniaxial mechanical strength testing; rock resistance against sulfuric acid erosion, freezing, and thawing; X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) analysis; inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis; and identification analysis under a polarizing microscope. The results indicated that the formation of the various Danxia landscape morphologies could result from one or more of the following processes: differential erosion due to lithological difference, chemical dissolution and recrystallization, freezing and thawing actions, acid corrosion, weathering, lateral erosion of river flows, and tectonic uplifts. Water erosion in humid monsoon climate and the alternations of intensive freezing and thawing actions in the Quaternary glacial stages and the interglacial stages could have had great influences on the formation of Danxia landscape topographies.
Permafrost degradation triggered by a warming climate induces significant changes in soil conditions, and further contributes to apparent impacts on vegetation. However, much less is known regarding the difference in net primary productivity (NPP) and the relationships between NPP and warming temperature among different vegetation types and various types of permafrost zone on the Tibetan Plateau. Consequently, remotely sensed land surface temperature (LST) and NPP from the MODIS platform were used to investigate the response of vegetation NPP to warming climate, and the correlations were scaled up for the study region. Our results indicated a notable increase of NPP from west to east, and significantly increased annual NPP along with the increased LST from 2000 to 2010 in the permafrost zone of the Tibetan Plateau. Meanwhile, the increased NPP for various vegetation types and in different types of permafrost zone with relation to warming temperature was revealed. NPP in the continuous permafrost zone had the greatest sensitivity to the changing LST, and forest NPP presented the most obvious response. Positive correlations between NPP and LST at various scales indicated the enhanced effects of warming LST on vegetation carbon sequestration in the permafrost zone of the Tibetan Plateau. In view of the notable response of NPP to warming temperature on this plateau, remote sensing needs to be further employed to reveal the status of permafrost degradation and its related effects on vegetation.
People’s decisions of residential mobility in housing market and decisions of job change in labor market play an essential role in the formation and dynamics of urban spatial structure. This paper investigates the relationship between residential relocation and job change and its heterogeneity using a large-scale survey of residential living satisfaction and preferences in Beijing. Several conclusions are drawn as follows: 1) People’s decisions of residential mobility are significantly positively correlated with their decisions of job change, indicating that these two-dimensional decisions are in fact a correlated decision process rather than two independent decision processes. 2) There is heterogeneity in the correlated decisions of residential mobility and job change. More specifically, the interrelationship between the decisions of residential mobility and job change among people without Beijing hukou, renters and single-worker households is more intensive than people with Beijing hukou, homeowners and multi-worker households. In addition, there is heterogeneity in the determinants of residential relocation and job change between groups with different types of housing tenure, household registration status and family employment structure. 3) For renters, commuting time can significantly increase the probability of residential relocation, which indicates that residents of different socioeconomic attributes have very different responses to commuting time costs.
Research has shown that there has been a significant change in the quantitative relationship between urbanization and economic development over the past 50 years. As a result of this change, the Chenery model is no longer capable of performing a comparative analysis of these parameters. We carried out a regression analysis of the normal form of the relation between urbanization and economic development on the basis of the Chenery model. We used empirical data from 149 countries and regions from 1990 to 2009 and adopted the double logarithmic model, introducing a time series variable for urbanization. From 1990 to 2009, with a per capita gross national income remaining between USD 1000 and 10,000, the urbanization rate changed from 17.78 to 60.36% and the relational matching data changed accordingly, although the upper limit of the rate of urbanization remained at about 75%. Urbanization in countries with a smaller population size was more affected by economic development than urbanization in countries with large and medium sized populations.
Urban agglomerations are an inevitable outcome of China’s new national industrialization and urbanization reaching relatively advanced stages of development over the past 30 years. In the early 2000s, urban agglomerations became new geographical units for participating in global competition and the international division of labor, and China has spent the past decade promoting them as the main spaces for pushing forward its new form of urbanization. The convening of the first Central Work Conference on Urbanization and the National New-type Urbanization Plan (2014-2020) further defined the status of urban agglomerations as the main players in promoting China’s new type of national urbanization. Nevertheless, urban agglomerations remain a weak link in Chinese academia and are in urgent need of study. Only 19 articles on the theme of urban agglomerations were published in the journal Acta Geographica Sinica between 1934 and 2013, accounting for only 0.55% of all articles written during that period. Not only are there very few, they have also all been published within a relatively short period of time, with the first having been published only 10 years ago. The studies are also concentrated among only a few authors and institutions, and research is aimed at national requirements but is rather divergent. Even so, some studies on urban agglomerations have played a leading role and made important contributions to dictating the overall formation of urban agglomerations nationwide. Specifically, a proposed spatial pattern for urban agglomerations formed the basic framework for the spatial structure of China’s urban agglomerations and guided the government to make urban agglomerations the main urban pattern when promoting the new type of urbanization; proposed standards and technologies for identifying the spatial dimensions of urban agglomerations played an important role in defining the scope of national urban agglomerations; a series of studies in the area of urban agglomerations spurred more in-depth and practical studies in the field; and studies on issues related to the formation and growth of urban agglomerations provided warnings on the future selection and development of urban agglomerations. Taking the progress and results of these studies as a foundation, the foci of selecting and developing urban agglomerations in China are as follows: to be problem-oriented and profoundly reflect on and review new problems exposed in the selection and development of urban agglomerations; to concentrate on urban agglomerations and lay importance on the formation of a new “5+9+6” spatial structure for China’s urban agglomerations; to rely on urban agglomerations and promote the formation of a new pattern of national urbanization along the main axes highlighted by urban agglomerations; to be guided by national strategic demand and continue to deepen understanding of major scientific issues in the course of the formation and development of urban agglomerations, including studying the resource and environmental effects of high-density urban agglomerations, scientifically examining resource and environmental carrying capacities of high-density urban agglomerations, creating new management systems and government coordination mechanisms for the formation and development of urban agglomerations, studying the establishment of public finance systems and public finance reserve mechanisms for urban agglomerations, and studying and formulating technical specifications for urban agglomeration planning and standards for delineating urban agglomeration boundaries.