A scanning t-test algorithm for detecting multiple time-scale abrupt changes in the level of a time-series was used to analyze an 8000 year time series of annual precipitation which was reconstructed from tree rings for the Nevada Climate Division 3 in the western USA. The tree ring samples were gathered from eight states in the southwestern USA. Twenty-two change-points were identified by the algorithm and these were used to partition the tree-ring series into twenty-three relatively Wet/Normal/Dry episodes. These twenty-three episodes were collaborated by a coherency analysis of abrupt changes between the precipitation reconstruction series and the TIC/δ18O records from cored sediments of Pyramid Lake in Nevada, and by comparison with published results from related studies. These episodes were also compared with studies of the global climate change and with records of climate change in China during the same periods. The results suggest that the precipitation reconstruction series is quite valuable for climate-change research on multi-centurial time-scales in the western USA, and that the scanning t-test and coherency detection algorithms may have a wide use for detecting multiple time-scale abrupt changes in a long time series.As the TIC and δ18O record series are high resolution with unequal sampling intervals ranging between 3 and 14 years, a new algorithm was developed to deal with the unequal time intervals in the series.
The spatial distribution and seasonal variation of the tide-induced Lagrangian Residual Circulations (LRC hereafter), wind-driven LRC, and the coupling dynamic characteristics were simulated using ECOM, given the Hellerman and Rosenstein global monthly-mean wind stresses. The results showed that the tide-induced LRC of the harmonic constituent m2 bears an identical pattern in four seasons in the Bohai Sea: the surface one is weak with random directions; however, there exist a southeast current from the Bohai Strait to the Laizhou bay, and a weakly anticlockwise gyre in the south of the Bohai Strait for the bottom layer LRC. The magnitude of bottom layer tide-induced LRC is larger than the surface one, and moreover, it contributes significantly to the whole LRC in the Bohai Sea. Unlike the identical structure of the tide-induced LRC, the wind driven LRC varies seasonally under the prevailing monsoon. It forms a distinct gyre under the summer and winter monsoons in July and January respectively, but it seems weak and non-directional in April and September.
Based on the historical records of the drought and flood disasters during 1480-1940AD, this paper reconstructs the sequences of wetness index (WI) and drought and flood disasters. We find a good identical relationship between the fluctuation of WI sequence and the δ18O record of the GISP2 ice core in Greenland, which shows an apparent monsoonal disposal pattern of moisture and temperature. By applying the Morlet Wavelet Transform Method to deal with the data, several apparent periodicities, such as 7-8a, 11-15a, 20-23a and ca 50a, are revealed, among which some can be attributed to the solar forcing. Based on results of Cluster Analysis of dry-wet changes, we resume the regional differentiation pattern of flood-drought disasters all over Guangdong during different climatic intervals in the LIA and, find the western and northern parts of Guangdong have undergone drastic changes in drought-flood regional differentiation, but the eastern part is relatively stable, and the area of the Pearl River Delta shows stable condition of more flood disasters.
New dates for last glacial cycle in Tibetan bordering mountains and in East Asia show the glacial extent during the early/middle (MIS3-4) stage is larger than that of the late stage (MIS2) in last glacial cycle. It is asynchronous with the Northern Hemisphere ice sheets maximum and changes in oceanic circulation that predominately control global climate. In research areas, three seasonal precipitation patterns control the accumulation and ablation of glaciers. The modes of the westerlies and the East Asian mountains/islands in and along the Pacific Ocean are favorable to glacier advance with mainly winter precipitation accumulation. There was a global temperature-decreasing phase in the middle stage (MIS3b, 54-44 ka BP), when the glacier extent was larger than that in Last Glaciation Maximum due to the low temperature combined with high moisture. It is revealed that the Quaternary glaciers not only evolved with localization, but also maybe with globalization. The latest studies show a fact that the developmental characteristics of glaciers in high mountains or islands along the western Pacific Ocean are not in accord with those inland areas. Therefore, it can be concluded that glacier development exhibits regional differences. The study validates the reasonableness of the asynchronous advance theory, and ascertains that both the synchronous and asynchronous advance/retreat of glaciers existed from 30 ka BP to 10 ka BP. It is not suitable to emphasize the synchronicity between global ice-volume and glacier change.
