Slope is one of the crucial terrain variables in spatial analysis and land use planning, especially in the Loess Plateau area of China which is suffering from serious soil erosion. DEM based slope extracting method has been widely accepted and applied in practice. However slope accuracy derived from this method usually does not match with its popularity. A quantitative simulation to slope data uncertainty is important not only theoretically but also necessarily to applications. This paper focuses on how resolution and terrain complexity impact on the accuracy of mean slope extracted from DEMs of different resolutions in the Loess Plateau of China. Six typical geomorphologic areas are selected as test areas, representing different terrain types from smooth to rough. Their DEMs are produced from digitizing contours of 1:10,000 scale topographic maps. Field survey results show that 5 m should be the most suitable grid size for representing slope in the Loess Plateau area. Comparative and math-simulation methodology was employed for data processing and analysis. A linear correlativity between mean slope and DEM resolution was found at all test areas, but their regression coefficients related closely with the terrain complexity of the test areas. If taking stream channel density to represent terrain complexity, mean slope error could be regressed against DEM resolution (X) and stream channel density (S) at 8 resolution levels and expressed as (0.0015S2+0.031S-0.0325)X-0.0045S2-0.155S+0.1625, with a R2 value of over 0.98. Practical tests also show an effective result of this model in applications. The new development methodology applied in this study should be helpful to similar researches in spatial data uncertainty investigation.
Due to complex terrain of the Loess Plateau, the classification accuracy is unsatisfactory when a single supervised classification is used in the remote sensing investigation of the sloping field. Taking the loess hill and gully area of northern Shaanxi Province as a test area, a research was conducted to extract sloping field and other land use categories by applying an integrated classification. Based on an integration of supervised classification and unsupervised classification, sampling method is remarkably improved. The results show that the classification accuracy is satisfactory by the method and is of critical significance in obtaining up-to-date information of the sloping field, which should be helpful in the state key project of converting farmland to forest and grassland on slope land in this area. This research sought to improve the application accuracy of image classification in complex terrain areas.
The ecological water demand (EWD) is the least water amount required to maintain the structure and the function of the special eco-system and the temporal scale of a study on the EWD must be a season's time. Based on GIS and RS with the source information of hydrological data of 46 hydrological gauges covering 52 years and the digital images of Landsat TM in 1986, 1996 and 2000, the landscape patterns, precipitation and runoff in the East Liaohe River Basin were analyzed. With the result of the above analysis, the spatial and temporal changes of the ecological water demand in the slope systems (EWDSS) of the East Liaohe River Basin (ELRB) were derived. Landscapes in the ELRB are dispersed and strongly disturbed by human actions. The hydrological regime in ELRB has distinct spatial variations. The average annual EWDSS in the ELRB is 504.72 mm (324.08-618.89 mm), and the average EWDSS in the growth season (from May to September) is 88.29% of the year's total EWDSS .The ultimate guaranteeing ratio of the EWDSS in ELRB is 90%. The scarce EWDSS area in the whole year and in the growth season are 60.47% and 74.01% of the entire basin respectively. The trend of scarce EWDSS area is most serious according to the quantity and area of scarce EWDSS regions.
Evapotranspiration (ET) is an important parameter for water resource management. Compared to the traditional ET computation and measurement methods, the ET computation method based on remote sensing has the advantages of quickness, precision, raster mapping and regional scale. SEBAL, an ET computation model using remote sensing method is based on the surface energy balance equation which is a function of net radiance flux, soil heat flux, sensible heat flux and latent heat flux. The former three fluxes can be computed through the parameters retrieved from remote sensing image, then the latent heat flux can be obtained to provide energy for ET. Finally we can obtain the daily ET. In this study SEBAL was applied to compute ET in the Yellow River Delta of China where water resource faces a rigorous situation. Three Landsat TM images and meteorology data of 1999 were used for ET computation, and spatial and temporal change patterns of ET in the Yellow River Delta were analysed.
In this study the arable land changes in two counties (Zigui and Xingshan) in the Three Gorges Reservoir area in China are investigated. The statistical data from the officially published statistical books are used to study these changes in the two counties during the past 50 years since 1949. The changes of arable land, changes of arable land per capita, and changes of multiple crop index in Zigui and Xingshan counties are examined. Using an index method, we conclude that the two counties are critical in the sustainable utilization of arable land.
Based on GIS and statistical methods, with the help of searching historical literatures and calculating the landscape indices, the land use changes of Qian'an County in both spatial and temporal aspects from 1945 to 1996 has been analyzed in this paper. And the driving forces of land use changes and their ecological effects are discussed too. The main findings of this study are as follows: (1) Land use changed greatly in Qian'an during 1945-1996, characterized by a decrease in grassland, wetland and water bodies, and an increase in cultivated land, saline-alkali land, and the land for housing and other construction purposes. Grassland decreased by 175,828.66 ha, and cultivated land increased by 102,137.23 ha over the half century. Accordingly, the main landscape type changed from a steppe landscape to a managed agricultural ecosystem. (2) Results of correlation analysis show that the land use change in the study area was mainly driven by the socioeconomic factors. (3) The ecological effects of land use change in the area are characterized by serious salinization, degression of soil fertility and the weakening of landscape suitability.
