By comparing the oxygen isotopic temperatures recorded by many shallow ice cores from the coastal regions of Antarctica, this paper presents the special characteristics of the temperature variations over the Antarctic coastal regions in the past 50 years, 150 years and 250 years. In the past 50 years, the isotopic temperatures recorded in the ice cores over different sites on the Antarctic coastal regions differ greatly. For instance, although increasing isotopic temperatures have been reported for many sites studied, many sites show decreasing trends, the regional regularity in temperature variations is still insignificant. In the past 150 years, the isotopic temperature trends in the coastal regions of Antarctica show an alternate-distributing pattern. In the past 250 years, all the ice cores from the coastal regions of Antarctica have recorded the so-called Little Ice Age (LIA). The above-mentioned spatial characteristics of the temperature variations over the Antarctic coastal regions are likely to reflect the impacts of the unique Southern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation, the Antarctic Circumpolar Wave (ACW) and the special terrain (such as the large drainage basins) on the coastal regions of Antarctica. Furthermore, the impacting intensity of the unique Southern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation, the Antarctic Circumpolar Wave and the special terrain differs in terms of the temporal scale of the temperature change.
Saxicolous species of lichens are able to induce and accelerate weathering of their rock substrate, and effects of lichens on substrate can be attributed to both physical and chemical causes. This paper is focused on biotic weathering actions of epilithic and endolithic species on the different rock types (sandstones and volcanogenic rocks) in Antarctica. The patterns, mechanisms, processes and neoformations of rock-weathering resulting from lichen colonization are expounded in detail. Furthermore, it is pointed out that, for a better understanding of the impacts of lichens on environments, the studies on the rate of biotic weathering and the comprehensive involvement of the lichen effects on weathering of natural rocks remain to be carried out in Antarctica.
This paper discusses land-use changes in the interlock area of farming and pasturing (IAFP)in northern China. It presents detailed analyses of land-use features in the IAFP, which are controlled by the macro geomorphic units and geophysical conditions-constraints or advantages. Additionally, it selects some indicators, according to the availability in acquiring and processing their quantitative data, to analyze the canonical correlations between the typical conversion of grassland and geophysical conditions. The preliminary study indicates that the physical conditions are of great advantages to the development of grassland. There exists significant correlation between land use change and some geophysical conditions.
Remote-sensing and field data of Guizhou forest resources in 2000 are processed using ArcGIS, with the production of forest resource distribution map, forest age class structure map, and forest canopy distribution map. Analysis of these data shows that: (1) though there are multiple types of forest resources, forest coverage is low (only 25.27%, excluding sparse woodland, shrub and underage-forest); (2) the geographical distribution of forests is quite uneven, mainly in the southeast of the province and in Zunyi prefecture; (3) the zonal evergreen broad-leaved forests have been seriously destroyed, with striking secondary features, i.e., coniferous forest and shrubbery account for the greatest proportion of Guizhou forests; (4) the timber-forest is much larger in area than shelter-forest and economic forest; (5) young-and-middle aged forests are more widely distributed than near-and-over matured forest; and (6) the forest of Guizhou is not enough to effectively protect the environment of karst mountain areas of the province.
The project of 'grain for green', to restore woodland and grass by retreating from slope farmland, as a fundamental measure of eco-environmental rehabilitation, is being conducted in the reservoir area of the Three Gorges gradually. However, the de-farming of slope farmland will reduce the amount of farmland in de-farmed areas, especially in the areas with concentrated slope farmland, which would cause the problems of environmental emigration. The people who cannot regain enough farmland by relocating farmlands within village after de-farming and have to emigrate to other places are called environmental emigrants or ecological emigrants. In the research, a de-farming stress index model and an environmental emigration model are developed based on GRID data, and the potential amount of environmental emigration caused by de-farming of slope farmland in the reservoir area is simulated aided with GIS. The simulation indicates that the potential emigration amount caused by de-farming is quite large. When the de-farming stress index reaches 40%, the amount is as large as 890,000 people, which is equivalent to the emigrants caused by the submergence of the Three Gorges reservoir. So it should be considered as a big problem during the eco-environmental rehabilitation in this area. Some suggestions are raised to tackle the problem. Firstly, the emigration plan should be included in the de-farming plan. Secondly, some provinces, especially those located in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, should accommodate part of the environmental emigrants.