This paper reviews the research on land use change and its corresponding ecological responses. Patterns of land use changes in spatio-temporal level are produced by the interaction of biophysical and socio-economic processes. Nowadays, the studies derived from different socioeconomic conditions and scales show that at short-term scale, human activities, rather than natural forces, have become a major force in shaping the environment, while biophysical factors control the trends and processes of land use change under the macro environmental background. Providing a scientific understanding of the process of land use change, the impacts of different land use decisions, and the ways that decisions are affected by a changing environment and increasing ecological variability are the priority areas for research: (1) explanation of scale dependency of drivers of land use change; (2) quantification of driving factors of land use change; (3) incorporation of biophysical feedbacks in land use change models; and (4) underlying processes and mechanisms of ecological impacts of land use change.
This paper firstly selects 10 kinds of indexes to reflect eco-environment background condition and builds the multi-subject spatial database by using ground meteorological data, remote sensing data and DEM. It then discusses in detail the methods about evaluating eco-environment background condition and analyzing eco-environment change. The eco-environment background conditions of 1989 and 1999 are synthetically appraised. Finally, the paper analyzes the spatial distribution, quantitative change, the trend of change, the areas of change and the dynamic spatial pattern of eco-environment. The results are as follows: (1) The eco-environment background condition becomes worse from southeast to northwest in the farming-pastoral region of northern China. (2) The eco-environment background condition deteriorates from 1989 to 1999. (3) In the adjacent areas of Shanxi-Shaanxi-Inner Mongolia-Gansu-Ningxia, Horqin Sandy Land and its peripheries, and eastern Qinghai province, eco-environmental deterioration is very serious.
Danxia geomorphology originates from China. This paper studies the spatial distribution and differences in characteristics of Danxia landforms. Based on relevant research and investigations, three congregated areas of Danxia landform in China are discussed in this paper. They are the southeast area (including Jiangxi, Fujian, Zhejiang, Hunan and Guangxi provinces), the southwest area (the transitional zone of Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau and Sichuan Basin) and the northwest area (including Longshan mountain and along the banks of the Huanghe River and its anabranches). Not only the conditions of geology and geography of the three areas but also the differences of Danxia landforms of the three areas are analyzed. The Danxia landscape, characterized by upright-shaped peaks, Danxia mesa, stone wall, cave and vertical cave, "Danxia natural bridge", "a narrow strip of sky" and so on, often presents in the southeast area. The landscape of southwest area is characterized by Danxia escarpment faces and waterfalls. In the northwest area, the Danxia landscape has the traits of arid areas simultaneously, for example, mud-coating type, columniation type, board type, moreover, it is greatly different between these environmental factors such as the microclimate, water, wind, and the loess cover. Finally it explores the causes which lead differences in landform and also explains the landform formation process and its mechanism with reference to the rates of crustal uplift, the tectonic red-basin, and the external processes including working of running water, weathering, biogenic, gravity in each area of Danxia Landforms in China.
The forest resources in Xinjiang were surveyed and analyzed based on RS and GIS. Satellite data interpretation was adopted to obtain the general situation of Xinjiang forest resources in assistance with the sampling method and on-the-spot investigations. Based on GIS, related data obtained from satellite remote sensing in 1996 and 2001 were studied through contrastive analysis. Moreover, the dynamic variation of Xinjiang forest resources was studied in an all-around way. In the past five years, the areas of the forestland, woodland, sparse woodland, nursery garden and the land usable for forestry in Xinjiang kept growing, moreover, the forest cover rate and the total standing stock volume increased correspondingly, showing that the wooded area and the amount of growing stock in Xinjiang were increasing. The forestland area in Xinjiang went up to 17,837 km2 from 17,331 km2, with an annual average increase of 101 km2. Accordingly, the forest vegetation came to 1.08% from 1.05%, up 0.03 percentage point; the total standing stock volume went up to 289,985,200 m3 from 262,416,000 m3, a total increase of 27,569,200 m3, an annual average increase of 5,514,000 m3 and an annual average net growth rate of 2.00%. The analysis results showed that the forest resources in Xinjiang were increasing on the whole, however, there remained some problems, such as the sparse natural forests, low forest cover rate, imbalanced wood age structure, and mono tree species composition, etc.
