Based on the climatic data of 580 stations in China during 1956 and 2000, potential evapotranspiration are calculated using the Penman-Monteith Method recommended by FAO. The spatial and temporal distributions of the potential evapotranspiration over China and the temporal trends of the regional means for 10 major river basins and whole China are analyzed. Through a partial correlation analysis, the major climate factors which affect the temporal change of the potential evapotranspiration are analyzed. Major results are drawn as follows: 1) The seasonal and annual potential evapotranspiration for China as a whole and for most basins show decline tendencies during the past 45 years; for the Songhua River Basin there appears a slightly increasing trend. 2) Consequently, the annual potential evapotranspirations averaged over 1980-2000 are lower than those for the first water resources assessment (1956-1979) in most parts of China. Exceptions are found in some areas of Shandong Peninsula, western and middle basins of the rivers in Southwest China, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region as well as the source regions of the Yangtze and Yellow rivers, which may have brought about disadvantages to the exploration and utilization of water resources. 3) Generally, sunshine duration, wind speed and relative humidity have greater impact on the potential evapotranspiration than temperature. Decline tendencies of sunshine duration and/or wind speed in the same period appear to be the major causes for the negative trend of the potential evapotranspiration in most areas.
Based on the high temperature data of June to August in 1961-2000 in North China, the high temperature weather processes are investigated, and a more complete data set for severe high temperature processes is created. The climatic characteristics of adverse high temperature weather in Beijing, Tianjin, Shijiazhuang, Jinan and Taiyuan are analyzed respectively. The major features of the East-Asia Subtropical High and Transformed Continental High are discussed. The outcomes indicate that the influence of both East Asia Subtropical High and Transformed Continental High on these weather events varies, by a larger margin, from one city to another over North China and they are also closely related to the relative humidity. It is found that the behaviours of East-Asia Subtropical High and Transformed Continental High are the major important systems that give rise to the summer high temperature weather over the region. Based on these findings, the 5-day, 10-day and monthly assessment models for such high impact events have been developed. The assessment outcomes prove to be useful in assessing severe high-temperature events in major cities of North China.
A 51.85-m firn core collected from site DT001 (accumulation rate 127 kgm-2a-1, mean annual temperature -33.1 oC) on Princess Elizabeth Land, East Antarctica, during the 1996-97 Chinese First Antarctic Inland Expedition has been analyzed for chemical composition and oxygen isotope ratio. A comparison between the seasonal variations of major ions was carried out in order to reduce the dating uncertainty, using the volcanic markers as time constrains. A deposition period of 251 years was determined. The calculated accumulation rates display an increasing trend before 1820, while after 1820, the trend of the accumulation is not obvious. Overall, temperature change in the region shows a slight increasing trend over the past 250 years. But, notably, a temperature decline of -2 oC is observed from 1860 to the present. This feature, at odds with the warming trend over the past century recorded in both hemispheres, likely reflects a regional characteristic related to the lack of a high latitude/low latitude link in the Southern Hemisphere circulation patterns. The results of the glaciochemical records of the firn core show that the mean concentrations of Cl-, Na+ and Mg2+ are similar to those reported from other sites in East Antarctica. However, the mean concentration of Ca2+ is much higher than that reported from other regions, suggesting the influence of the strong local terrestrial sources in Princess Elizabeth Land. There is no evidence of a positive correlation between NO3- concentrations and solar activity (11-year solar cycle and solar cycle length), although solar proton events may account for some of the NO3- peak values in the record.
