Comprehensive study on land-use change of spatial pattern and temporal process is the key component in LUCC study nowadays. Based on the theories and methods of Geo-information Tupu (Carto-methodology in Geo-information, CMGI), integration of spatial pattern and temporal processes of land-use change in the Yellow River Delta (YRD) are studied in the paper, which is supported by ERDAS and ARC/INFO software. The main contents include: (1) concept models of Tupu by spatial-temporal integration on land-use change, whose Tupu unit is synthesized by "Spatial·Attribute·Process" features and composed of relatively homogeneous geographical unit and temporal unit; (2) data sources and handling process, where four stages of spatial features in 1956, 1984, 1991, and 1996 are acquired; (3) integration of series of temporal-spatial Tupu, reconstruction series of "Arising" Tupu, spatial-temporal Process Tupu and the spatial temporal Pattern Tupu on land-use change by remap tables; (4) Pattern Tupu analysis on land-use change in YRD during 1956-1996; and (5) spatial difference of the Pattern Tupu analysis by dynamic Tupu units. The various landform units and seven sub-deltas generated by the Yellow River since 1855 are different. The Tupu analysis on land-use in the paper is a promising try on the comprehensive research of "spatial pattern of dynamic process" and "temporal process of spatial pattern" in LUCC research. The Tupu methodology would be a powerful and efficient tool on integrated studies of spatial pattern and temporal process in Geo-science.
The influence of land use and land cover on ecological environment is a focus of global change research. The paper chooses an industrial city-Shuicheng in Guizhou Province-as a study area because the karst water quality around the city is deteriorating with land use and land cover change. The natural susceptibility of karst water system is an important factor leading to karst water pollution. But land use and land cover change is also a main factor according to the chemical analysis of karst water quality and land use change. So it is a good way to protect karst water through rational planning and managing of land use and land cover.
This paper takes Zhexi hydraulic region in Taihu Basin as a study area. On the basis of hydraulic analysis function of Arcgis8.3, the drainages were delineated by selecting the monitoring points and discharge stations as outlets. The landuse map were finished by denoting the TM/ETM image. The precipitation map was finished by spatial interpolation according to the rainfall monitoring records. Overlaying the drainage boundary, landuse map and precipitation map, the rainfall, different landuse type area, and runoff pollution concentration and runoff were calculated. Based on these data in different sub-watersheds, by Origin7.0 regression tool, an equation is established to predict runoff using the relationships between runoff, precipitation depth and land use patterns in each of the sub-watersheds. Selecting the sub-watershed which is mainly composed of forest landuse type, the mean runoff concentration (MRC) from sub-watershed has been estimated. The mean runoff concentration of farmland has been estimated by the same methods after the contribution of forest landuse type was removed. The results are: for the forest landuse type, the mean runoff concentrations of COD, BOD, Total N and Total P are 2.95 mg/l, 1.080 mg/l, 0.715 mg/l, and 0.039 mg/l, respectively; for the farmland, the mean runoff concentrations of COD, BOD, Total N and Total P are 5.721 mg/l, 3.097 mg/l, 2.092 mg/l, and 0.166 mg/l, respectively. By using these results, the agriculture non-point pollution loads have been assessed. The loads of COD, BOD, Total N and Total P in Zhexi region are 14,631.69 t/a, 6401.93 t/a, 4281.753 t/a and 287.67 t/a, respectively.
The land desertification in Xinjiang was monitored and analyzed based on RS and GIS techniques. Satellite data interpretation was adopted to obtain the general situation of Xinjiang's land desertification in assistance with the sampling method and on-the-spot investigations. Related monitoring and investigations showed that Xinjiang was facing with severe wide range land desertification, and its desertified area made up 77.08% of the total monitoring area. As for land types, the desertified farmland accounted for 1.92% of the total monitoring area, desertified woodland 4%, desertified grassland 45%, and unused land 49%. Accordingly, as for desertification degrees, non-desertified land occupied 22.92%, weak desertified land 5.69%, medium-degree desertified land 16.58%, severe desertified land 33.19% and super severe desertified land 21.61%. Finally, as for inducing factors, wind-eroded desertification made up 58.23%, water-eroded desertification 8.69%, salinization desertification 6.52% and frozen-melt eroded desertification 3.64%. Xinjiang's land desertification tended to get worse and the harnessing mission remained hard.
