The research on the land use/cover change is one of the frontiers and the hot spots in the global change research. Based on the Chinese resource and environment spatial-temporal database, and using the Landsat TM and ETM data of 1990 and 2000 respectively, we analyzed the spatial-temporal characteristics of land use/cover changes in the Dongting Lake area during the last decade. The result shows that during the last ten years there were three land-use types that had changed remarkably. The cultivated land decreased by 0.57% of the total cultivated land. The built-up land and water area expanded, with an increase of 8.97% and 0.43% respectively. The conversion between land use types mostly happened among these three land-use types, especially frequently between cultivated land and water area. The land-use change speed of land-use type is different. Three cities experienced the greatest degree of land-use change among all the administrative districts, which means that the land use in these cities changed much quickly. The following changed area was the west and south of the Dongting Lake area. The slowest changed area is the north and east area.
With the technological improvements of satellite sensors, we will acquire more information about the earth so that we have reached a new application epoch of observation on earth environmental change and cartography. But with the enhancement of spatial resolution, some questions have arisen in the application of using traditional image processing and classification methods. Aiming for such questions, we studied the application of IKONOS very high resolution image (1 m) in Xiamen City on Urban Vegetation Cover Investigation and discussed the difference between the very high resolution image and traditional low spatial resolution image at classification, information abstraction etc. It is an advantageous test for the large-scale application of very high resolution data in the future.
Reviewing some important German scientists who have developed climatic regionalization schemes either on a global or Chinese scale, their various definitions of the tropical climate characteristics in China are discussed and compared with Huang Bingwei's climate classification scheme and the identification of the tropical climate therein. It can be seen that, due to different methodological approaches of the climatic regionalization schemes, the definitions of the tropics vary and hence also their spatial distribution in China. However, it is found that the tropical climate type occupies only a peripheral part of southern China, though it firmly represents a distinctive type of climate that is supsequently associated with a great economic importance for China. As such, the tropical climate type was mostly identified with its agro-climatological significance, that is by giving favourable growing conditions all-year round for perennial crops with a great heat demand. Tropical climate is, hence, conventionally regarded to be governed by all-year round summer conditions "where winter never comes".
Studies indicate that the climate has experienced a dramatic change in the Heihe River Basin with scope of temperature rise reaching 0.5-1.1oC in the 1990s compared to the mean value of the period 1960-1990, precipitation increased 18.5 mm in the 1990s compared to the 1950s, and 6.5 mm in the 1990s compared to the mean value of the period 1960-1990, water resources decreased 2.6×108 m3 in the 1990s compared to the 1950s, and 0.4×108 m3 in the 1990s compared to the mean value of the period 1960-1990. These changes have exerted a greater effect on the local environment and socio-economy, and also made the condition worsening in water resources utilizations in the Heihe Rver Basin.
El Nino and La Nina are the events concerned internationally. The corresponding relationship between El Nino events, temperature, precipitation and runoff in the Qilian mountain area are analyzed according to the date from the weather and the hydrometric stations in the area, the results show that effects of El Nino events to temperature, precipitation and runoff are different in the different time and zones. When El Nino occurs, temperature rises, but precipitation and runoff decrease in the whole Qilian mountain area, especially in the east and middle parts of the area. Temperature rises, precipitation and runoff still decrease in the eastern Qilian mountain area in the next year El Nino occurring, but decrease extent is fewer. There are not obvious relationship between temperature, precipitation and runoff with El Nino events in the western Qilian mountain area.
The boundary between suptropical zone and temperate zone is not only important in physical geography, but also attractive in agricultural production. Seven soil profiles studied in this paper are placed along the southern slope of Funiu Mountain at different heights above sea level. Many compositions and properties of these soils have been determined in laboratory. In this paper, the laws of migration and accumulation of soil materials on the southern slope of Funiu Mountain are discussed first, then the division of the boundary between suptropical zone and temperate zone in this area according to soil geochemistry is discussed with qualitative methods and mathematical classification method in which twelve selected indexes such as Km, Saf, Ba, β, Feo/Fet, Mno/Mnt and so on are used. The result indicates that the boundary between suptropical zone and temperate zone on the southern slope of Funiu Mountain is about 950 m above sea level.
According to the measured data of typhoons going over the Chinese coasts in 1949-2002, a statistic relative equation showing the relation between the central atmospheric pressure of typhoons in a certain region at a certain period of time and their accumulation of frequency is established, and the concept of recurrence interval of typhoons is put forward, which is of actual significance for typhoon disaster reduction along the coastal area.
Eco-geographic regionalization has been one of the most important topics in China's regionalization researches since the end of the 20th century. It is a major ecosystem in geographic zonality. A hierarchical system, which is formed by division or combination of natural features based on geographic relativity and comparison of major ecosystem factors (including biological and non-biological) and geographic zonality, is called eco-geographic regional system. This paper introduces process of China's regionalization development. The first level unit, temperature zone, is delineated with main criteria of temperature. The second level unit, humidity region, is based on criteria of water/moisture states. The third level unit, natural region, is divided according to medium geomorphologic units. Vegetation types and soils are applied as supplementary criteria to indicate temperature and water/moisture states. Mapping process from qualitative to quantitative and China's eco-geographic regional system are also explained in this paper.
