Based on digital land use data from 1995 to 2000 and road data, the land use and landscape changes of Golmud, Qumaleb and Zhidoi are studied on a macro-scale. Land use and landscape changes in highway buffer zones and city expansion are special subjects. A new formula is used to define the exact degree of dynamic land use. To adequately define land use and landscape pattern changes, the buffer zones, illustrating the changes at different distances from the road, are recognized with ArcGIS 8.1 software. Prominent changes took place in land use and landscape patterns from 1995 to 2000, and the area of built-up land increased by 323.8%. The comprehensive degree of dynamic land use is 2.25, and the degree of dynamic land use of built-up land is the highest, followed by cultivated land. Woodland has the lowest value. The used degree index of land resources declined by 38.8 from 1995 to 2000. Landscape changed dramatically which influenced ecological processes immensely. Different from the corridor effect of other traffic routes, the corridor effect of this section of road is not obvious and its "point" radiation effect can be easily seen. The expanding range of Golmud City is confined to a 3 km buffer, while for Wudaoliang, it is 1 km. No land use change happened in the Nanshankou buffer.
By using digitized land use maps of Beijing in 1982, 1992 and 1997 and employing GIS spatial analysis techniques, this paper conducts an empirical study on the spatial differentiation and spatial patterns of urban land use growth in Beijing in the period of 1982-1997. It is observed that urban land use growth in Beijing went beyond the control of urban planning, in terms of the extraordinary high growth rate and undesired spatial pattern. The rate of urban expansion after 1982, which was predominated by growth of industrial land, was extraordinary high compared to its historical period. While its growth centers have been actively shifting toward the northern part, rather than toward the southern and eastern parts as designated by the latest General Plan (1991-2010) of Beijing, its spatial pattern of urban land use growth in general was in distinct concentric sprawl, which seriously violated the General Plan of Beijing.
In the mid-1990s, we established the national operative dynamic information serving systems on natural resources and environment. During building the land-use/land-cover change (LUCC) database for the mid-1990s, 520 scenes of remotely sensed images of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) were interpreted into land-use/land-cover categories at scale of 1:100,000 under overall digital software environment after being geo-referenced and ortho-rectified. The vector map of land-use/land-cover in China at the scale of 1:100,000 was recently converted into a 1-km raster database that captures all of the high-resolution land-use information by calculating area percentage for each kind of land use category within every cell. Being designed as an operative dynamic information serving system, monitoring the change in land-use/land-cover at national level was executed. We have completed the updating of LUCC database by comparing the TM data in the mid-1990s with new data sources received during 1999-2000 and 1989-1990. The LUCC database has supported greatly the national LUCC research program in China and some relative studies are incompletely reviewed in this paper.
The impact of interbasin water transfer on environment is very significant. The affected area of the west route scheme of the South to North Water Transfer Project in China (SNWT) is located in the eastern Tibetan Plateau, where the altitude is high with frigid eco-environment. In this article, remote sensing and GIS are applied to analyze the natural environment and the natural environment index is established to express the natural conditions of the study area. After the natural environment index is divided into four grades and the features of each grade are analysed, some results are obtained for reference in environmental assessment of the west route of SNWT.
Based on the continuous monitoring data of hydrology and water quality in the period from 1972 to 1997, the responses of hydro-environment system to melt water in the Second Songhua River basin were derived. Because of melt water, the water quality in the Second Songhua River is good and changes very except that the contents of Hg and Mn in the water are higher. The contribution of melt water to the water fluxes in the Second Songhua River basin is distinct: the water flow in April increases remarkably, reaches the peak in the upper reaches. The pollutant contributions and water pollution indices (WPIs) of the Second Songhua River in April are high in the upper reaches while that in the lower reaches are low. The responses of hydro-environment system to melt water of that basin are affected by content of packed snow and the underlining surface systems.
Surface energy fluxes were measured using Bowen-Ratio Energy Balance technique (BREB) and eddy correlation system at Luancheng of Hebei Province, on the North China Plain from 1999 to 2001. Average diurnal variation of surface energy fluxes and CO2 flux for maize showed the inverse "U" type. The average peak fluxes did not appear at noon, but after noon. The average peak CO2 flux was about 1.65 mg m-2 s-1. Crop water use efficiency (WUE) increased quickly in the morning, stabilized after 10:00 and decreased quickly after 15:00 with no evident peak value. The ratio of latent heat flux (λE) to net solar radiation (Rn) was always higher than 70% during winter wheat and maize seasons. The seasonal average ratio of sensible heat flux (H) divided by Rn stayed at about 15% above the field surface; the seasonal average ratio of conductive heat flux (G) divided by Rn varied between 5% and 13%, and the average G/Rn from the wheat canopy was evidently higher than that from the maize canopy. The evaporative fraction (EF) is correlated to the Bowen ratio in a reverse function. EF for winter wheat increased quickly during that revival stage, after the stage, it gradually stabilized to 1.0, and fluctuated around 1.0. EF for maize also fluctuated around 1.0 before the later grain filling stage, and decreased after that stage.