The microclimate of a desert oasis in hyperarid zone of China was monitored using micrometeorological methods and compared with those of areas adjacent to forested land. Differences in ground-level photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) on clear, cloudy and dust storm days and their subtending causes are analysed and discussed. Desert oases serve the ecological functions of altering solar radiation, adjusting near-ground and land surface temperatures, reducing soil temperature differences, lowering wind velocity, and increasing soil and atmospheric humidity. The total solar radiation in the interior of the oasis was roughly half of that outside a forest canopy. During the growing season, air temperatures in Populus euphratica Oliv. (poplar) and Tamarix ramosissima Ledeb. (tamarisk) forests were 1.62 °C and 0.83 °C lower respectively than those in the areas around the forests. Furthermore, the taller the forest cover, the greater the temperature drops; air temperatures in the upper storey were greater than those in the lower storey, i.e., air temperature rose with increasing height. Over the growing season, the relative humidities of the air in the poplar and tamarisk forests were 8.5% and 4.2% higher respectively than those in areas around the forests. Mean wind velocity in poplar-forested lands was 0.33 m s-1, 2.31 m s-1 lower than that in the surrounding area. During dust storm days the PAR was significantly lower than that on cloudy or clear days, when it was high and varied in an irregular manner.
The Danxia landform of Qiyun Mountain is mainly developed on the red granule conglomerates named Xiaoyan Group (K2x1) of middle Cretaceous series, which is controlled mainly by three faulted zones, namely, Jingdezhen-Qimen faulted zone, Jiangwan-Jiekou compressional faulted zone and Kaihua-Chun’an folding faulted zone. During the Cretaceous period, this area firstly experienced massif subsidence to become a continental faulted basin, then having thick Cretaceous red sediments accumulated on it. In the supervened neotectonism, this area experienced an uplifting process, which made the thick Cretaceous sediments into a mountain with an altitude of 500-600 m. After undergoing the processes of vertical joint development, weathering, denudation and transportation, as well as evidently differential weathering and denudation influenced by lithology and structure between sandstone and conglomerate, the grand Danxia landscape consisting of peak forests, steep cliffs, caves, mesas, castellated peaks, natural bridges and so on formed. The three nick points located respectively at 585 m, 400 m and 150 m generally reflect the three dominated uplifting processes during the neotectonism.
Based on multi-temporal remotely sensed materials of both 1985 and 2000, we analyzed the effects of land-use types and their conversions on desertification in Mu Us Sandy Land in the agro-pastoral transitional zone of north central China. In this study, the desertified land was classified into five degrees: potential, light, medium, severe and extreme. The results indicate that the extent of desertification expands slightly, while desertification degree is enhanced significantly. About 22.35% of the total land area in the study area is in the desertification course, and the expanded area of both severely and extremely desertified land accounts for 3.67% of the total area of Mu Us Sandy Land. About 9053 km2 of area witnessed changes in land-use types between 1985 and 2000, which accounted for 10.75% of the total. More importantly, the area of conversions among cultivated land, forestland and rangeland added up to 971.6 km2. This research reveals that both improper land-use types and conversions could accelerate the desertification process. Both cultivated land and forestland have more effects on the desertification development than rangeland. Some land-use type conversions, such as rangeland to cultivated land, rangeland to forestland and forestland to cultivated land, are attributed to the acceleration of the desertification development while the opposite can control the desertification development.
Supported by RS and GIS, the land use change from 1982 to 2003 were analyzed and the impacts of land use changes on pH value, organic matter, total N, total P, total K, available N, available P, and available K in soil of Xiaojiang watershed, a typical karst agricultural region of Yunnan Province, Southwest China were assessed. The following aspects are concluded. (1) The total land use converted during the past 20 years in Xiaojiang watershed covers an area of 610.12 km2, of which 134.29 km2 of forestland was converted into cultivated land, and 210 km2 of unused land was converted into cultivated land. (2) The rapid growth of population and the economic development were the main driving forces of land use change. (3) With the change in land use, the soil properties have been changed significantly. The pH, organic matter, total N, total P, total K, available N, available P and available K in soil in 1982 were 6.3, 38.02 g kg-1, 1.86 g kg-1, 1.63 g kg-1, 10.94 g kg-1, 114.42 g kg-1, 11.65 mg kg-1 and 64.69 mg kg-1g, respectively; and those in 2003 were 6.73, 25.26 g kg-1, 1.41 g kg-1, 0.99 g kg-1, 12.6 g kg-1, 113.43 mg kg-1, 11.11 mg kg-1 and 151.59 mg kg-1, respectively. Pared samples t-test of the tested indices of soil properties indicate that those indices have changed significantly during the last 20 years. But the soil properties changed differently, due to the differences in land use change. (4) Also, with the change in land use and management measures of soil, the modifications in soil properties which developed from carbonate rocks were more sensitive than those in the soil developed from sandstone.