According to the length of city perimeter and the administration systems recorded in the historical literatures of the Qing Dynasty, a set of methods is developed to convert the historical records into the area of urban land use, by which a set of preliminary estimated urban land use data of the 18 provinces during the Emperor Jiaqing (1820AD) in the Qing Dynasty, is achieved. Based on the above achievements, the regional differences of urban land use are analyzed, and the comparison in urban land use between the Qing Dynasty and present (1999) is made.
This paper discussed the spatial distribution of soil erosion in China at the end of the 20th century based on the second national soil erosion survey. The result indicated soil erosion is still the prime environmental problem in China. Soil erosion mainly occurs in the western regions of China, and the slight erosion type, ion the whole, exerts the greatest impact on soil erosion pattern. The distribution of water erosion shows the impact of landforms: slight water erosion mainly in mountainous and hilly areas, and half of violent water erosion on the loess landforms. Farmland, forestland and grassland are the major land use types of slight hydraulic erosion distribution, while the serious hydraulic erosion and slight wind erosion mainly occur on grassland. Thus, the conservation of the grassland is the key to either hydraulic and wind erosion control. The huangmian soil (a major type of cultivated soil developed from loess mother material) is the one facing the most serious threat from soil erosion in Chinas soil resources. Further discussion on the soil erosion distribution still needs more research on the method and relevant data analysis.
Five typical land covers in West Tiaoxi catchment of China, including mulberry garden, bamboo forest, pinery, vegetable plot and paddy field, were studied on nitrogen loss in artificial rainstorm runoff and sediment. Triple duplication experiments have been carried out under the artificial rain condition with an intensity of 2 mm.min-1 and lasting 32 minutes in 3 m2 field. Export of various species of nitrogen in runoff and sediment were investigated. The results show that nitrogen loss amount and rate are quite different among five kinds of land covers. The loss of total nitrogen in runoff of mulberry is the largest and that of paddy field is the smallest. Particle nitrogen accounts for 70-90% of total nitrogen in runoff of various kinds of land covers. Loss of dissolved nitrogen in pinery is much higher than in other kinds of land covers, which are similar among them. More detailed species of dissolved nitrogen show their respective features among various land covers. Total amounts of nitrogen loss from the top 10 cm layer of 5 kinds of soils are estimated as high as 4.66-9.40 g.m-2, of which nitrogen loss through sediment of runoff accounts for more than 90%. The rate of total nitrogen losses are ranged in 2.68-14.48 mg.m-2.min-1 in runoff, which is much lower than that of 100.01-172.67 mg.m-2.min-1 in sediment of runoff.
The CC1 core, with a length of 216 cm, was drilled in the west part of the Chen Co (Lake) in southern Tibet Plateau. The 210Pb and 137Cs measurement indicated that it was a consecutive sedimentary sequence since ca. 1400 years. The ostracoda and their assemblages under the level of 1 cm samples' cutting interval were finished for this core to reveal the past environmental changes in the lake area. A total of 15 species of ostracods belonging to 7 genera in the core sediments had been identified. According to the ostracod distributions, abundances and preservations in the core, seven ostracod assemblages had been distinguished. The ostracod assemblages and their ecological features, together with the sediments dating decision were used to infer the past ca. 1400 years environmental changes of the Chen Co environmental evolutions in three stages, which had responded to the Medieval Ages Warm-period (MAW), the Little Ice Age (LIA) and modern warm period. The results show that the changes of the Chen Co environment had been mainly influenced by the climatic variations. The trend of the lake level fluctuations had been accorded with that of climatic variation during the past 1400 years.
According to archaeological data from about sixty samples the relative stability of physical and human geographical environment in the tropical zone of China is discussed in this paper. Because of the superior natural environment, sufficient food resources and a sparse population resulting in the absence of social requirement to transform the productive forces, the advancement of economy and society was stagnated during prehistorical period in China's tropics. Compared with northern China, the appearance of ground stone tool stagnated about 3,000 years, the beginning of Bronze Age, about 1,000 years, and the agriculture, 2,500-3,000 years. The no ceramics age continued till the early Neolithic Age and the appearance of colour or white ceramics was 2,000 years later than that in northern China. The life form of migration to gather and to hunt continued till the middle Neolithic Age, and the fixed settlement based on agriculture 1,000-2,000 years stagnated. The clan commune just appeared at the end of the Neolithic Age which was 2,000-3,000 years later than that in northern China.
