Supported by MSS images in the mid and late 1970s, TM images in the early 1990s and TM/ETM images in 2004, grassland degradation in the “Three-River Headwaters” region (TRH region) was interpreted through analysis on RS images in two time series, then the spatial and temporal characteristics of grassland degradation in the TRH region were ana-lyzed since the 1970s. The results showed that grassland degradation in the TRH region was a continuous change process which had large affected area and long time scale, and rapidly strengthen phenomenon did not exist in the 1990s as a whole. Grassland degradation pattern in the TRH region took shape initially in the mid and late 1970s. Since the 1970s, this deg-radation process has taken place continuously, obviously characterizing different rules in different regions. In humid and semi-humid meadow region, grassland firstly fragmentized, then vegetation coverage decreased continuously, and finally “black-soil-patch” degraded grassland was formed. But in semi-arid and arid steppe region, the vegetation coverage de-creased continuously, and finally desertification was formed. Because grassland degradation had obviously regional differences in the TRH region, it could be regionalized into 7 zones, and each zone had different characteristics in type, grade, scale and time process of grass-land degradation.
Based on the acquaintance of the regional background of urban-rural transforma-tional development and investigations on the spot, this paper discusses the holistic situation, dominant factors and mechanism of arable land loss and land for construction occupation in the coastal area of China over the last decade, with the aid of GIS technology. Conclusions of the research are summarized as follows: (1) the arable land had been continuously de-creasing from 1996 to 2005, with a loss of 1,708,700 hm2 and an average decrement of 170,900 hm2 per year; (2) land for construction increased 1,373,700 hm2, with an average increment of 153,200 hm2 per year; (3) total area of encroachment on arable land for con-struction between 1996 and 2005 was 1,053,100 hm2, accounting for 34.03% of the arable land loss in the same period, the percentages of which used for industrial land (INL), trans-portation land (TRL), rural construction land (RUL) and town construction land (TOL) are 45.03%, 15.8%, 15.47% and 11.5%, respectively; and (4) the fluctuation of the increase of construction land and encroachment on arable land in the area were deeply influenced by the nation’s macroscopic land-use policies and development level of regional economy. The growth of population and advancement of technology promoted the rapid industrialization, construction of transportation infrastructures, rural urbanization and expansion of rural set-tlements in the eastern coastal area, and therefore were the primary driving forces of land-use conversion.
Based on the daily maximum temperature data covering the period 1961–2005, temporal and spatial characteristics and their changing in mean annual and monthly high temperature days (HTDs) and the mean daily maximum temperature (MDMT) during annual and monthly HTDs in East China were studied. The results show that the mean annual HTDs were 15.1 and the MDMT during annual HTDs was 36.3℃ in the past 45 years. Both the mean annual HTDs and the MDMT during annual HTDs were negative anomaly in the1980s and positive anomaly in the other periods of time, oscillating with a cycle of about 12–15 years. The mean annual HTDs were more in the southern part, but less in the northern part of East China. The MDMT during annual HTDs was higher in Zhejiang, Anhui and Jiangxi provinces in the central and western parts of East China. The high temperature process (HTP) was more in the southwestern part, but less in northeastern part of East China. Both the HTDs and the numbers of HTP were at most in July, and the MDMT during monthly HTDs was also the highest in July. In the first 5 years of the 21st century, the mean annual HTDs and the MDMT during annual HTDs increased at most of the stations, both the mean monthly HTDs and the MDMT during monthly HTDs were positive anomalies from April to October, the number of each type of HTP generally was at most and the MDMT in each type of HTP was also the highest.
The summer day-by-day precipitation data of 97 meteorological stations on the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau from 1961 to 2004 were selected to analyze the temporal-spatial dis-tribution through accumulated variance, correlation analysis, regression analysis, empirical orthogonal function, power spectrum function and spatial analysis tools of GIS. The result showed that summer precipitation occupied a relatively high proportion in the area with less annual precipitation on the Plateau and the correlation between summer precipitation and annual precipitation was strong. The altitude of these stations and summer precipitation ten-dency presented stronger positive correlation below 2000 m, with correlation value up to 0.604 (α=0.01). The subtracting tendency values between 1961–1983 and 1984–2004 at five altitude ranges (2000–2500 m, 2500–3000 m, 3500–4000 m, 4000–4500 m and above 4500 m) were above zero and accounted for 71.4% of the total. Using empirical orthogonal function, summer precipitation could be roughly divided into three precipitation pattern fields: the Southeast Plateau Pattern Field, the Northeast Plateau Pattern field and the Three Rivers' Headstream Regions Pattern Field. The former two ones had a reverse value from the north to the south and opposite line was along 35°N. The potential cycles of the three pattern fields were 5.33a, 21.33a and 2.17a respectively, tested by the confidence probability of 90%. The station altitudes and summer precipitation potential cycles presented strong negative corre-lation in the stations above 4500 m, with correlation value of –0.626 (α=0.01). In Three Rivers Headstream Regions summer precipitation cycle decreased as the altitude rose in the sta-tions above 3500 m and increased as the altitude rose in those below 3500 m. The empirical orthogonal function analysis in June precipitation, July precipitation and August precipitation showed that the June precipitation pattern field was similar to the July’s, in which southern Plateau was positive and northern Plateau negative. But positive value area in July precipita-tion pattern field was obviously less than June’s. The August pattern field was totally opposite to June’s and July’s. The positive area in August pattern field jumped from the southern Pla-teau to the northern Plateau.
