This study conducted computer-aided image analysis of land use and land cover in Xilin River Basin, Inner Mongolia, using 4 sets of Landsat TM/ETM+ images acquired on July 31, 1987, August 11, 1991, September 27, 1997 and May 23, 2000, respectively. Primarily, 17 sub-class land cover types were recognized, including nine grassland types at community level: F. sibiricum steppe, S. baicalensis steppe, A. chinensis + forbs steppe, A. chinensis + bunchgrass steppe, A. chinensis + Ar. frigida steppe, S. grandis + A. chinensis steppe, S. grandis + bunchgrass steppe, S. krylavii steppe, Ar. frigida steppe and eight non-grassland types: active cropland, harvested cropland, urban area, wetland, desertified land, saline and alkaline land, cloud, water body + cloud shadow. To eliminate the classification error existing among different sub-types of the same gross type, the 17 sub-class land cover types were grouped into five gross types: meadow grassland, temperate grassland, desert grassland, cropland and non-grassland. The overall classification accuracy of the five land cover types was 81.0% for 1987, 81.7% for 1991, 80.1% for 1997 and 78.2% for 2000.
The method for simulating the temporal and spatial distribution patterns of leaf area index (LAI) and biomass at landscape scale using remote sensing images and surface data was discussed in this paper. The procedure was: (1) annual maximum normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) over the landscape was calculated from TM images; (2) the relationship model between NDVI and LAI was built and annual maximum LAI over the landscape was simulated; (3) the relationship models between LAI and biomass were built and annual branch, stem, root and maximum leaf biomass over the landscape were simulated; (4) spatial distribution patterns of leaf biomass and LAI in different periods all the year round were obtained. The simulation was based on spatial analysis module GRID in ArcInfo software. The method is also a kind of scaling method from patch scale to landscape scale. A case study of Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve was dissertated. Analysis and primary validation were carried out to the simulated LAI and biomass for the major vegetation types in the Changbai Mountain in 1995.
Based on the information from forest resources distribution maps of Luoning County of 1983 and 1999, six indices were used to analyze spatial patterns and dynamics of forest landscapes of the typical region in the middle of the Yihe-Luohe river basin. These indices include patch number, mean patch area, fragment index, patch extension index, etc. The results showed that: (1) There was a rapid increase in the number of patch and total area from 1983 to 1999 in the study area. The fragment degree became very high. (2) The area of all the forest patch types had witnessed great changes. The fractal degree of each forest patch type became big from 1983 to 1999. The mean extension index of Robinia pseudoacacia forest, non-forest, shrub forest, sparse forest, and Quercus species forest increased rapidly, but that of economic forest became zero. The fractal dimension each showed that forest coverage has been promoted. (3) The changes of landscape patterns were different in different geomorphic regions. From 1983 to 1999 the vegetation cover area, the gross number and the density of patch, diversity and evenness of landscape were all reduced greatly in gullies and ravines, but the maximum area and the mean area of patch types were increased. In hilly region, both the forest cover area and the number of patch increased from 1983 to 1999, but the mean area of patch was reduced greatly. In mountain region, even though the area under forest canopy reduced from 1983 to 1999, the patch number was increased greatly, the mean area of all patch types was reduced, the extension index, diversity index and evenness index of landscape were all increased. Furthermore, because of different types of land use, human activity and terrain, the vegetation changes on northern and southern mountain slopes were different. According to these analyses, the main driving forces, such as the policies of management, market economy, influence of human activities etc. are brought out.
In this paper, we use CEVSA, a process-based model, which has been validated on regional and global scales, to explore the temporal and spatial patterns of Net Primary Productivity (NPP) and its responses to interannual climate fluctuations in China's terrestrial ecosystems over the period 1981-1998. The estimated results suggest that, in this study period, the averaged annual total NPP is about 3.09 Gt C/yr-1 and average NPP is about 342 g C/m2. The results also showed that the precipitation was the key factor determining the spatial distribution and temporal trends of NPP. Temporally, the total NPP exhibited a slowly increasing trend. In some ENSO years (e.g. 1982, 1986, 1997) NPP decreased clearly compared to the previous year, but the relationship between ENSO and NPP is complex due to the integrated effects of monsoons and regional differentiation. Spatially, the relatively high NPP occurred at the middle high latitudes, the low latitudes and the lower appeared at the middle latitudes. On national scale, precipitation is the key control factor on NPP variations and there exists a weak correlation between NPP and temperature, but regional responses are greatly different.
