Taking the source region of the Yellow River as a study area and based on the data from Madoi Meteorological Station and Huangheyan Hydrological Station covering the period 1955–2005, this paper analyses the changing trends of surface water resources, climate and frozen ground and reveals their causes. Results show that there exist frequent fluctuations from high to low water flow in the 51-year period. In general, the discharge has shown a de-clining trend in the 51 years especially since the 1990s. The annual distribution shows one peak which, year on year is getting smaller. (1) Precipitation has a significant and sustained influence on discharge. (2) A sharp rise of temperature resulted in the increase of evaporation and the decrease of discharge, which has a greater effect than on ice-snow melting. (3) Frozen ground tends to be degraded markedly. There is a significant positive correlation be-tween the permafrost thickness and the discharge. (4) Evaporation rates are significantly increasing, leading to the decrease of discharge. 70% of the discharge reduction resulted from climate change, and the remaining 30% may have been caused by human activities.
Trends of annual and monthly temperature, precipitation, potential evapotranspi-ration and aridity index were analyzed to understand climate change during the period 1971–2000 over the Tibetan Plateau which is one of the most special regions sensitive to global climate change. FAO56–Penmen–Monteith model was modified to calculate potential evapotranspiration which integrated many climatic elements including maximum and mini-mum temperatures, solar radiation, relative humidity and wind speed. Results indicate gen-erally warming trends of the annual averaged and monthly temperatures, increasing trends of precipitation except in April and September, decreasing trends of annual and monthly poten-tial evapotranspiration, and increasing aridity index except in September. It is not the isolated climatic elements that are important to moisture conditions, but their integrated and simulta-neous effect. Moreover, potential evapotranspiration often changes the effect of precipitation on moisture conditions. The climate trends suggest an important warm and humid tendency averaged over the southern plateau in annual period and in August. Moisture conditions would probably get drier at large area in the headwater region of the three rivers in annual average and months from April to November, and the northeast of the plateau from July to September. Complicated climatic trends over the Tibetan Plateau reveal that climatic factors have nonlinear relationships, and resulte in much uncertainty together with the scarcity of observation data. The results would enhance our understanding of the potential impact of climate change on environment in the Tibetan Plateau. Further research of the sensitivity and attribution of climate change to moisture conditions on the plateau is necessary.
Based on the NOAA AVHRR-NDVI data from 1981 to 2001, the digitalized China Vegetation Map (1:1,000,000), DEM, temperature and precipitation data, and field investiga-tion, the spatial patterns and vertical characteristics of natural vegetation changes and their influencing factors in the Mt. Qomolangma Nature Reserve have been studied. The results show that: (1) There is remarkable spatial difference of natural vegetation changes in the Mt. Qomolangma Nature Reserve and stability is the most common status. There are 5.04% of the whole area being seriously degraded, 13.19% slightly degraded, 26.39% slightly im-proved, 0.97% significantly improved and 54.41% keeping stable. The seriously and slightly degraded areas, which mostly lie in the south of the reserve, are along the national bounda-ries. The areas of improved vegetation lie in the north of the reserve and the south side of the Yarlung Zangbo River. The stable areas lie between the improved and degraded areas. Degradation decreases with elevation. (2) Degeneration in the Mt. Qomolangma Nature Re-serve mostly affects shrubs, needle-leaved forests and mixed forests. (3) The temperature change affects the natural vegetation changes spatially while the integration of temperature changes, slopes and aspects affects the natural vegetation change along the altitude gradi-ents. (4) It is the overuse of resources that leads to the vegetation degeneration in some parts of the Mt. Qomolangma Nature Reserve.
Freeze-thaw erosion is the third largest soil erosion type after water erosion and wind erosion. Restricted by many factors, few researches on freeze-thaw erosion have so far been done at home and abroad, especially those on the assessment method of freeze-thaw erosion. Based on the comprehensive analysis of impact factors of free-thaw erosion, this paper chooses six indexes, including the annual temperature range, annual precipitation, slope, aspect, vegetation and soil, to build the model for relative classification of freeze-thaw erosion using weighted and additive methods, and realizes the relative classification of the freeze-thaw erosion in Tibet with the support of GIS software. Then a synthetic assessment of freeze-thaw erosion in Tibet has been carried out according to the relative classification result. The result shows that the distribution of freeze-thaw eroded area is very extensive in Tibet, accounting for 55.3% of the total local land area; the spatial differentiation of freeze-thaw erosion with different intensities is obvious; and the difference in distribution among different regions is also obvious.
Standardization is one of the important procedures in dendroclimatology. We used abundant Qilian juniper (Sabina przewalskii Kom.) tree-ring samples from the eastern margin of the Qaidam Basin to develop a new standardization method, i.e. total growth curve (TGC). The samples that contained the complete pith and reached to the growing culmination around the 40th–60th year were used to fit TGC, and the generalized negative exponential function was used to fit the curve. Usually, most cores cannot reach the arboreal pith for some reasons and it is difficult to determine the arboreal cambial age. The empirical model of initial radial growth (IRG) was employed to estimate the number of rings missing from the pith by the same data and IRG model explained 90.9% of the variance. When developing the chronology, the cambial ages of cores that contained the complete pith were regarded as beginning from the first year and others were determined by the numbers of missing and included rings in the core. Standardization was accomplished by dividing each tree-ring series by corresponding TGC. The chronologies developed by TGC can retain more low-frequency variational infor-mation and TGC helps to develop more reliable tree-ring width chronology.
