Temporal and spatial response characteristics of vegetation NDVI to the variation of temperature and precipitation in the whole year, spring, summer and autumn was analyzed from April 1998 to March 2008 based on the SPOT VGT–NDVI data and daily temperature and precipitation data from 205 meteorological stations in eastern China. The results indicate that as a whole, the response of vegetation NDVI to the variation of temperature is more pronounced than that of precipitation in eastern China. Vegetation NDVI maximally responds to the variation of temperature with a lag of about 10 days, and it maximally responds to the variation of precipitation with a lag of about 30 days. The response of vegetation NDVI to temperature and precipitation is most pronounced in autumn, and has the longest lag in summer. Spatially, the maximum response of vegetation NDVI to the variation of temperature is more pronounced in the northern and middle parts than in the southern part of eastern China. The maximum response of vegetation NDVI to the variation of precipitation is more pronounced in the northern part than in the middle and southern parts of eastern China. The response of vegetation NDVI to the variation of temperature has longer lag in the northern and southern parts than in the middle part of eastern China. The response of vegetation NDVI to the variation of precipitation has the longest lag in the southern part, and the shortest lag in the northern part of eastern China. The response of vegetation NDVI to the variation of temperature and precipitation in eastern China is mainly consistent with other results, but the lag time of vegetation NDVI to the variation of temperature and precipitation has some differences with those results of the monsoon region of eastern China.
Pollen records from the Chinese Loess Plateau revealed a detailed history of vegetation variation and associated climate changes during the last 13.0 ka BP. Before 12.1 ka BP, steppe or desert-steppe vegetation dominated landscape then was replaced by a coniferous forest under a generally wet climate (12.1–11.0 ka BP). The vegetation was deteriorated into steppe landscape and further into a desert-steppe landscape between 11.0 and 9.8 ka BP. After a brief episode of a cool and wet climate (9.8–9.6 ka BP), a relatively mild and dry condition prevailed during the early Holocene (9.6–7.6 ka BP). The most favourable climate of warm and humid period occurred during mid-Holocene (7.6–~4.0 ka BP) marked by forest-steppe landscape and vegetation alternatively changed between steppe and desert- steppe from ~4.0 to ~1.0 ka BP.
The net primary production (NPP) of grasslands in northeastern Asia was estimated using improved CASA model with MODIS data distributed from 2000 and ground data as driving variables from 2000 to 2005. Average annual NPP was 146.05 g C m?2 yr?1 and average annual total NPP was 0.32 Pg C yr?1 in all grasslands during the period. It was shown that average annual grassland NPP in the whole northeastern Asia changed dramatically from 2000 to 2005, with the highest value of 174.80 g C m?2 yr?1 in 2005 and the lowest value of 125.65 g C m?2 yr?1 in 2001. On regional scale, average annual grassland NPP of 179.71 g C m?2 yr?1 in southeastern Russia was the highest among the three main grassland regions in the six years. Grasslands in northern China exhibited the highest average annual total NPP of 0.16 Pg C yr?1 and contributed 51.42% of the average annual total grassland NPP in northeastern Asia. Grassland NPP in northeastern Asia also showed a clear seasonal pattern with the highest NPP occurred in July every year. Average monthly grassland NPP in southeastern Russia was the highest from May to August while average monthly grassland NPP in northern China showed the highest NPP before May and after August. The change rate distribution of grassland NPP between the former three years and the latter three years showed grassland NPP changed slightly between the two stages in most regions, and that NPP change rate in 80.98% of northeastern Asia grasslands was between –0.2 and 0.2. Grassland NPP had close correlation with precipitation and temperature, that indicates climate change will influence the grassland NPP and thus have a great impact on domestic livestock in this region in future.
Tamarix nabkha is one of the most widespread nabkhas, distributing in the arid region of China. Based on the observations outdoors and the simulation experiments in laboratories, analysis in this paper refers to the biological geomorphologic features and growth process of Tamarix nabkhas in the middle and lower reaches of the Hotan River, Xinjiang. And the results indicate that the ecological type of Tamarix in the study area is a kind of Tugaic soil habitat based on the deep soil of the Populus Diversifolia forests and shrubs. This type of habitat can be divided into three kinds of sub-habitats which demonstrate the features of ecological environment of Tamarix nabkhas during the differential developed phases. Meanwhile, the Tamarix nabkha can exert intensified disturbance current on wind-sand flow on the ground, and its root and stems not only have strong potential of sprouting but are characteristic of wind erosion-tolerance, resistance to be buried by sand and respectively tough rigid of the lignified branches, for it has a rather longer life-time. Thus, the wind speed profile influenced by the Tamarix nabkha is different from the Phragmites nabkha and Alhagi nabkha. And the structure of the wind flow is beneficial to aeolian sand accumulating in/around Tamarix shrub，which can create unique Tamarix nabkhas with higher average gradient and longer periodicity of life. Tamarix nabkha evolution in the area experienced three stages: growth stage, mature and steady stage and withering stage. In each stage, morphological features and geomorphic process of Tamarix nabkha are different due to the discrepant interaction between the nabkha and aeolian sand flow.