Based on geographical and hydrological extents delimited, four principles are identified, as the bases for delineating the ranges of the source regions of the Yangtze and Yellow rivers in the paper. According to the comprehensive analysis of topographical characteristics, climate conditions, vegetation distribution and hydrological features, the source region ranges for eco-environmental study are defined. The eastern boundary point is Dari hydrological station in the upper reach of the Yellow River. The watershed above Dari hydrological station is the source region of the Yellow River which drains an area of 4.49×104 km2. Natural environment is characterized by the major topographical types of plateau lakes and marshland, gentle landforms, alpine cold semi-arid climate, and steppe and meadow vegetation in the source region of the Yellow River. The eastern boundary point is the convergent site of the Nieqiaqu and the Tongtian River in the upstream of the Yangtze River. The watershed above the convergent site is the source region of the Yangtze River, with a watershed area of 12.24×104 km2. Hills and alpine plain topography, gentle terrain, alpine cold arid and semi-arid climate, and alpine cold grassland and meadow are natural conditions in the source region of the Yangtze River.
Diversity indices and abundance distribution models are statistical tools which ecologists have applied for decades for analyzing the intrinsic regularities of various ecological entities. In this work, we have applied these techniques to use the notions such as pedodiversity (as an example of geodiversity in a broad sense), in order to detect the differences and similarities between both natural resources, biological and non-biological. The discussion has mainly been conducted through the study of landform based pedodiversity analysis applied to SOTER digital databases in Hainan Island, China. The main analytical methods include indices of richness S that are the number of the categories (SOTER units relating to different soils in this work), indices based on proportional abundance of categories H' and E which are not only the number but also their relative abundance (in our case, the relative area occupied by each pedotaxa) is taken into account, models of the distribution of abundance of categories that provide the most complete description but also the least abridged and GIS mapping to show the spatial variation digitally.
The probability of crane living in reedy wetlands can reach 100%, at the same time, the area of reed, the water level and adjacent water area are main factors which control the crane's habitat selection. We all know that all these factors are spatially heterogeneous. For the Xianghai wetland safety and to protect the Xianghai wetland habitat of crane, this paper has mainly identified a solution to these problems. The wetland information is extracted from the TM images, which reflect the whole wetland landscape and are very important for both quantitative analysis of remote sensing observation of the earth system and positioning analysis in GIS database that is automatically extracted from DEM. The DEM for Xianghai characteristics of topography is created. On the basis of the GRID SUBMODULE, applying the GIS spatial overlay analysis, the relationship between the water level and the reed area below the water level and the rating distribution maps of reed area above water level is established. When the water level reaches the altitude of 165 m, the reed area, 981.2 ha is maximum, i.e., the water level of 165 m is the optimal.
According to differences in vegetation types and their coverage, combining the latest research, using theory and method on the value of vegetation ecosystem services, this paper not only calculated goods produced by different types of vegetation but also estimated the value of various vegetation ecosystem services and set up database, GIS and eco-account of vegetation ecosystem. The result was as follows: the value of vegetation's primary productivity, soil and fertility conservation, water conservation, CO2 fixation and O2 release was 199.6 billion yuan/a, 22.64 billion yuan/a, 22.66 billion yuan/a, 352.24 billion yuan/a and 374.19 billion yuan/a, respectively. The total value of ecosystem services was 968.33 billion yuan/a. The temperate deciduous broad-leaved forest had the highest contribution rate, accounting for 16.42%. The result of value can reflect regional reality more exactly.
Using the methods of combining landscape ecology with GIS spatial analysis, this paper analyses the dynamics of the marsh landscape structure of the Sanjiang Plain in the past 20 years, furthermore, taking Fujin County, located in the north of the plain, as an example, analyzes the conversion between marsh and other land use types. It is shown that the marsh in the Sanjiang Plain decreased greatly in the past 20 years, but the trend has begun to reverse. The marsh area decreased by 51.33% from 1980 to 1996, whereas it decreased by 4.19% from 1996 to 2000. The fragmentation of the marsh increased; the number of the patches increased by 326 from 1986 to 1996, whereas it only increased by 18 patches from 1996 to 2000. It is obvious that the speed of patches number diminished and the marsh fragmentation decreased, which shows that the reclamation of the marsh converted from the fragmentation to the brim in a large area of the marsh. The reclaimed marsh has mainly converted to paddy field and dry land. Large-scale reclamation in the Sanjiang Plain influences its natural environment directly: the climate of the region turns from cold and wet to warm and dry, which makes the marsh both in the low-temperature northern part and in the deeply stagnant eastern part suitable for further agricultural development.
