Change vector analysis (CVA) and principal component analysis in NDVI time-trajectories space are powerful tools to analyze land-cover change. The magnitude of the change vector indicates amplitude of the change, while its direction indicates the nature of the change. CVA is applied to two remotely sensed indicators of land surface conditions, NDVI and spatial structure, in order to improve the capability to detect and categorize land-cover change. The magnitude and type of changes are calculated in China from 1989 to 1999. Through the research, the main conclusions are drawn as follows: 1) The changes of NDVI are quite different between eastern China and western China, and the change range in the east is bigger than that in the west. The trend in NDVI time series is smoothly increasing, the increases happen mostly in Taiwan, Fujian, Sichuan and Henan provinces and the decreases occur in Yunnan and Xinjiang. 2) The spatial structure index can indicate changes in the seasonal ecosystem dynamics for spatially heterogeneous landscapes. Most of spatial structure changes, which occurred in southern China, correlated with vegetation growth processes and strike of mountains.
Hydrologic data derived from digital elevation models (DEM) has been regarded as an effective method in the spatial analysis of geographical information systems (GIS). However, both DEM resolution and terrain complexity has impacts on the accuracy of hydrologic derivatives. In this study, a multi-resolution and multi-relief comparative approach was used as a major methodology to investigate the accuracy of hydrologic data derived from DEMs. The experiment reveals that DEM terrain representation error affects the accuracy of DEM hydrological derivatives (drainage networks and watershed etc.). Coarser DEM resolutions can usually cause worse results. However, uncertain result commonly exists in this calculation. The derivative errors can be found closely related with DEM vertical resolution and terrain roughness. DEM vertical resolution can be found closely related with the accuracy of DEM hydrological derivatives, especially in the smooth plain area. If the mean slope is less than 4 degrees, the derived hydrologic data are usually unreliable. This result may be helpful in estimating the accuracy of the hydrologic derivatives and determining the DEM resolution that is appropriate to the accuracy requirement of a particular user. By applying a threshold value to subset the cells of a higher accumulation flow, a stream network of a specific network density can be extracted. Some very important geomorphologic characteristics, e.g., shallow and deep gullies, can be separately extracted by means of adjusting the threshold value. However, such a flow accumulationbased processing method can not correctly derive those streams that pass through the working area because it is hard to accumulate enough flow direction values to express the stream channels at the stream's entrance area. Consequently, errors will definitely occur at the stream’s entrance area. In addition, erroneous derivatives can also be found in deriving some particular rivers, e.g., perched (hanging up) rivers, anastomosing rivers and braided rivers. Therefore, more work should be done to develop and perfect the algorithms.
The sediments of the Dongting Lake come from four channels (one of them was closed in 1959), connected with the Yangtze River, four tributaries (Lishui, Yuanjiang, Zishui and Xiangjiang) and local area, and some of them are transported into the Yangtze River in Chenglingji, which is located at the exit of the Dongting Lake, some of them deposit into drainage system in the lake region and the rest deposit into the lake. The annual mean sediment is 166,555x104 t, of which 80% come from the four channels, 18% from the four tributaries and 2% from local area, whereas 26% of the total sediments are transported into the Yangtze River and 74% deposited into the lake and the lake drainage system. Based on topographic maps of 1974, 1988 and 1998, and the spatial analysis method with geographic information system (GIS), changes in sediment deposition and erosion are studied in this paper. By overlay analysis of 1974 and 1988, 1988 and 1998, erosion and sediments deposition areas are defined. The main conclusions are: (1) sediment rate in the lake is larger than erosion rate from 1974 to 1998. The mean deposition in the lake is 0.43 m; (2) annual sediment deposition is the same between 1974-1988 and 1988-1998, but the annual volume of deposition and erosion of 1988-1998 is bigger than that in 1974-1988; (3) before the completion of the Three Gorges Reservoir, there will be 7.82x108 m3 of sediments deposited in the lake, which would make the lake silted up by 0.33 m; (4) in the lake, the deposition area is found in the north of the east Dongting Lake, the south-west of the south Dongting Lake, and the east of the west Dongting Lake; while the eroded area is in the south of the east Dongting Lake, the middle of the south Dongting Lake, the west of the west Dongting Lake, as well as Xiangjiang and Lishui river flood channels.
This paper describes the spatial and temporal relationship between AVHRR/NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) and climatological parameters (temperature and precipitation), which, in some sense, is influenced by topographical factors and land-cover types in Colorado. The correlation coefficients and partial correlation coefficients have been computed pixel by pixel over Colorado in order to analyze the relationship. The temporal variation and correlation of AVHRR/NDVI, temperature and precipitation were analyzed with a sampling method. The study reveals that there exists a close correspondence between monthly NDVI and temperature, which has strong impact from temperature on the changes of NDVI in Colorado. The spatial changes of NDVI are not influenced obviously by the precipitation since these two variables are different from each other in time series in Colorado. The study clearly revealed the spatial variation and its distribution patterns of relationship between NDVI and climatic parameters (temperature and precipitation) in Colorado.