Based on climate material, the simplified terrestrial carbon cycle balance (TCCB) model was established, which is semi-mechanism and semi-statistics. Through TCCB model, our estimate indicates that the southeastern part of the Tibetan Plateau has much higher carbon content, and we have calculated the litter carbon pool, NPP, carbon fluxes and described their spatial characteristics in this region. Based on the TCCB model simulation, NPP in Tibet is 1.73×108 tC/a, soil organic input rate is 0.66×108 tC/a, litter mineralization rate is 1.07×108 tC/a, vegetation litterfall rate is 1.73×108 tC/a, the litter carbon pool is 7.26×108 tC, and soil decomposition rate is 309.54×108 tC/a. The carbon budget was also analyzed based on the estimates of carbon pool and fluxes. The spatial distributions of carbon pools and carbon fluxes in different compartments of terrestrial ecosystem were depicted with map respectively in Tibet. The distribution of NPP, vegetation litterfall rate, litter, litter mineralization rate, soil organic input rate and the soil decomposition rate were abstracted with temperature, precipitation, fractional vegetation and land feature.
Based on systematically monitoring plants on dune ridges in the southern part of the Gurbantunggut Desert in 2002, this paper, from the angle of dune stabilization by vegetation, describes the temporal and spatial distribution patterns of ephemeral plants on isolated sand dunes, analyses the natural invasion processes of ephemeral plants on human-disturbed sand surface and expounds the importance of ephemeral plants in stabilizing sand dune surface. A total of 45 plant species were identified in the study area, 29 of which are ephemeral plants. Ephemeral plants sprouted in early April and completed their life-circle within about two months. Just as aeolian sand activities came to the strongest stage from April to June in desert regions of northern Xinjiang, the total coverage of trees, shrubs and herbs of long vegetational period on most dune ridges was less than 10%, while the mean coverage of ephemeral plants reached 13.9% in April, 40.2% in May and 14.1% in June. Therefore ephemeral plants acted as the major contributor to dune surface stabilization in the Gurbantunggut Desert. Investigations of vegetation restoration on engineering-disturbed dune surface show that ephemeral plants first recolonized the disturbed dune surface.
A research is conducted on the relationship between the normal reference value of 20,475 examples of hemoglobin of young women and five geographical factors in 208 areas in China, the normal reference value is determined by the hemoglobincyanide method. It is found that the correlation of geographical factors and the normal reference value of hemoglobin of young women are quite significant (F=142.81). By using the method of multiple linear regression analysis, one regression equation is inferred. If geographical values are obtained in some areas, the normal reference value of hemoglobin of young women of this area can be reckoned by using the regression equation. Furthermore, depending on the geographical factors, China can be divided into six regions: Qinghai-Tibet (Qingzang) Plateau, Southwest, Northwest, Southeast, North and Northeast China.
Using the method of Constanza R, the annual value of ecosystem services of Macao was 3.302×106 US dollars in 1983, equivalent to 26.5250×106 MOP, when using the currently monetary valuation. The annual value of ecosystem services of Macao was 8.3340×106 US dollars in 2002, equal to 66.9472×106 MOP. The total globe annual value of ecosystem services was 3.3268×1013 US dollars in 1997, i.e., about 5,544.7 US dollars per capita. In Macao, the annual value of ecosystem services was only 18.8 US dollars per capita. The average ecosystem service per capita was 0.35% of the world average level. Comparing to the globe average ecosystem services level per capita, the deficit of ecosystem services of Macao is 2.44×109 US dollars for Macao population, which would require 1,069 km2 estuary to complement to the deficit, i.e., about 38 times of Macao to provide ecosystem services to reach the average level of world.
Seasonal distributions of suspended matter and their sedimentary effect on the Changjiang Estuary mud area of the East China Sea were discussed, based on three cruise data of total suspended matter, temperature and salinity collected from the Changjiang Estuary and its adjacent area in summer and winter. The results show that the basic pattern of distributions of suspended matter in the study area is almost the same in winter and in summer. Sediments from Changjiang (Yangtze River) to the sea are chiefly trapped to the west of 123o15'E due to a strong obstruction of the Taiwan Warm Current. This suggests that these sediments are mainly transported and deposited in the inner shelf. The sediment supply, Taiwan Warm Current, and Zhejiang Coastal Current show a strong seasonal variation, which results in a strong seasonal variation of the sedimentary effect on this mud area. This mud area is a "sink" of the Changjiang's sediment discharge to the sea and its sedimentation is stronger in summer and weaker in winter.