The sediment content of the Yellow River is resulted from the interactions of natural, economic, and social factors, so it includes some evolutive information of the Yellow River Basin system. Sediment contents from 1952 to 2007 on Toudaoguai, Tongguan, Huayuankou and Lijin sections along the river are chosen as the study time series, and correlation dimensions (D2), Kolmogorov entropies (K2), and Hurst indexes (H) of the time series were calculated. Correlation dimensions on Toudaoguai, Tongguan, Huayuankou, and Lijin sections are 3.24, 5.69, 6.57 and 7.34 respectively, and the Kolmogorov entropies are 0.13, 0.37, 0.40 and 0.38 respectively, which indicates that the systems controlled by different sections along the Yellow River are chaotic systems and the chaotic degrees increase gradually from the upper to lower section. The average predictable period of the sediment contents is 8 years on Toudaoguai section and 3 years on the other sections with the reciprocals of the Kolmogorov entropies. The more obvious the chaotic degree is, the shorter the average predictable period is. Hurst indexes on the sections are above 0.5, with the maximum of 0.86 on Tongguan section and the minimum of 0.68 on Toudaoguai section, which indicates that the time series have persistent trends in the average predictable period. Eight state variables and two control parameters are necessary to construct the dynamic model of the Yellow River Basin system.
The application of dams built upstream will change the input conditions, including water and sediment, of downstream fluvial system, and destroy previous dynamic quasi-equilibrium reached by channel streamflow, so indispensable adjustments are necessary for downstream channel to adapt to the new water and sediment supply, leading the fluvial system to restore its previous equilibrium or reach a new equilibrium. Using about 50-year-long hydrological, sedimentary and cross-sectional data, temporal response processes of Toudaoguai cross-section located in the upper Yellow River to the operation of reservoirs built upstream are analyzed. The results show that the Toudaoguai cross-section change was influenced strongly by upstream reservoir operation and downstream channel bed armoring thereafter occurred gradually and extended to the reach below Sanhuhekou gauging station. Besides, median diameter of suspended sediment load experienced a three-stage change that is characterized by an increase at first, then a decrease and an increase again finally, which reflects the process of channel bed armoring that began at Qingtongxia reservoir and then gradually developed downstream to the reach below Sanhuhekou cross-section. Since the joint operation strategy of Longyangxia, Liujiaxia and Qingtongxia reservoirs was introduced in 1986, the three-stage change trend has become less evident than that in the time period between 1969 and 1986 when only Qingtongxia and Liujiaxia reservoirs were put into operation alone. In addition, since 1987, the extent of lateral migration and thalweg elevation change at Toudaoguai cross-section has reduced dramatically, cross-sectional profile and location tended to be stable, which is beneficial to the normal living for local people.
The seasonal variability and spatial distribution of precipitation are the main cause of flood and drought events. The study of spatial distribution and temporal trend of precipitation in river basins has been paid more and more attention. However, in China, the precipitation data are measured by weather stations (WS) of China Meteorological Administration and hydrological rain gauges (RG) of national and local hydrology bureau. The WS data usually have long record with fewer stations, while the RG data usually have short record with more stations. The consistency and correlation of these two data sets have not been well understood. In this paper, the precipitation data from 30 weather stations for 1958–2007 and 248 rain gauges for 1995–2004 in the Haihe River basin are examined and compared using linear regression, 5-year moving average, Mann-Kendall trend analysis, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Z test and F test methods. The results show that the annual precipitation from both WS and RG records are normally distributed with minor difference in the mean value and variance. It is statistically feasible to extend the precipitation of RG by WS data sets. Using the extended precipitation data, the detailed spatial distribution of the annual and seasonal precipitation amounts as well as their temporal trends are calculated and mapped. The various distribution maps produced in the study show that for the whole basin the precipitation of 1958–2007 has been decreasing except for spring season. The decline trend is significant in summer, and this trend is stronger after the 1980s. The annual and seasonal precipitation amounts and changing trends are different in different regions and seasons. The precipitation is decreasing from south to north, from coastal zone to inland area.
We have appraised the relationships between soil moisture, groundwater depth, and plant species diversity in the lower reaches of the Tarim River in western China, by analyzing field data from 25 monitoring wells across eight study sites and 25 permanent vegetation survey plots. It is noted that groundwater depth, soil moisture and plant species diversity are closely related. It has been proven that the critical phreatic water depth is five meters in the lower reaches of the Tarim River. We acquired the mean phreatic evaporation of different groundwater levels every month by averaging the two results of phreatic evaporation using the Qunk and Averyanov formulas. Based on different vegetation types and acreage with different groundwater depth, the total ecological water demand (EWD) of natural vegetation in 2005 was 2.4×108 m3 in the lower reaches of the Tarim River. Analyzing the monthly EWD, we found that the EWD in the growth season (from April to September) is 81% of the year’s total EWD. The EWD in May, June and July was 47% of the year’s total EWD, which indicates the best time for dispensing artificial water. This research aims at realizing the sustainable development of water resources and provides a scientific basis for water resource management and sound collocation of the Tarim River Basin.