Soil erosion assessment and prediction play critical roles in addressing problems associated with erosion control or soil conservation. The past dynamics of soil erosion can provide valuable information for us to understand the relations of soil erosion to environmental change and anthropogenic activity. The present paper has compared Holocene climatic changes in northwestern China with those in southern Norway, and investigated the past dynamics of erosion activity during the Holocene. Modern soil erosion on the Loess Plateau is a combination of the intensive natural erosion and human-induced erosion, the latter being four times greater than the former. Because of global warming and increasing human activities, climate on the Loess Plateau is becoming dryer and more unstable, causing an enhanced erosion problem and water scarcity. In the arctic-alpine region of southern Norway, however, the global warming and regional wetting caused expansion of the largest European ice cap. This has accentuated the erosion in that region, with a higher frequency of avalanches and debris flows.
Concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr and Cd), and phosphorous (P) were determined in surface tidal flat sediments of the Yangtze estuary and Shanghai coast. Results demonstrate that there were significant differences among the accumulation of the heavy metals in sediments, following the order: Zn > Cu > Cr > Pb > Cd. The spatial distribution and chemical forms of heavy metals in tidal flat sediments were closely related to the distribution of pollution resources (outlet of sewage) and the local sedimentary and hydrodynamic conditions. The dominated form of non-residual heavy metals is bound to Fe/Mn oxides, and the next form is bound to carbonates. Moreover, contents of total P in sediments range from 18.0 μmol.g-1 to 31.4 μmol.g-1 along the coastline, speciation of P in sediments was different, most of P in tidal flat sediments is associated with calcium phases (as Ca-P) similar to marine sediments.
Based on energy balance equation and mass transfer equation, a general model to estimate actual evaporation from non-saturated surfaces was derived. Making use of two concepts, "relative evaporation" and "relative drying power", a relationship was established to account for the departure from saturated conditions. Using this model, the actual evaporation (evapotranspiration) can be calculated without the need of potential evaporation estimation. Furthermore, the model requires only a few meteorological parameters that are readily and routinely obtainable at standard weather stations. Based on nearly 30 years data of 432 meteorological stations and 512 hydrological stations in China, in combined with GIS, nine typical river basins were selected. Using the data of the selected river basins, the model was tested. The results show that the actual evaporation rate can be estimated with an error of less than 10% in most areas of China, except few years in the Yellow River Basin.
By analysis of published papers on the Yangtze estuary and hydrological and sediments data in Yangshan Harbor area, many similarities are found between Yangshan Harbor area and the Yangtze estuary. These similarities include the phenomenon of stagnating flow areas, the distributive characteristics of the highest suspended sediment concentration areas, superficial sediments and shoal bars. The stagnating flow area is the major similarity which causes other similarities. These similarities indicate that: 1) Turbidity Maximum and mouth bars in estuaries are mainly caused by the hydraulic balance of stagnating flow areas of estuaries; 2) The stagnating sand area of sands caused by stagnating flow area often locates on the narrower side of the stagnating flow area; 3) The location (or shape) of fine sediments area caused by stagnating flow area reflects the location (or shape) of the stagnating flow area. Both Yangshan Harbor area and the Yangtze estuary are the important developmental areas in the future (man-made similarity). In-depth studies on these similarities between Yangshan Harbor area and the Yangtze estuary will have momentous theoretical and practical significance.
The man-induced sediment disaster includes material erosion, transportation and accumulation by human activities. It possesses special attribute in sociology and disaster science. In accordance with human activities, geomorphologic location, behavior and particular, the man-induced sediment disaster can be divided into 4 types: the drainage network, slope and gully, channel and plain-estuary-coastline. Each type includes erosion, transportation, accumulation, complexity and cascading. Based on human activity, geomorphology, sediment mechanics and catastrophology, the man-induced sediment disaster is characterized as follows: (1) accelerating tendency with geographical zoning background; (2) non-order characters by blind action without special technical training; (3) gradually and sharply changing with human environment vibration; and (4) complexity and non-linear figure, etc. One of the reasons leading to man-induced sediment disaster is human environment vibration.