In this paper, the CO2 concentrations profile from 1.5 m depth in soil to 32 m height in atmosphere were measured from July 2000 to July 2001 in an alpine grassland ecosystem located in the permafrost area on the Tibetan Plateau, which revealed that CO2 concentrations varied greatly during this study period. Mean concentrations during the whole experiment in the atmosphere were absolutely lower than the CO2 concentrations in soil, which resulted in CO2 emissions from the alpine steppe soil to the atmosphere. The highest CO2 concentration was found at a depth of 1.5 m in soil while the lowest CO2 concentration occurred in the atmosphere. Mean CO2 concentrations in soil generally increased with depth. This was the compositive influence of the increasing soil moistures and decreasing soil pH, which induced the increasing biological activities with depth. Temporally, the CO2 concentrations at different layers in air remained a more steady state because of the atmospheric turbulent milking. During the seasonal variations, CO2 concentrations at surface soil interface showed symmetrical patterns, with the lowest accumulation of CO2 occurring in the late winter and the highest CO2 concentration in the growing seasons.
The variations of the stable oxygen isotope in different water mediums in Urumqi River Basin, China, are analyzed. The stable oxygen isotope in precipitation has marked temperature effect either under synoptic or seasonal scale at the head of Urumqi River. The linear regression equations of δ18O against temperature are δ18O=0.94T-12.38 and δ18O=1.29T-13.05 under the two time scales, respectively. The relatively large δ18O/temperature slopes show the strong sensitivity of δ18O in precipitation to temperature variation at the head of Urumqi River. According to the analyses on the δ18O in precipitation sampled at three stations with different altitudes along Urumqi River, altitude effect is notable in the drainage basin. The δ18O/altitude gradients have distinct differences: the gradient from Urumqi to Yuejinqiao is merely -0.054‰/hm, but -0.192‰/hm from Yuejinqiao to Daxigou, almost increasing by 2.6 times over the former. No altitude effect is found in surface firn in the east branch of Glacier No.1 at the head of Urumqi River, showing that precipitation in the glacier is from the cloud cluster with the same condensation level. Influenced by strong ablation and evaporation, the δ18O in surface firn increases with increasing altitude sometimes. Survey has found that the δ18O in meltwater at the terminus of Glacier No.1 and in stream water at Total Control have the similar change trend with the former all smaller than the latter, which displays the different runoff recharges, and all mirror the regime of temperature in the same term basically.
Plant diversity is used as an indicator of the well-being of vegetation and ecological systems. Human activities and global change drive vegetation change in composition and competition of species through plant invasions and replacement of existing species on a given scale. However, species diversity indices do not consider the effects of invasions on the diversity value and on the functions of ecosystems. On the other hand, the existing methods for diversity index can not be used directly for cross-scale evaluation of vegetation data. Therefore, we proposed a 3-dimensional model derived from the logistic equation for estimating vegetation change, using native and non-native plant diversity. The two variables, based on the current and the theoretical maximum diversity of native plants on a given scale, and the result of the model are relative values without units, and are therefore scale-independent. Hence, this method developed can be used directly for cross-scale evaluations of vegetation data, and indirectly for estimating ecosystem or environmental change.
Subglacially-formed debris-rich chemical deposits were found both on bedrock surface and in bedrock crevice on the edge of Qiangyong Glacier, one of the continental glaciers in Tibet. Grain size distribution, internal structures and chemical components of the chemical deposits were analyzed. It can be inferred that the temperature of some part of the ice-bedrock interface is close to the melting point and there exists pressure melting water under Qiangyong Glacier. Debris, especially those from continental aerosols, can release Ca++ in the water. At the lee-side of obstacles on glacier bed the CO2 in the melting water might escape from the water and the melting water might refreeze due to the dramatically reduced pressure, making the enrichment and precipitation of CaCO3. The existence of subglacial melting water and the process of regelation under Qiangyong Glacier indicate that sliding could contribute some proportion to the entire movement of Qiangyong Glacier and it belongs to multiplex cold-temperate glaciers.