A SOTER-based automatic procedure for qualitative land evaluation is developed. This procedure was created in the automated land evaluation system (ALES). The objective was to design a procedure that allows for a quick separation of potentially suitable from non-suitable SOTER units for the intended land use, indicating constraints to different kinds of land use. Different kinds of land are unequal1y suited to various uses, land eva1uation is the assessment of the suitability of a tract of land for a specified kind of land use. In practice this implicates the comparison (matching) between the requirements of a specified land use and the properties of the land. Land evaluation concepts and definitions are treated in the paper. The ALES is a computer program that allows land evaluators to build their own knowledge-based system with which they can compute the physical and economical suitability of map units in accordance with FAO framework for land evaluation. The ALES program works with so-called decision trees, being hierarchical multiway keys in which the leaves are results (e.g., severity levels of land qualities), and the interior nodes of the tree are decision criteria (e.g., land characteristic values). These trees are traversed by the program to compute an evaluation using actual land data for each map unit. SOTAL is a SOTER-based qualitative model developed in ALES for physical land evaluation in which presently three land utilization types (LUTs) are distinguished, i.e., cultivated banana, coffee and rubber under different input and technological conditions. These LUTs are characterized by 11 landuse requirements and evaluated by matching the land use requirements with the corresponding land qualities. The paper elaborates on the criteria used in SOTAL for land quality assessment and how a final suitability rating is achieved on the basis of the rated land qualities. Results are visualized through G1S-generated maps as products in response to the specific information and data needs of decision and policy makers.
Hebei Province is one of the regions with most densely population, fastest economic growth and most intensive land use in China. The contradiction of land shortage sharpened by high-speed economic development with population growth has become a serious problem, which has restricted regional sustainable development.This paper revealed the basic process, regional differences of change and the gravity center of arable land area according to the long-series statistical data of arable land during the past 50 years. On the basis of the above mentioned, the major driving forces that influence the changes of the arable land are discussed. The research results indicate that there is a trend of obvious fluctuating decrease in arable land area during the last 50 years. The changes of arable land area undergo the process from increase to sharp decrease to gently decrease. The regional disparity of change in arable land area is very notable and the gravity center of arable land area moves to the northeast 49.22 km. Regarding the decrease in arable land, the direct driving forces include adjustments of agricultural structure and reclamation, and indirect driving forces include advance in technology, economic interest and population growth etc.
Natural conditions in Bashang area are characterized by zonal transitions which are liable to be impacted by natural disasters and intensified human activities. The extremely fragile eco-environment is also liable to have desertification formed and developed. In the 18 years from 1978 to 1996, the desertified land area of Bashang within the scope of the map nearly doubled, a total increase of 2199.11 km2, averaging an increase of 122.17 km2 per year. Moreover, the seriously desertified area increases rapidly. Land desertification in Bashang is the combined result of natural factors and irrational human economic activities. Cultivated land expansion, population growth, and overgrazing aggrevate desertification development.
The correlations of the δ18Omax in the shallow ice core from the Guliya ice cap on the Tibetan Plateau with the global sea surface temperatures (SST) and height at the 500 hPa over the Northern Hemisphere were analyzed. The correlated regions on oceans that have a significant influence on the δ18Omax in the Guliya ice core are all located in ocean currents, or convergent regions of currents. They are the eastern Equatorial Pacific, the Northern Pacific Current, the Hot Pool in the eastern Indian Ocean, the Mozambique Current, the Northern Atlantic Current, the Canary Current and the Atlantic Equatorial Current. The δ18Omax in the Guliya ice core has negative correlations with the SST located in the lower latitudes, and positive correlations with the SST in the middle latitudes. The correlated areas at the 500 hPa that have a great impact on the δ18Omax are located in the subtropical highs over the mid-low-latitude oceans and the long-wave trough area over Balkhash Lake, where there are marked negative correlations between the heights in those areas and the δ18Omax. The influencing mechanism is displayed by the diversity of the vapor origins transported to the Guliya region. The strengths of the European ridge and the ridge over Baikal Lake have notable positive correlations with the δ18Omax. The two systems indirectly influence the vapor transportation towards the Guliya region by the adjustment of long-wave trough and ridge.