Debris flows in essence are the process of mass transportation controlled by the constitution featured by a wide-ranged distribution of grain size. Debris-flow samples of different densities collected from different regions and gullies reveal that cumulative curve of grain composition, in particular for debris flows of high density, ρs >2 g/cm3, can be fitted well by exponential function with exponents varying with regions and gullies. Debris flows fall into a narrow-valued domain of the exponent, as evidenced by Jiangjiagou Gully (JJG) with high occurrence frequency of debris flows. Furthermore, fractality of grain composition and porosity have been derived from cumulative curves in a certain size range, a range that determines the upper limit of grains constituting the matrix of debris flows. One can conclude that fractal structure of porosity plays crucial roles in soil fluidization that initiates debris flows, and debris flows occur at some range of fractal dimension, in coincidence with field observations.
The lower reaches of the Tarim River are one of the areas suffering from most severe sandy desertification in Xinjiang, Northwest China. Irrational utilization of water and land resources results in eco-environmental deterioration in the Tarim River. In May 2000, the local government carried out the water conveyances project in the Tarim River. The influence of water conveyance on desertification reversion is analyzed and discussed according to the monitoring data in the past three years. Based on monitored data of the nine observed sections, along the channel of conveyance, the intensity and scope of desertification reversion in the upper reaches are larger than those in the lower reaches. Dynamic changes of desertification reversion are more obvious from the channel of conveyance to its two sides. However, the range of influence and intensity of desertification reversion is limited at present. It is suggested that the way and range of water conveyances should be adjusted in the future.
Along the north bank of the Xuxi River, the sand-intercalated-muddy gravel layer from -3.7~-5.8 m in the borehole 7508 at the East Dam and the middle, coarse and fine sand layer with a thickness of 4.5 m at the lower part of the borehole 8179 between the East Dam and the West Dam indicate that a large natural river was here before the Kingdom of Wu excavated the Xuxi Canal. The existence of Neolithic sites such as Xuecheng, Chaoduntou and Xiajiadang along the Xuxi River and the silt layer with dozens of meters archived under the earth's surface within a range of 1 km along both banks are the even more important evidences for the existence of the ancient Zhongjiang River. The floodgate of the East Dam nowadays makes against the communication between the Shuiyangjiang River and the Taihu Lake. The authors suggest the canal between Wuhu and Taihu Lake should be excavated as soon as possible, namely, the navigation channel from Wuhu through Guchenghu Lake, Xuxi River, East Dam, Liyang, Yixing to Taihu Lake should be further widen and the deposits composed of slope wash on the watershed between Shuiyangjiang River and Taihu Lake should be dredged away. Then, the channel journey can be shortened, the boats in ship transportation on the Yangtze River can be shunted to ensure the security of shipping, the resources of sand and gravel in the old river channel can be exploited and the dike of the Yangtze River can be reinforced. So, the problems of irrigation, flood diversion, pollution abatement and drainage of flooded fields in the lower Yangtze River will be resolved. Then, the above methods can impel the sustainable development of the Xuxi River and Taihu Lake area.
Under Rayleigh equilibrium condition, stable isotopic ratio in residual water increases with the decrease of the residual water proportion f exponentially, and the fractionation rate of stable isotopes is inversely proportional to temperature. However, under kinetic evaporation condition, the fractionation of stable isotopes is not only related to the phase temperature but also influenced by the atmospheric humidity and the mass exchange between liquid and vapor phases. The ratio δ in residual water will not change with f after undergoing evaporation of a long time for great relative humidity. The rate that the evaporating water body reaches isotopic steady state is mainly dependent on the relative humidity in atmosphere. The analysis shows that the actual mean linear variety rates, about -30.0, of the δ18O in residual water versus the residual water proportion at Nagqu and Amdo stations are consistent with the simulated process under temperature of 20 oC and relative humidity of 50%. The distillation line simulated under Rayleigh equilibrium condition is analogous to the global meteoric water line (MWL) as the temperature is about 20 oC. Under non-equilibrium condition, the slope and constant values of distillation line are directly proportional to temperature and relative humidity. According to the basic data, the simulated distillation line is very consistent with the actual distillation line of Qinghai Lake.