Using NDVI data of NOAA-AVHRR in recent 20 years and the temperature and precipitation data of West China, the vegetation activity is discussed by adopting the EOF and REOF decomposed functions. Results show that the overall increasing trend of vegetation activity in different seasons reflects an advanced and prolonged growth period of vegetation under the circumstance of climate warming, but the vegetation evolvement has much inconsistency between different regions and seasons. There are four notable regions, eight sub-areas for vegetation evolvement in spring and summer, and nine sub-areas in autumn. The vegetation activity in most sub-areas is increasing. The most notable region is represented by Lhaze station on the Tibetan Plateau. Two other marked stations are represented by Altay station in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region and Pengshui station in Sichuan Province. But the time series analysis of NDVI makes clear that the trends of the other two sub-areas, Turpan station in Xinjiang and Huashan station in Shaanxi Province, are descending. It is an important reason for vegetation evolvement that temperature ascends in most of the regions and descends in the east region in some seasons. But another important reason for vegetation evolvement is that precipitation is ascending in the west and descending in the east of the region.
Water is a key restricting factor of the economic development and eco-environmental protection in arid inland river basins of Northwest China. Although water supplies are short, the water utilization structure and the corresponding industrial structure are unbalanced. We constructed a System Dynamic Model for mutual optimization based on the mechanism of their interaction. This model is applied to the Heihe River Basin where the share of limited water resources among ecosystem, production and human living is optimized. Results show that, by mutual optimization, the water utilization structure and the industrial structures fit in with each other. And the relationships between the upper, middle and lower reaches of the Heihe River Basin can be harmonized. Mutual benefits of ecology, society and economy can be reached, and a sustainable ecology-production-living system can be obtained. This study gives a new insight and method for the sustainable utilization of water resources in arid inland river basins.
The area that the railway will cross is a region with the main physiognomies of desert and Gobi, with a most fragile ecological environment. It is also a region that is highly susceptible to man-made disturbance. The construction of railway will intensify soil erosion along the railway line to a certain degree. The map of soil erosion conditions in the section from Liugou to Dunhuang City in the range of 10 km each side along the line was compiled by using the techniques of remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS). Based on analysis of the status of desertification and the influence of the railway construction projects, the changes of the types, intensities and the total amount of the soil erosion caused by the construction were predicted.
The monitored soil samples were collected from Heihui irrigated area, Jiaokou irrigated area, Qianhe river valley and Jinghe river valley (hereafter Heihui, Jiaokou, Qianhe and Jinghe for short respectively) of Guanzhong District. According to the Environment Quality Standard for Soil (GB15618-1995II), we evaluated the pollution status of heavy metals (Cd, As, Cr and Pb) that could seriously endanger soil environment and human health by using single-factor index and synthetic pollution index methods. The results indicate that the synthetic pollution indices P of soil heavy metals are less than 0.7 in Heihui, Jiaokou, Qianhe and Jinghe of Guanzhong, the single-factor indices Pi of soil heavy metals of most soil samples are less than 0.7, so the soil environmental quality is in a good condition in Guanzhong on the whole; the enrichment degree of soil heavy metals is in the order of Heihui, Jinghe, Qianhe and Jiaokou; the contaminated degree of soil heavy metals has the feature of Cd > As > Cr > Pb; heavy metals contents in the cultivated horizon soil are generally higher than those in its underlayer soil, heavy metals contents of soil have the characteristic of enriching towards the cultivated horizon; Cd exceeds standard in the soil samples HS07a, b and HS08a, b at the Yangtao orchard in Heihui and in the soil sample QHS01a at the suburban vegetable plot in Qianhe, which was mainly caused by the long-term irrational use of chemical fertilizer and pesticide.