Potentilla fruticosa scrub, Kobresia humilis meadow and Kobresia tibetica meadow are widely distributed on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. During the grass exuberance period from 3 July to 4 September, based on close chamber-GC method, a study on CO2 emissions from different treatments was conducted in these meadows at Haibei research station, CAS. Results indicated that mean CO2 emission rates from various treatments were 672.09±152.37 mgm-2h-1 for FC (grass treatment); 425.41±191.99 mgm-2h-1 for FJ (grass exclusion treatment); 280.36±174.83 mgm-2h-1 for FL (grass and roots exclusion treatment); 838.95±237.02 mgm-2h-1 for GG (scrub+grass treatment); 528.48±205.67 mgm-2h-1 for GC (grass treatment); 268.97±99.72 mgm-2h-1 for GL (grass and roots exclusion treatment); and 659.20±94.83 mgm-2h-1 for LC (grass treatment), respectively (FC, FJ, FL, GG, GC, GL, LC were the Chinese abbreviation for various treatments). Furthermore, Kobresia humilis meadow, Potentilla fruticosa scrub meadow and Kobresia tibetica meadow differed greatly in average CO2 emission rate of soil-plant system, in the order of GG>FC>LC>GC. Moreover, in Kobresia humilis meadow, heterotrophic and autotrophic respiration accounted for 42% and 58% of the total respiration of soil-plant system respectively, whereas, in Potentilla fruticosa scrub meadow, heterotrophic and autotrophic respiration accounted for 32% and 68% of total system respiration from GG; 49% and 51% from GC. In addition, root respiration from Kobresia humilis meadow approximated 145 mgCO2m-2h-1, contributed 34% to soil respiration. During the experiment period, Kobresia humilis meadow and Potentilla fruticosa scrub meadow had a net carbon fixation of 111.11 gm-2 and 243.89 gm-2, respectively. Results also showed that soil temperature was the main factor which influenced CO2 emission from alpine meadow ecosystem, significant correlations were found between soil temperature at 5 cm depth and CO2 emission from GG, GC, FC and FJ treatments. In addition, soil moisture may be the inhibitory factor of CO2 emission from Kobresia tibetica meadow, and more detailed analyses should be done in further research.
Quantitatively determining the sources of dune sand is one of the problems necessarily and urgently to be solved in aeolian landforms and desertification research. Based on the granulometric data of sand materials from the Hulun Buir Sandy Land, the paper employs the stepwise discriminant analysis technique (SDA) for two groups to select the principal factors determining the differences between surface loose sediments. The extent of similarity between two statistical populations can be described quantitatively by three factors such as the number of principal variables, Mahalanobis distance Ｄ2 and confidence level α for F-test. Results reveal that: 1) Aeolian dune sand in the region mainly derives from Hailar Formation (Q3), while fluvial sand and palaeosol also supply partially source sand for dunes; and 2) in the vicinity of Cuogang Town and west of the broad valley of the lower reaches of Hailar River, fluvial sand can naturally become principal supplier for dune sand.