A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of different crop sequences on water use, growth and yield of green gram (Vigna radiata (L) Wilezek) during 1992-93 and 1993-94 under rainfed upland condition in Indo-Gangetic plains of West Bengal. Green gram sown in the month of March as pre-rainy (summer) season crop, as and when the winter crops vacated the land, produced highest dry matter of 372 gm-2 which was significantly highest in black gram-yellow sarson sequence. The results of the field experimentation revealed that green gram gave highest grain yield to the extent of 10.80 q/ha when sown after black gram (rainy season) followed by yellow sarson (winter season) while the crop produced 10.63 q/ha under sesame-yellow sarson sequence. Highest water use of 267 mm was achieved in green gram under black gram-yellow sarson sequence and the crop gave water use efficiency of 4.07 kg ha-1mm-1 under black gram-yellow sarson sequences.
Based on field observations, the author proposes a new understanding on the formation of the first bend of the Yangtze River. The relationship between the formation of the first bend of the Yangtze River and Eocene magmatic activity is expounded, suggesting that the first bend of the Yangtze River is the result from choking of the strong magmatic activity in Eocene. As a result, the upstream became a natural reservoir, whose riverside between Mt. Yulong and Mt. Haba was burst, guiding Jinshajiang River running eastward. At the same time, the drastic uplift of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau led to the deep dissection of the river cut down the channel, resulting in the formation of the Tiger Leaping Gorge. The magnitude of uplift in the study area (located in the eastern of the Tibetan Plateau) is calculated. Taking Mt. Yulong as a base, the magnitude of lift is 3,300 m from Eocene to Pliocene, adding 700 m since Pleistocene, totaling up to 4,000 m or so.
Sedimentary successions and internal structure of the coastal barrier-lagoon system of Boao, eastern Hainan Island were studied through utilizing data from test holes and trenches and ground-penetrating-radar (GPR) profiles. During late Pleistocene, fluvial and delta plains developed over an unevenly eroded bedrock during low sea level stand, followed by the formation of littoral and lagoon facies and defined coastal barrier-lagoon-estuary system during the post-glacial uppermost Pleistocene-lower Holocene eustatic rise of the sea level, and the upper Holocene high stand. GPR results show that Yudaitan, a sandy coastal bar backed by a low-laying land (shoal) just east of the active lagoon, is a continuous, parallel and slightly-wavy reflectors indicating homogeneous sandy or sandy gravel sediments, and inclined reflectors partly caused by progradation and accumulation of beach sand and gravel. Quasi-continuous, hummocky and chaotic reflectors from the shoal of Nangang village correspond to mixed accumulation of sands and clay. This research indicates the GPR is a non-intrusive, rapid, and economical method for high-resolution profiling of subsurface sediments in sandy gravelly coast.
The main biochemicals (such as lignin, protein, cellulose, sugar, starch, chlorophyll and water) of vegetation are directly or indirectly involved in major ecological processes, such as the functions of terrestrial ecosystems (i.e., nutrient-cycling processes, primary production, and decomposition). Remote sensing techniques provide a very convenient way of data acquisition capable of covering a large area several times during one season, so it can play a unique and essential role provided that we can relate remote sensing measurements to the biochemical characteristics of the Earth surface in a reliable and operational way. The application of remote sensing techniques for the estimation of canopy biochemicals was reviewed. Three methods of estimating biochemical concentrations of vegetation were included in this paper: index, stepwise multiple linear regression, and stepwise multiple linear regression based on a model of the forest crown. In addition, the vitality and potential applying value are stressed.
In this paper seven of the ten Water Control Zones (WCZs) in Hong Kong's coastal waters with monthly or bi-weekly sampling data of 17 parameters collected at 37 monitoring stations from 1988 to 1999 were selected to analyze the spatial and temporal variations of chlorophyll-a and its influencing factors. Cluster analysis was employed to group the monitoring stations based on the structure of the data set. Multiple step regression was employed to determine the significant influencing factors of chlorophyll-a level. The results suggest that all the monitoring stations could be grouped into two clusters. Cluster I with frequent red tide incidents comprises two WCZs which are semi-enclosed bays. Cluster II with less red tide occurrence comprises the other five WCZs in an estuarine environment in the west. For both clusters, the organic contents indicator, BOD5, was a common significant influencing factor of the chlorophyll-a level. Nitrogen and light penetration condition related to turbidity, total volatile solids and suspended solids had more influence on the cholophyll-a level in Cluster I than in Cluster II, while phosphorus and oceanographic conditions associated with salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen and pH were more important in Cluster II than in Cluster I. Generally, there was a higher average chlorophyll-a level in winter and autumn in a year. The chlorophyll-a level was much higher in Cluster I than in Cluster II among all seasons. Although the chlorophyll-a concentration had great variations from place to place in Hong Kong's coastal waters, it seemed to have a common long term fluctuation period of 8-10 years with a high-low-high variation in the period in the whole region, which might be influenced by other factors of global scale.