This paper studies the variation of runoff of Red River Basin and discusses the influence of “corridor-barrier” functions of valleys and mountains on variation of runoff by using GIS and statistic methods based on the monthly precipitation, temperature and evaporation data from 1960 to 2000 at 32 meteorological stations in Red River Basin, and the annual runoff data of Yuanjiang River, Lixian River and Panlong River from 1956 to 2000. The results show out: (1) Under the effect of “corridor-barrier” functions of valleys and mountains in Red River Basin, the patterns of annual precipitation and runoff depth distribution in spatial change a NW–SE direction, which is similar with the trend of the Red River valley and Ailao mountains. (2) In the long temporal scale averaged over years, the most obvious effects of the “corridor-barrier” functions is on runoff variation, and the second is on the precipitation, but not obvious on the temperature. (3) Under the superposed effect of climate changes and the “corridor-barrier” functions of valleys and mountains in Red River Basin, the difference of runoff variation is obvious in the east–west direction: the runoff variation of Yuanjiang River along the Red River Fault present an ascending trend, but the Lixian River on the west side of the Fault and the Panlong River on the east present a descending trend; the annual runoff in Yuanjiang River and Panlong River had a quasi-5a periods, and Panlong River had a quasi-8a periods; the runoff variation are quite inconsistent in different periods among the three river basins.
In order to estimate the present-day pollution levels in the ecosystem of the Se-lenga River Delta and to monitor the changes caused by the discharge of household refuse and industrial wastes, as well as the functioning of the agricultural and stock farming, a comprehensive study of the water and bottom sediments in the main branches of the Selenga River Delta was carried out. This study has determined the concentrations of heavy metals in river water and bottom sediments in its delta.
Based on dynastic period division and AMS14C dating performed on the sedimen-tary layers at Zhongba and Yuxi sites, and also the analysis of Na, Ca and Mg of 201 sedi-mentary samples from Zhongba site and that of Ca and Na in 47 sedimentary samples from Yuxi by using an inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (ICP), we found that there were 35 time periods when the contents of Ca and Na were reversely correlated, i.e. when-ever the content of Ca was the highest, the content of Na was the lowest, and vice versa. Among them, there were 21 time periods when the content of Ca was the highest, and Na was the lowest, indicating that there were about 21 prosperous periods of ancient salt pro-duction at Zhongba site since 3000BC. Other 14 time periods with the peak values of Na while the low values of Ca indicate 14 declined periods of salt production at Zhongba site since 3000BC. The conclusion obtained from the reverse relationship between Ca and Na contents in this paper is consistent with that “the salt production at Zhongba site started in the new stone age, developed in the Xia and Shang dynasties, reached at the heyday in periods from the Western Zhou to the Han Dynasties, maintained stable to develop in the Tang and the Song dynasties, and gradually declined after the Song Dynasty because the sea salt were conveyed into Sichuan region, however, still had production in the 1970s–1980s”, educed from archeological exploration. All the above mentioned results indicate that there is a re-verse relationship obviously between the contents of Na and Ca in sediments at Zhongba site for ancient salt production, which can
The chemical weathering intensity and element migration features of the Xiashu loess profile in Zhenjiang are studied in this paper. (1) The Xiashu loess profile underwent moderate chemical weathering. It seems that the precipitation is a more important factor than the temperature in controlling the process of the chemical weathering. (2) The major elements such as Si, K, Na, Ca, Mg, Mn and P were migrated and leached, while the elements Fe and Ti were slightly enriched. The migration features of the major elements reveal that the Xiashu loess finished the primary process of chemical weathering characterized by leaching of Ca and Na, and almost reached the secondary process characterized by leaching of K. Except the elements Sr and Ga, other trace elements such as Th, Ba, Cu, Zn, Co, Ni, Cr and V were enriched. It might be caused by both the biogeochemical process and the adsorption of trace elements by clay mineral and organic materials. (3) The difference of element migration down the Xiashu loess profile reveals that the climate was warm and wet at the early-middle stage of the middle Pleistocene. At the end of the middle Pleistocene, it became dry and cool. At the early stage of the Late Pleistocene, the paleoclimate became warm and wet again. As a whole, the paleoclimate generally became drier and cooler in this region from the beginning of the middle Pleistocene.