The aim of the study was to assess the environment-health development in different regions of China. 175 indicators, such as average life expectancy at birth, emission intensity of waste gas, GDP etc. were chosen to describe various aspects of the environment, health and development of China. Of all the indicators, life expectancy can sufficiently reflect health situation of population. Consequently, life expectancy was identified as key indicator, and 42 out of 175 indicators were selected for establishing the environment-health indicator framework with three grades of integrative indices to assess the development of environment-health of China. Based on the hierarchical relation between various grades of indices, the comprehensive environment-health index was calculated and contributed to classify the environment-health situation of 30 provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions in China which were divided into five grades by four predefined limits. Comprehensive assessment indicates that the environment-health situation of the eastern and coastal areas is superior to that of inland which is the western regions with underdeveloped economy and rigorous natural condition. Especially, the Qinghai-Tibet and Yunnan-Guizhou plateaus in southwestern China are most vulnerable in the environment and population health. These fit in with the pattern of national socio-economic development, which fully shows that socio-economic context plays a dominant role in the improvement of environment-health in China.
The spatial and temporal variations of stable oxygen isotope in precipitation on different time scales are analyzed according to the data from the IAEA/WMO stations with long survey series in the Northern Hemisphere. Temperature effect is mainly distributed in mid-high latitudes on seasonal scale except for Bamako and Addisababa stations. The δ18O/temperature slope displays the positive correlation against altitude for most of the statistical stations. Amount effect appears primarily in the region south of 30oN and coastal areas. The δ18O/precipitation slope is indirectly proportional to precipitation amount. For some of the sampling stations at mid-high latitudes where their seasonal distribution of precipitation is contrary to that of temperature, coupled with temperature effect, the amount effect appears synchronistically. Either the temperature effect or the amount effect on seasonal scale, there are positive correlations to a certain extent between the annual weighted mean δ18O and the annual mean temperature for almost all the stations. The correlation between composite δ18O and temperature on spatial scale is much more marked, compared with that of individual station. There is a good agreement between 10-year moving average temperature curves I and II, with the values of the former all markedly smaller than corresponding ones of the latter, calculated by the monthly mean series group I and the annual mean series group II, respectively. However, two calculated dδ18O/dT curves display the distinct difference: the variation amplitude of slope series II is larger than that of slope series I. Both curves had similar ascending trend from the 1960s to the 1970s, and then, their variations display the anti-phase. Moreover, the analyses show that there is negative correlation between slope series II and temperature series II. However, the status is different for slope series I and temperature series I. Both series have contrary trend from the 1960s to the 1970s, whereas the same trend since the 1980s.
The monthly, seasonal, and annual precipitation trends in the Yangtze river catchment have been detected through analysis of 51 meteorological stations' data between 1950-2002 provided by National Meteorological Administration. Results reveal that: 1) Summer precipitation in the Yangtze river catchment shows significant increasing tendency. The Poyanghu lake basin, Dongtinghu lake basin and Taihu lake basin in the middle and lower reaches are the places showing significant positive trends. Summer precipitation in the middle and lower reaches experienced an abrupt change in the year 1992; 2) The monthly precipitation in months just adjoining to summer shows decreasing tendency in the Yangtze river catchment. The upper and middle reaches in Jialingjiang river basin and Hanshui river basin are the places showing significant negative trends; 3) Extreme precipitation events show an increasing tendency in most places, especially in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze river catchment.
Red tides are one of the main coastal catastrophic events in Guangdong Province of southern China. The comparison between the number of red tide events and the development indexes of cities along the coasts of the province shows that the regional differences in red tide outbreaks has close relations with the coastal urban developments. The cause for an initiation of red tide blooms may be natural factors, while wastewater caused by the fast development of population, industry and aquiculture of the coastal cities enhanced the blooms. It may explain why the two periods of frequent outbreaks of the red tides over the last two decades matched the urban developments in the coastal areas of Guangdong not only spatially but also temporally. The red tides in the first period were restricted only to the coasts of middle Guangdong, where urbanization process was at a higher speed than the other coastal areas of the province. In the second period, fast development of the coastal cities in eastern Guangdong led to an increase in the occurrence of red tides in local sea areas of the same coasts.