In this study the relationship between the Arctic Oscillation (AO) and climate in China in boreal winter are investigated. Correlation analysis for the last 41 years shows that the winter temperature and precipitation in China change in phase with AO. High positive correlation (>0.4) between temperature and AO appears in the northern China. High correlation coefficients between precipitation and AO cover the southern China (close to the South China Sea) and the central China (between 30o-40oN and east of ~100oE), with the values varying between +0.3 and +0.4. It is found that during the past several decades the precipitation was strongly affected by AO, but for the temperature the Siberian High plays a more important role. At the interdecadal time scale the AO has significant influence on both temperature and precipitation. Multivariate regression analysis demonstrates that AO and the Siberian High related variance in temperature and precipitation is 35% and 11% respectively. For precipitation, however the portion is rather low, implying that some other factors may be responsible for the changes in precipitation, in addition to AO and the Siberian High.
Yulin district is located in the transitional zone between Mu Us Desert and Loess Plateau of northern Shaanxi Province, thus it is particularly vulnerable to degradation due to its fragile ecosystem and intense human activities there. The purpose of this study is to explore the mechanism, process and driving force of land degradation in area with vulnerable eco-environment within the context of increasing population and intensifying human economic activities, and then find out the patterns and countermeasures of how to control them using the economic and technological ways. In detail, this study includes three main sections: the first section analyzes the mechanism, causes and characteristics of land degradation, which can be achieved by the typical field investigations and systematical analysis within the regional natural, social and economic context. Based on the technologies of remote sensing and GIS, and combined with the modeling methods, the second section reveals the change characteristics of land use and its driving force from 1990 to 2000; As to the third section, feasible countermeasures of how to prevent the degradation and rehabilitate the regional ecology are proposed, which are studied from the perspective of harmony between nature and economy, and the conception of regional sustainable development.
Plant communities were sampled in the lower reaches of the Tarim River, Xinjiang. The results showed that there are 23 species belonging to 21 genera in 11 families, most of which have low occurrence frequency in quadrats. The most common species is Tamarix ramosissima, which occurred in 17 sites accounting for 89.47% of the total 19 sites. Quantitative classification (TWINSPAN) and ordination (CCA) methods were used to study the distribution patterns of 23 plant species in 19 sites in this valley. TWINSPAN results showed that the plant communities in the middle reaches of the Tarim River could be divided into 3 groups and the sampling sites could be divided into 7 types in 3 groups. CCA results were consistent with TWINSPAN results, and showed species distribution patterns correlated with major environmental variables of groundwater level and soil moisture.
Tectonic movements and climate changes are two main controllers on the development of landform. In order to reconstruct the history of the evolution of the landform in the Fenhe drainage basin during middle-late Quaternary comprehensively, this paper has provided a variety of geomorphological and geologic evidences to discuss how tectonic movements and climate changes worked together to influence the landform processes. According to the features of the lacustrine and alluvial terraces in this drainage basin, it is deduced that it was the three tectonic uplifts that resulted in the three great lake-regressions with an extent of about 40-60 m and the formation of the three lacustrine terraces. The times when the tectonic uplifts took place are 0.76 MaBP, 0.55 MaBP and 0.13 MaBP respectively, synchronous with the formation of paleosol units S8, S5 and S1 respectively. During the intervals between two tectonic uplifts when tectonic movement was very weak, climate changes played a major role in the evolution of the paleolakes and caused frequent fluctuations of lake levels. The changes of the features of lacustrine sediment in the grabens show the extent of such fluctuations of lake level is about 2-3 m.
Through high-resolution research of sedimental chronology and the sediment environmental indexes, such as graininess, minerals, magnetic parameters, pigment content, organic carbon and chronology in Ds-core and Ws-core in Nansihu Lake, the authors analyze the formation cause of the Nansihu Lake and its water environmental changes. Historical documents are also analyzed here in order to reach the conclusion. Researches indicate that the Nansihu Lake came into being about 2500 aBP and its evolution succession can be divided into four stages. In this evolution process, several scattered lakes merge into one large lake in the east of China. This process is distinctively affected by the overflow of the Yellow River, the excavation of the Grand Canal and other human activities.
Lunan stone forest is a kind of typical karst in China, which is mainly developed under red soil. In the winter of 1999, three study sites were chosen in stone forest national park according to vegetation cover, geomorphologic location and soil types. CO2 concentration was measured with Gastec pump at different depths of soil (20, 40, 60 cm) and at the same time soil samples were gathered and soil properties such as soil moisture, pH, soil organic content were analyzed and the total number of viable microbes were counted in laboratory. In the study, dependent variable was chosen as the mean soil log (PCO2), and soil properties were chosen as the independent variables. Multiple stepwise regression analysis showed that the total amount of microbes and soil moisture are the best indicators of the CO2 production, with the equation LOG(PCO2) = - 0.039(TNM) - 0.056(Mo) + 1.215 accounting for 86% of the variation of the soil CO2 concentration, where TNM is the total number of microbes in the soil and Mo is the moisture of soil sample.