A total of 219 agricultural soil and 48 vegetable samples were collected from the midstream and downstream of the Xiangjiang River (the Hengyang–Changsha section) in Hunan Province. The accumulation characteristics, spatial distribution and potential risk of heavy metals in the agricultural soils and vegetables were depicted. There are higher accu-mulations of heavy metals such as As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in agricultural soils, and the contents of Cd (2.44 mg kg-1), Pb (65.00 mg kg-1) and Zn (144.13 mg kg-1) are 7.97, 3.69 and 1.63 times the corresponding background contents in soils of Hunan Province, respectively. 13.2% of As, 68.5% of Cd, 2.7% of Cu, 2.7% of Ni, 8.7% of Pb and 15.1% of Zn in soil sam-ples from the investigated sites exceeded the maximum allowable heavy metal contents in the China Environmental Quality Standard for Soils (GB15618-1995, Grade II). The pollution characteristics of multi-metals in soils are mainly due to Cd. The contents of As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in vegetable soils are significantly higher than the contents in paddy soils. 95.8%, 68.8%, 10.4% and 95.8% of vegetable samples exceeded the Maximum Levels of Contami-nants in Foods (GB2762-2005) for As, Cd, Ni and Pb concentrations, respectively. There are significantly positive correlations between the concentrations of Cd, Pb and Zn in vegetables and the concentrations in the corresponding vegetable soils (p<0.01). It is very necessary to focus on the potential risk of heavy metals for food safety and human health in agricultural soils and vegetables in the midstream and downstream of the Xiangjiang River, Hunan Province of China.
For researching the spatio-temporal variation of the stable isotopic composition of the riverine dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), we had carried out a survey throughout the hydrologic year during which the δ13CDIC of the surface water and its physicochemical pa-rameter were examined along the Xijiang River Inner Estuarine waterway from September 2006 to June 2007. There was a striking seasonal variation on the average δ13CDIC, as the average δ13CDIC in summer (?13.91‰) or autumn (?13.09‰) was much less than those in spring (?11.71‰) or winter (?12.26‰). The riverine δ13CDIC was controlled by decomposed condition of the riverine organic matter linking the seasonal variation of the physicochemical parameter in the surface water according to the correlation analysis which indicated notable relations between δ13CDIC and water temperature (p = 0.000; r = ?0.569) or between δ13CDIC and oxide-reduction potential (p = 0.000; r = 0.646). The striking positive correlation between δ13CDIC and the sampling distance happened in the summer rainy season, while striking negative correlation happened in the spring dry season, indicating that river-sea interaction influenced water physicochemical parameters and controlled the riverine DIC property in the survey waterway. In view of the riverine δ13CDIC decreasing for the decomposition of the ter-restrial organic matter in the rainy season in summer and increasing for the briny invaded zone extending in the spring dry season along the waterway from the Makou gauging station to the Modaomen outlet, the δ13CDIC spatio-temporal variation was closely related to the geographical environment of the Xijiang drainage basin.
Based on the geochemical elements Rb and Sr in sediments with three different grain size fractions from profile H3 on the northern lacustrine bottomland 13 m above the Huangqihai Lake surface in 1986, the paper investigates the record of palaeolake stand state, sedimentary environmental evolution, and winter monsoon change. First, these samples are separated into three different grain size fractions, i.e., total sediments, 77–20 μm and <20 μm. Second, the chemical elements—Rb and Sr—of the grain size separation were tested and analyzed systematically in this paper. Then the elements compositions of these samples are measured using VP-320 mode fluorescence spectrum instrument, respectively. The magnetic susceptibility of these samples is measured using Kappabridge KLY-3 mode instrument made in Czech AGICO Company. The results showed the elements and the ratios varied regularly with the grain size. But the ratio of Rb/Sr in the sediments <20 μm correlates positively with the magnetic susceptibility of these samples. Therefore, the ratio of Rb/Sr in the fraction <20 μm from the lake sediments reflected the strengthening of the weathering in the deposition sites. It is a good indicator of the summer monsoon-induced weathering and pedogenesis fluctuations and can be used to reconstruct the conditions of the paleoclimate and paleoen-vironment.