Water vapour and CO2 fluxes were measured by the eddy-covariance technique above a mixed needle and broad-leaved forest with affiliated meteorological measurements in Changbai Mountain as part of China's FLUX projects since late August in 2002. Net water vapour exchange and environmental control over the forest were examined from September 1 to October 31 in 2002. To quantify the seasonal dynamics, the transition period was separated into leafed, leaf falling and leafless stages according to the development of leaf area. The results showed that (a) seasonal variation of water vapour exchange was mainly controlled by net radiation (Rn) which could account for 78.5%, 63.4% and 56.6% for leafed, leaf falling and leafless stages, respectively, while other environmental factors' effects varied evidently; (b) magnitude of water vapour flux decreased remarkably during autumn and daily mean of water vapour exchange was 24.2 mg m-2 s-1 (100%), 14.8 mg m-2 s-1 (61.2%) and 10.3 mg m-2 s-1 (42.6%) for leafed, leaf falling and leafless stage, respectively; and (c) the budget of water vapour exchange during autumn was estimated to be 87.1 kg H2O m-2, with a mean of 1427.2 g H2O d-1 varying markedly from 3104.0 to 227.5 g H2O m-2 d-1.
Climate extremes for agriculture-pasture transitional zone, northern China, are analyzed on the basis of daily mean temperature and precipitation observations for 31 stations in the period 1956-2001. Analysis season for precipitation is May-September, i.e., the rainy season. For temperature is the hottest three months, i.e., June through August. Heavy rain events, defined as those with daily precipitation equal to or larger than 50 mm, show no significant secular trend. A jump-like change, however, is found occurring in about 1980. For the period 1980-1993, the frequency of heavy rain events is significantly lower than the previous periods. Simultaneously, the occurring time of heavy rains expanded, commencing about one month early and ending one month later. Long dry spells are defined as those with longer than 10 days without rainfall. The frequency of long dry spells displays a significant (at the 99% confidence level) trend at the value of +8.3%/10a. That may be one of the major causes of the frequent droughts emerging over northern China during the last decades. Extremely hot and low temperature events are defined as the uppermost 10% daily temperatures and the lowest 10% daily temperatures, respectively. There is a weak and non-significant upward trend in frequency of extremely high temperatures from the 1950s to the mid-1990s. But the number of hot events increases as much as twice since 1997. That coincides well with the sudden rise in mean summer temperature for the same period. Contrary to that, the frequency of low temperature events have been decreasing steadily since the 1950s, with a significant linear trend of -15%/10a.
Based on China's monthly precipitation data of 629 stations during 1950-2000, we calculated Z indices and separated them into seven Dryness and Wetness grades. Further, a drought area index was proposed to study changes in drought severity in northern China. The results revealed that the different severity of droughts all showed expanding trends in northern China's main agricultural area. Moreover, the area coverage of droughts in different seasons and different regions displayed different trends.
About 70 examples of Quaternary fauna in China's tropics are enumerated in this paper. Of which about 40% of the examples can be found even in cooling stages, showing the smaller amplitude of climatic fluctuation during Quaternary. According to the temporal and spatial distribution of tropical faunas, the following characters of climate variation can be evidenced: two main cycles in Early Pleistocene, three main cycles in Middle Pleistocene, two main cycles in Late Pleistocene and Holocene Megathermal. The drop in temperature during the Latest Glacial Period and Neoglaciation has not endangered the existence of tropical faunas. With influence of cooling fluctuation during historical period, some faunas have removed southwards progressively, but disappearance of these animals in China's tropics was mainly the result of artificial factors.
A detailed analysis of suspended sediment concentration (SSC) variations over a year period is presented using the data from 8 stations in the Yangtze River estuary and its adjacent waters, together with a discussion of the hydrodynamic regimes of the estuary. Spatially, the SSC from Xuliujing downwards to Hangzhou Bay increases almost constantly, and the suspended sediment in the inner estuary shows higher concentration in summer than in winter, while in the outer estuary it shows higher concentration in winter than in summer, and the magnitude is greater in the outer estuary than in the inner estuary, greater in the Hangzhou Bay than in the Yangtze River estuary. The sediments discharged by the Yangtze River into the sea are resuspended by marine dynamics included tidal currents and wind waves. Temporally, the SSC shows a pronounced neap-spring tidal cycle and seasonal variations. Furthermore, through the analysis of dynamic mechanism, it is concluded that wave and tidal current are two predominant factors of sediment resuspension and control the distribution and changes of SSC, in which tidal currents control neap-spring tidal cycles, and wind waves control seasonal variations. The ratio between river discharge and marine dynamics controls spatial distribution of SSC.
This paper describes valley bottom troughs of the Changjiang River and infers the geomorphologic development of troughs. Based on the morphology of the troughs, the following conclusions are drawn. (1) The deep troughs on the Three Gorges valley bottom are formed by river downcutting along the structural zones on the background of regional tectonic uplift at about 40-30 ka BP. (2) When river downcutting occurred in the river bed of Changjiang, the jets current (particularly eddy current) with a large number of pebbles ground and eroded the valley bottom, resulting in trough formation and deepening. Meanwhile, water currents with gravels and pebbles eroded the bank and the left wall of No.76 trough as well as the right wall of No.77 trough by striking, scouring, horizontal and vertical grinding. (3) The depth of the trough is mainly determined by the intensity of the water current and the consistency of bedrock against erosion, and is not controlled by the altitude of the sea level as the base level of erosion.