The copper (Cu) content in 205 soil samples (0-20 cm) of Tibet, covering 5 soil classes, were analyzed. The results showed as follows: (1) the average content of Cu was 19.6 mg kg-1 (CV=49.28%); (2) the content of Cu in Tibetan soils was lower than the average level of China; (3) the content of Cu gradually decreased from the southeast to the northwest which was consistent with the direction of changes in the zonal successions of soil in Tibet; (4) Cu contents in Tibetan soils varied with soil properties, particularly soil parent materials that Cu contents were remarkably enriched in soils derived from shale materials.
This study applies theories of systems and system dynamics to ecological economic systems in the oasis environment, with the intention of finding the basic characteristics of the oasis environment and its feedback structures. This study explores the inner mechanisms of economic development in the oasis environment and its relationship to policy variables. This model is applied to economic development in the Manas oasis of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China. System dynamics method starts from studying feedback structure within the system study and then searches for the best solution through identifying the right "policy point" and through model simulation in the computer. It embodies the cream of "systems cybernetics theory". This study is justified because the nature of the oasis system and the simulation results are scientifically sound and practically feasible.
Based on the available original dust storm records from 60 meteorological stations, we discussed the identification standard of severe dust storms at a single station and constructed a quite complete time series of severe group dust storms in the eastern part of Northwest China in 1954-2001. The result shows that there were 99 severe group dust storms in this region in recent 48 years. The spatial distribution indicates that the Alax Plateau, most parts of the Ordos Plateau and most parts of the Hexi Corridor are the main areas influenced by severe group dust storms. In addition, the season and the month with the most frequent severe group dust storms are spring and April, accounting for 78.8% and 41.4% of the total events respectively. During the past 48 years the lowest rate of severe group dust storms occurred in the 1990s. Compared with the other 4 decades, on the average, the duration and the affected area of severe group dust storms are relatively short and small during the 1990s. In 2000 and 2001, there were separately 4 severe group dust storms as the higher value after 1983 in the eastern part of Northwest China.
According to the principle of the eruption of debris flows, the new torrent classification techniques are brought forward. The torrent there can be divided into 4 types such as the debris flow torrent with high destructive strength, the debris flow torrent, high sand-carrying capacity flush flood torrent and common flush flood by the techniques. In this paper, the classification indices system and the quantitative rating methods are presented. Based on torrent classification, debris flow torrent hazard zone mapping techniques by which the debris flow disaster early-warning object can be ascertained accurately are identified. The key techniques of building the debris flow disaster neural network (NN) real time forecasting model are given detailed explanations in this paper, including the determination of neural node at the input layer, the output layer and the implicit layer, the construction of knowledge source and the initial weight value and so on. With this technique, the debris flow disaster real-time forecasting neural network model is built according to the rainfall features of the historical debris flow disasters, which includes multiple rain factors such as rainfall of the disaster day, the rainfall of 15 days before the disaster day, the maximal rate of rainfall in one hour and ten minutes. It can forecast the probability, critical rainfall of eruption of the debris flows, through the real-time rainfall monitoring or weather forecasting. Based on the torrent classification and hazard zone mapping, combined with rainfall monitoring in the rainy season and real-time forecasting models, the debris flow disaster early-warning system is built. In this system, the GIS technique, the advanced international software and hardware are applied, which makes the system's performance steady with good expansibility. The system is a visual information system that serves management and decision-making, which can facilitate timely inspect of the variation of the torrent type and hazardous zone, the torrent management, the early-warning of disasters and the disaster reduction and prevention.
The socio-economic attribute of geo-hazard made us distinguish it from the traditional engineering geology study. It will get more social benefit from the analysis of the geo-hazard in the socio-economic attribute. The hazard and the vulnerability of the element controls the risk level of the regional geo-hazard. The risk analysis supported by GIS in geo-hazard study is one of the most important directions. Based on the author's studies in recent years, a risk analysis system of regional geo-hazard (RiskAnly) has been developed on the basis of software MAPGIS. The paper introduces the train of system design, the structure and the workflow of RiskAnly. As a case study, the paper also deals with the risk zonation of the regional landslide hazard of China.