The author selects a thorny issue of doubled designations that bother pol-icy-makers, professional planners and managers in the field of conservation for protected areas. The analyzed case study areas cover 5 National Geoparks of China in Sichuan Prov-ince, 18 UNESCO Global Geoparks in China, and 219 World Heritage sites in China and 8 European nations. Through analysis and synthesis, the author concludes that doubled des-ignation, which also leads to unbalanced park distribution, is particularly prevalent in China other than in Europe. Therefore, on-site management agencies and related governments in China should carefully translate the doubled designations into responsibilities and harmoni-ous partnerships between all stakeholders in order to enhance the management effectiveness and avoid paper park phenomenon.
The sand dredging and its impacts on riverbed evolution and tidal dynamic change in the lower reaches and delta of the Dongjiang River are examined in this paper. The large amount of sand, totally 3.32 billion m3 from 1980 to 2002, was mined from the riverbeds of the lower reaches and delta of the Dongjiang River. Increasing of the channel capacity, lowering of the average riverbed elevation, deepening of the water depth and decreasing of the longi-tudinal riverbed gradient are the main effects on the riverbed evolution brought by the large amount of sand dredging. Under the strong sand dredging and associated significant riverbed deformation, the notable changes of the tidal dynamic in the lower reaches and delta of the Dongjiang River occurred, including: (1) in the upper reaches of the Dongjiang River delta and lower reaches of the Dongjiang River, tidal level dropped apparently, tidal range widened, flood tidal duration became longer, amplitudes for major tidal components became bigger and tidal dynamics intensified; (2) tidal wave spread faster; and (3) the limits of the tidal level, tidal current and salt water moved upstream.
According to the textual research into the historical documents dominated by ar-chives yearly, as well as the verification with several other kinds of data, the later or earlier starting time of the rainy seasons in Yunnan during 1711–1982 has been reconstructed. The analysis indicates that there are obvious fluctuations in the starting date of the rainy seasons in Yunnan in a year or years, and long fluctuation on the decadal scale. The rainy season comes earlier in the early 18th century, later in the 19th century and earlier again in the 20th century. This reflects to a certain degree the gradual change of the summer monsoon in Yunnan. There exists an obvious quasi-3 years cycle, which is related to El-Nino’s quasi-3 years cycle, and a 11.3-year cycle which is notably related to the 11-year cycle of the solar activity of starting date of the rainy seasons in Yunnan. Meanwhile, the dissertation finds that the El-Nino is very important to the starting date of the rainy seasons in Yunnan. The starting date of the rainy seasons in Yunnan often comes later or normally in the year of El-Nino. However, there is an obvious imperfect period in such influence, which in turn may mean that there is a certain fluctuation in the effect of ENSO on Asian summer monsoon.
Niche theory is one of the most important ecological theories. It is widely applied to analyzing such phenomena as competition among, and evolution of, urban ecosystem func-tional modules. This paper describes a study concerning different functional modules of Kaifeng city urban ecosystem. Niche theory and techniques were used to analyze the changes of these functional modules in the period 1994–2003. The results showed that, in the period 1994–2003: (1) Niche value of the atmospheric environment and urban virescence modules increased, while niche value of the water environment and sound environment modules decreased; (2) niche value of the tertiary industry module increased, niche value of the secondary industry module decreased, while niche value of the primary industry module showed little change; and (3) niche value of the infrastructure, resource distribution, and production & social security modules increased, while niche value of the population module decreased. This study may contribute to macroscopic planning of urban functional modules, economic development, and environmental protection.
In several LUCC studies, statistical methods are being used to analyze land use data. A problem using conventional statistical methods in land use analysis is that these methods assume the data to be statistically independent. But in fact, they have the tendency to be dependent, a phenomenon known as multicollinearity, especially in the cases of few observations. In this paper, a Partial Least-Squares (PLS) regression approach is developed to study relationships between land use and its influencing factors through a case study of the Suzhou-Wuxi-Changzhou region in China. Multicollinearity exists in the dataset and the number of variables is high compared to the number of observations. Four PLS factors are selected through a preliminary analysis. The correlation analyses between land use and in-fluencing factors demonstrate the land use character of rural industrialization and urbaniza-tion in the Suzhou-Wuxi-Changzhou region, meanwhile illustrate that the first PLS factor has enough ability to best describe land use patterns quantitatively, and most of the statistical relations derived from it accord with the fact. By the decreasing capacity of the PLS factors, the reliability of model outcome decreases correspondingly.
Comparative study of LUCC between Fujian and Taiwan provinces could be a good case for study because of their geographical proximities and historical, cultural similarities. Fujian and Taiwan had gone through and currently are in different economic development stages. Taiwan is in the stage of post-industrialization and Fujian is in the intermediate stage of industrialization. By using the official statistics, changes of built-land in Fujian and Taiwan were analyzed in details. The results showed that these two provinces seemed to have the same characteristics of built-land changes, i.e., accelerating development, and concentrated distribution on both sides of the Taiwan Straits, forming a pattern with the economic layout of two sides acting in cooperation with eath other. If comparing different industrialized areas in Fujian with industrialized stages in Taiwan, it is clear that these two provinces seemed to have the same characteristics of synthesized index of built-land change (Lc), i.e., which is from stabilization or comparative stabilization at the initial stages of industrialization to high ex-pansion at the intermediate stages of industrialization, then followed by low consumption at later stages of industrialization, but the Lc of the initial and the later stages of industrialization in Taiwan were slightly higher than those in Fujian. The results from comparison on relevant indexes have shown: The industrial structure changing rate of Fujian is actually higher than that of built-land in Taiwan, but its using efficiency of regional built-land is also obviously lower than that in Taiwan in the intermediate and later stages of industrialization of Fujian. The major driving forces of the built-land changes in both provinces were analyzed in Causal Models of Path Analysis, and its result indicated that the difference in built-land changes of the two provinces is closely related to their economic development stages and industrial structure. Countermeasure for the realization of sustainable utilization of built-land in Fujian put forward in this article is to strengthen its intension and tap the latent power.