Based on hydrometric data and extensive investigations on water-extracting projects, this paper presents a preliminary study on water discharge changes between Datong and Xuliujing during dry season. The natural hydrological processes and human factors that influence the water discharge are analyzed with the help of GIS method. The investigations indicate that the water-extracting projects downstream from Datong to Xuliujing had amounted to 64 in number by the end of 2000, with a water-extracting capacity up to 4,626 m3/s averaged in a tidal cycle. The water extraction from the Changjiang River has become the most important factor influencing the water discharge downstream Datong during dry season. The potential magnitude in water discharge changes are estimated based on historical records of water extraction and a water balance model. The computational results were calibrated with the actual data. The future trend in changes of water discharge into the sea during dry season was discussed by taking into consideration of newly built hydro-engineering projects. The water extraction downstream Datong in dry season before 2000 had a great influence on discharges into the sea in the extremely dry year like 1978-1979. It produced a net decrease of more than 490 m3/s in monthly mean discharges from the Changjiang into the sea. It is expected that the water extraction will continually increase in the coming decades, especially in dry years, when the net decrease in monthly mean water discharge will increase to more than 1000 m3/s and will give a far-reaching effect on the changes of water discharge from the Changjiang into the sea.
In order to predict the futuristic runoff under global warming, and to approach to the effects of vegetation on the ecological environment of the inland river mountainous watershed of Northwest China, the authors use the routine hydrometric data to create a distributed monthly model with some conceptual parameters, coupled with GIS and RS tools and data. The model takes sub-basin as the minimal confluent unit, divides the main soils of the basin into 3 layers, and identifies the vegetation types as forest and pasture. The data used in the model are precipitation, air temperature, runoff, soil weight water content, soil depth, soil bulk density, soil porosity, land cover, etc. The model holds that if the water amount is greater than the water content capacity, there will be surface runoff. The actual evaporation is proportional to the product of the potential evaporation and soil volume water content. The studied basin is Heihe mainstream mountainous basin, with a drainage area of 10,009 km2. The data used in this simulation are from Jan. 1980 to Dec. 1995, and the first 10 years' data are used to simulate, while the last 5 years' data are used to calibrate. For the simulation process, the Nash-Sutcliffe Equation, Balance Error and Explained Variance is 0.8681, 5.4008 and 0.8718 respectively, while for the calibration process, 0.8799, -0.5974 and 0.8800 respectively. The model results show that the futuristic runoff of Heihe river basin will increase a little. The snowmelt, glacier meltwater and the evaportranspiration will increase. The air temperature increment will make the permanent snow and glacier area diminish, and the snowline will rise. The vegetation, especially the forest in Heihe mountainous watershed, could lead to the evapotranspiration decrease of the watershed, adjust the runoff process, and increase the soil water content.
Based on data observed from 1989 to 1998 in the Ziwuling survey station, changes of soil erosion and soil physico-mechanical properties were studied after forestland reclamation. When the man-induced factors changed the eco-environment by reclaiming forestlands, the intensity of man-made soil erosion in reclaimed lands was 1,000 times more than that of natural erosion in forestlands. From the analysis of soil physical and mechanical properties, the clay content and physical clay content decreased 2.74% and 3.01% respectively, and the >0.25 mm water stable aggregate content decreased 58.7%, the soil unit weight increased and the soil shear strength decreased, all of which were easier to cause soil erosion. The results of the correlation analysis showed that the >0.25 mm water stable aggregate content was the greatest influencing factor on soil erosion, the partial correlated coefficient was 0.9728, and then were soil coarse grain and soil shear strength, the partial correlated coefficients being 0.8879 and 0.6020 respectively. The relationships between the >0.25 mm water stable aggregate content, the soil sheer strength and the soil erosion intensity were analyzed, which showed that the first and seventh years were the turning years of the soil erosion intensity after the forestland reclamation. The degenerative eroded soil and eco-environment formed the peculiar erosion environment, which aggravated the soil erosion rapidly.
The sandy land of the western part of Jilin Province is located in the ecotone of semi-humid and semi-arid area in the temperate zone of China. The sandy desertification has widely spread in the region because of the vulnerable natural conditions and the unreasonable human activity; as a result of this, the precious land resources and the economic development in the area have been seriously impacted. In this paper, the sandy land ecologic environment geographic information system is established based on the multi-spectral, multi-temporal Landsat TM images and field investigation. The comprehensive indexes of sandy desertification extent assessment which include vegetation degradation, wind erosion extent and soil depth are presented to classify the sandy land in western Jilin into three levels--slight, moderate and severe sandy desertification with the support of GIS platform. The results demonstrate that the sandy desertification has been partly controlled in the past twenty years, except some small sites. However, this doesn't necessarily mean that there is nothing for more concern. The two main causes of sandy desertification have not been eliminated yet, one is its natural factor, especially the physical and chemical characters of sandy soil and dry climate; another is the immoderate economic activity of human being that has highly accelerated the sandy desertification process.