Based on the synthetic researches of multi-index geologic records of Niya section, which are of high resolution in southern margin of the Tarim Basin, together with other geologic records in southern Xinjiang, this paper has reconstructed the history of paleoclimatic changes in this region since about 4.00 ka BP. During the last 4.00 ka, the region of southern Xinjiang has experienced alternations of relative cold-wet and relative warm-dry periods. Three remarkable cold-wet periods (4.00-3.45 ka BP., 2.50-1.90 ka BP., ca.1.40-1.00 ka BP.) and three warm-dry periods (3.45-2.50 ka BP., 1.90-1.40 ka BP., 1.00 ka BP.-present) are identified. It is shown that human activities have an intimate relation with the evolution of paleoclimate in southern Xinjiang.
Five pollen zones are identified in Yangmu peatland of Mishan region located at 45o34’N, 132o23’E through sporo-pollen analysis. The changing process of paleovegetation and paleoclimate was obtained. Warm-inclined broad-leaved forest predominated in the environment of warm climate with a little dry 3400 yr BP. Deciduous broad-leaved and coniferous mixed forests predominated, in which Pinus, Picea and Abies were main species, together with wet meadow in the environment of cool and humid climate during 3400-1940 yr BP. Deciduous broad-leaved and coniferous mixed forests predominated in the dry and warm climate environment 1940-1090 yr BP. Broad-leaved forest was predominant, and the climate was warm and humid 1090-545 yr BP. Marsh meadow predominated when the climate changed to cool and dry 545 yr BP. The composition of the upper part of the 143-125 cm of the peat profile presented the cold period in the early Christian era through mutual identification between the records of historical material such as spores and pollens, susceptibility, organic matter and archaeological studies. The composition of the parts of 125-85 cm and 85-38 cm presented the warm climate in the Northern and Southern Dynasty and Sui and Tang dynasties. Since 3400 yr BP because of the frequent human activities in Mishan region, the amount of cultural relics in the Sui and Tang dynasties increased, which indicated that the ancients took much more woods from the forests in the warm climate environment.
The palaeo-mobile dune sands and fluvio-lacustrine facies with palaeosols in Milanggouwan stratigraphic section of the Salawusu River valley situated at the southeast of the Mu Us Desert experienced abundant remarkable alternative changes of coarse and fine rhythms in grainsize since 150 ka BP, and the grain-size parameters — Mz,σ, Sk, Kg and SC/D also respond to the situation of multi-fluctuational alternations between peak and valley values. Simultaneity the grainsize eigenvalues — Φ5, F16, Φ25, Φ50, Φ75, Φ84 and Φ95 are respondingly manifested as greatly cadent jumpiness. Hereby, the Milanggouwan section can be divided into 27 grain-size coarse and fine sedimentary cycles, which can be regarded as a real and integreted record of climate-geological process of desert vicissitude resulted from the alternative evolvement of the ancient winter and summer monsoons of East Asia since 150 ka BP.
Fluorescence excitation and average molecular weight of 46 water soluble organic matter (WSOC) samples extracted from 20 soil types in eastern China were determined. It was found all samples shared similar spectroscopy. A good linear relationship existed between total organic carbon and excitation in the range of 350 to 450 nm though the content of organic carbon and pH of the samples vary in a wide range. No significant correlation between relative excitation intensity and average molecular weight of WSOC and FA was found, but the partial correlation became significant with pH as the controlling factor for WSOC samples. The relative excitation intensity showed a general trend of increasing from south to north in the study area. The pH value might play an important role in regulating the fluorescent spatial variation of WSOC.
New progresses are introduced briefly about the water cycle study on atmosphere of China made in recent years. The introduction includes eight aspects as follows: 1) precipitation characteristics, 2) stability of climatic system, 3) precipitation sensitive region, 4) regional evaporation and evapotranspiration, 5) water surface evaporation, 6) vegetation transpiration, 7) cloud physics, and 8) vapor source.
Western China includes 12 provincial divisions (the 7 provinces of Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan, Shaanxi, Gansu, Qinghai and; 5 autonomous regions of Tibet, Ningxia, Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia and Guangxi; and one city of Chongqing), which comprise 71.4% of the national land area, 28.5% of the national population and produce 17.5% of the national GDP in China. There are 17 countries that have riparian relationships with western China, most of which are water-short countries. All are listed by UN ESCAP as countries with potential water crisis. The co-operative development and coordinated management of international rivers in western China is an important step toward the implementation of the national Great Western Development program. Taking into account of the national strategy and object hierarchy, as well as the development demand of the western region, it is necessary to pursue the multi-disciplinary study of the equitable allocation, utilisation, and ecoenvironment protection of transboundary water resources in the region. Such efforts will undoubtedly provide scientific evidence and support for the decision-making of the environmental protection and ecological construction and management in the western regions, the enforcement of the sub-regional economic co-operation, mitigation of trans-boundary conflicts, and enhancing bio-diversity conservation.