With the long-term data of the geodetic sea level measurements undertaken in the Dongting Basin and the recent sediment data of Dongting Lake, we analyze the tectonic subsidence rate of the Dongting Basin and the sedimentary rate of Dongting Lake. From the point of view of geomorphology and hydrogeology, we distinguish the two different spatial concepts between "the basin of Dongting Lake" and "the Dongting Basin". Then, we discuss the influences of the tectonic subsidence and the siltation on the levees and the space of storing flood. The better quality of levees is required due to the tectonic subsidence and the siltation, and the difficulties of preventing flood disasters are increasing. The space of storing flood is not affected by the tectonic subsidence, but by the siltation. At present, the sedimentary rate of Dongting Lake is higher than the tectonic subsidence rate of the Dongting Basin. The tectonic subsidence capacity of the Dongting Basin counteracts a part of sedimentary capacity, and the shrinking tendency of Dongting Lake is restrained to a certain extent, but the tectonic subsidence is harmful to the situation of preventing flood disasters in the Dongting Lake area.
Radar remote sensing can acquire information of sub-surface covered by sand in arid area, detect surface roughness and vegetation coronet's layer and linear feature such as linear structure and channel sensitively. With sediment facies analysis, this paper studies the features of environmental evolution in mid-late Epipleistocene (60 ka BP-20 ka BP) in northeastern Ejin Banner. The conclusions are listed as follows: (1) The evolution of the three lakes, i.e. Gaxunnur, Sugunur and Tian'e lakes, are dominated by faults and regional climate. (2) By analyzing sedimentary section of old Juyanze Lake, the three lakes used to be a large outflow lake before 50 ka BP in northeastern Ejin Banner, and at 50 ka BP, temperature declined rapidly in northwestern China. The event caused the lake's shrinkage. (3) By fault activity uplift in the northern part of old Juyan Lake and depression in the southern part, the lake's water followed from north to south at around 35 ka BP, old Juyanze fluvial fan was formed. At the same time, Juyan Lake separated from Sugunur Lake and Wentugunr old channel was abandoned. (4) In recent 2000 years, Ruoshui River is a wandering river, sometimes it flows into Juyan Lake and sometimes Sugunur and Gaxunnur lakes. Due to human activities and over exploitation, the oasis ecosystem is rapidly degenerated in 15 years (1986-2000).
On the basis of extensive survey to the Quaternary paleosols, soils and weathering layers in the vast northern China and the Loess Plateau, we found some unusually special phenomena of chemical components such as unsuccessive illuvium, twin illuviums, unusually thick illuvium and multi-illuviums etc. According to the analysis on the content of CaCO3 and the data of penetrating experiment, a new theory of illuvial depth or removal depth of CaCO3 in weathering and leaching belt was constructed, which indicates that the time of CaCO3 removing to the illuvial depth is very short, and the effect of time factor on illuvial depth can be ignored. The theory can be taken as a credible foundation for studying many geological and geographical problems in weathering and leaching belt. When the illuvial depth of CaCO3 is bigger than the thickness of developing belt of soil or paleosol, it can be determined that the paleosol has turned into weathering crust. When the illuvial depth of CaCO3 is bigger than the thickness of paleosol, paleosol is leaching moderately acid soil. When two, three layers or unusually thick CaCO3 illuviums exist in the same weathering section or at the bottom of the same paleosol, there were two or more periods forming paleosol and corresponding climatic stages at that time. On the basis of the equation of relationship between mean annual rainfall (y) and illuvial depth of CaCO3 (x) (y = 305.5x + 168.5) determined in the paper, mean annual precipitation during the development of paleosol can be calculated.
The eastern and western fronts of plate movement in Taiwan Island and Tibetan Plateau respectively are the two major sources of tectonic force for the morphogensis during Quaternary in China’s tropics. Seven examples of geomorphological effects of plate movement are enumerated to discuss the differentiation of tectonic landforms in space and time during Quaternary. The tectonic movement tends to be more active since middle Pleistocene. Some phenomena such as the arc-shape mountain systems, volcanism and crustal deformation imply that the juncture zone of eastern and western tectonic forces is located at about 110oE.