Groundwater residence time is an important indicator of hydrological cycle and essential for water resources development and utilization. In this paper, groundwater residence time in non-flood season, flood season and water year has been determined from daily streamflow hydrograph of ten hydrological stations in Wudinghe River Basin located in the middle reaches of the Yellow River Basin. Results have showed that: baseflow recession constant in Wudinghe River Basin ranges from 0.72 to 0.94 with a larger recession rate in flood season than that in non-flood season. Spatially, the recession rate of baseflow in loess area is the biggest, but is the smallest in the sandy area. The half-residence time of groundwater varies from 1.8 to 45.5 days while overall residence time of groundwater is between 34 and 342 days in different sub-basins of the Wudinghe River Basin. The annual average overall residence time of groundwater decreases from 117 days in the upper reaches to 73 days in the lower reaches.
Samples of suspended particulate matters (SPMs), surface sediment and road dust were collected from the Yangtze estuarine and nearby coastal areas, coastal rivers, and central Shanghai. The samples were analyzed for the presence of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the USEPA priority-controlled list by GC-MS. The compound-specific stable carbon isotopes of the individual PAHs were also analyzed by GC-C-IRMS. The sources of PAHs in the SPMs and surface sediments in the Yangtze estuarine and nearby coastal areas were then identified using multiple source identification techniques that integrated molecular mass indices with organic compound-specific stable isotopes. The results revealed that 3-ring and 4-ring PAH compounds were dominant in the SPMs and surface sediments, which are similar to the PAH compounds found in samples from the Wusong sewage discharge outlet, Shidongkou sewage disposal plant, Huangpu River, coastal rivers and central Shanghai. Principal component analysis (PCA) integrated with molecular mass indices indicated that gasoline, diesel, coal and wood combustion and petroleum-derived residues were the main sources of PAHs in the Yangtze Estuary. The use of PAH compound- specific stable isotopes also enabled identification of the PAHs input pathways. PAHs derived from wood and coal combustion and petroleum-derived residues were input into the Yangtze Estuary and nearby coastal areas by coastal rivers, sewage discharge outlets during the dry season and urban storm water runoff during the flood season. PAHs derived from vehicle emissions primarily accumulated in road dust from urban traffic lines and the commercial district and then entered the coastal area via the northwest prevailing winds in the dry season and storm water runoff during flood season.
Transport infrastructure plays an important role in shaping the configuration of spatial socio-economic structures and influences regional accessibility. This paper defines transport dominance from three aspects: quality, quantity, and advantage, measured by density, proximity, and accessibility indices. County is the basic unit for analysis. The results reveal: (1) Transport dominance statistically follows a partial normal distribution. A very few counties, 1.4% of the total, have extremely high transport dominance which strongly supports the socio-economic development in these areas. In contrast, one eighth of all counties have poor transport dominance which impedes local socio-economic development to some extent. The remaining areas, about 70% of the counties, have median transport dominance. (2) Transport dominance is spatially unevenly distributed, with values decreasing gradually from the coastal area to the inland area. Areas in the first-highest level of transport dominance are mainly concentrated in the Yangtze River Delta, the Greater Beijing area, and the Pearl River Delta. Areas in the second-highest level are focused in Chengdu, Chongqing, and Wuhan metropolitan areas. Provincial capitals and a few other counties belong to the third-highest level.
Nowadays, spatial simulation on land use patterns is one of the key contents of LUCC. Modeling is an important tool for simulating land use patterns due to its ability to integrate measurements of changes in land cover and the associated drivers. The conventional regression model can only analyze the correlation between land use types and driving factors, but cannot depict the spatial autocorrelation characteristics. Land uses in Yongding County, which is located in the typical karst mountain areas in northwestern Hunan province, were investigated by means of modeling the spatial autocorrelation of land use types with the purpose of deriving better spatial land use patterns on the basis of terrain characteristics and infrastructural conditions. Through incorporating components describing the spatial autocorrelation into a conventional logistic model, we constructed a regression model (Autologistic model), and used this model to simulate and analyze the spatial land use patterns in Yongding County. According to the comparison with the conventional logistic model without considering the spatial autocorrelation, this model showed better goodness and higher accuracy of fitting. The distribution of arable land, wood land, built-up land and unused land yielded areas under the ROC curves (AUC) was improved to 0.893, 0.940, 0.907 and 0.863 respectively with the autologistic model. It is argued that the improved model based on autologistic method was reasonable to a certain extent. Meanwhile, these analysis results could provide valuable information for modeling future land use change scenarios with actual conditions of local and regional land use, and the probability maps of land use types obtained from this study could also support government decision-making on land use management for Yongding County and other similar areas.