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    The emerging cross-disciplinary studies of landscape ecology and biodiversity in China
    Zehao SHEN, Yiying LI, Kang YANG, Lifang CHEN
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2019, 29 (7): 1063-1080.   doi: 10.1007/s11442-019-1645-7
    Abstract279)   HTML52)    PDF (508KB)(283)      

    The spatiotemporal landscape heterogeneity implies multiple biodiversity mechanisms across scales, and the cross-disciplinary studies between landscape ecology and biodiversity are becoming a new research field in China. This paper briefly reviews the development of the field by comparing papers published in international journals and Chinese journals; then it investigates the differences in the trends and focuses between international and Chinese studies. We also introduce several study areas that have emerged over the last 10 years in this field, including metacommunity assembly, landscape genetics, biodiversity and ecosystem service relationship, and landscape planning for biodiversity conservation. The major advances emerging in this field in China over the past 5 years can be classified into six subject areas: 1) effects of urban landscape and urbanization on biodiversity; 2) altitudinal patterns of biodiversity in mountain landscapes; 3) effects of topographic heterogeneity on plant community assembly and species coexistence; 4) impacts of landscape patterns and processes on animal behaviors; 5) forest fires and spatiotemporal patterns of vegetation responses; and 6) landscape ecology applications in natural conservation planning and design. In an attempt to promote cross-field studies between geography and ecology, this special issue collected 10 research articles, involving multiple landscape types and biological assemblages, in order to explore the interaction between landscape features and biodiversity. We anticipate that the future development of this active front will be primarily driven by the application of novel information techniques and the realistic demands of sustainability issues, in addition to answering scientific questions cross scales.

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    Land use/land cover classification and its change detection using multi-temporal MODIS NDVI data
    USMAN M, LIEDL R, A SHAHID M, ABBAS A
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2015, 25 (12): 1479-1506.   doi: 10.1007/s11442-015-1247-y
    Abstract1379)   HTML3)    PDF (2804KB)(1856)      

    Detailed analysis of Land Use/Land Cover (LULC) using remote sensing data in complex irrigated basins provides complete profile for better water resource management and planning. Using remote sensing data, this study provides detailed land use maps of the Lower Chenab Canal irrigated region of Pakistan from 2005 to 2012 for LULC change detection. Major crop types are demarcated by identifying temporal profiles of NDVI using MODIS 250 m × 250 m spatial resolution data. Wheat and rice are found to be major crops in rabi and kharif seasons, respectively. Accuracy assessment of prepared maps is performed using three different techniques: error matrix approach, comparison with ancillary data and with previous study. Producer and user accuracies for each class are calculated along with kappa coefficients (K). The average overall accuracies for rabi and kharif are 82.83% and 78.21%, respectively. Producer and user accuracies for individual class range respectively between 72.5% to 77% and 70.1% to 84.3% for rabi and 76.6% to 90.2% and 72% to 84.7% for kharif. The K values range between 0.66 to 0.77 for rabi with average of 0.73, and from 0.69 to 0.74 with average of 0.71 for kharif. LULC change detection indicates that wheat and rice have less volatility of change in comparison with both rabi and kharif fodders. Transformation between cotton and rice is less common due to their completely different cropping conditions. Results of spatial and temporal LULC distributions and their seasonal variations provide useful insights for establishing realistic LULC scenarios for hydrological studies.

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    Cited: Baidu(67)
    A comprehensive assessment of urban vulnerability and its spatial differentiation in China
    Chuanglin FANG, Yan *WANG, Jiawen FANG
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2016, 26 (2): 153-170.   doi: 10.1007/s11442-016-1260-9
    Abstract328)   HTML3)    PDF (2519KB)(550)      

    The urban vulnerability poses a serious challenge to achieving sustainable development. With the concentration of the population and the economy, cities must manage the higher frequencies and risks of various hazards and are becoming more vulnerable. Research on the assessment and regulatory control of urban vulnerability is of great significance for both urbanization quality improvement and sustainable development in China or other countries in the world. Because of the complexity of cities and vulnerability concepts, existing studies have focused on different aspects of urban vulnerability. And the research content of urban vulnerability is scattered and relatively independent, leading to a lack of comparability among the research data and resulting in tremendous difficulties in summarizing the conclusions through comparison of independent research data. Therefore the goal of this study was to construct urban vulnerability index (UVI) from the perspective of sustainable development that could assess urban vulnerability comprehensively. In this study, we selected 10 subindexes involving 36 specific parameters from four aspects (resources, eco-environmental systems, economics, and social development) to construct a comprehensive index system. We also established the standard values of measurements. Then we take 288 prefecture-level cities in China as a study area and evaluate its overall urban vulnerability and its spatial differentiation. Results indicate that urban vulnerability of China has a remarkable spatial differentiation of both “gradient distribution” and “clustered distribution”; the extent of urban vulnerability corresponds to city size, the bigger the city, the lower its vulnerability; resource-based cities are more vulnerable than comprehensive cities; a city’s economic growth rate does not reflect the extent of its urban vulnerability. Further, we offer a few suggestions to cope with urban vulnerability in China.

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    Cited: Baidu(37)
    Impact of Holocene climate change on the prehistoric cultures of Zhejiang region, East China
    Li WU, Cheng ZHU, Chaogui ZHENG, Chunmei MA, Xinhao WANG, Feng LI, Bing LI, Kaifeng LI
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2014, 24 (4): 669-688.   doi: 10.1007/s11442-014-1112-4
    Abstract760)   HTML0)    PDF (7219KB)(757)      

    The temporal-spatial distribution features of prehistoric cultures since the Holocene in Zhejiang region were comparatively analyzed based on GIS spatial analysis. Results show that the prehistoric cultures expanded gradually in this region before 4000 cal. a BP. The notable expansions occurred twice, one in the Majiabang-Hemudu cultural period, the other in the Liangzhu cultural period. Meanwhile, the prehistoric cultures were disseminated from west to east coast along river valleys. After 4000 cal. a BP, as represented by the Maqiao Culture, the distributed area of each prehistoric culture contracted. This is obviously due to the termination of spreading trends to east coast, which was simultaneously accompanied by two different modes of production and economic transitions in the north and south Zhejiang region respectively. The distribution of prehistoric cultures was closely related with Holocene sea-level fluctuations, especially on the banks of Hangzhou Bay, where the distribution changes of prehistoric cultural sites were greatly affected by sea-level changes, with the closest relationships between them. After 7000 cal. a BP, the process of lowered sea-level and regression-epeirogenesis provided wider terrestrial living spaces for prehistoric inhabitants. Based on the comparative analyses of the changes of prehistoric cultures and the environmental evolution information recorded in the Qianmutian subalpine peat of Mt. Tianmu and muddy area on the inner shelf of the East China Sea, it is indicated that the changes of prehistoric cultures were synchronized with environmental changes in Zhejiang region. Before 4000 cal. a BP, the eastward expansion of prehistoric cultures in Zhejiang occurred under the background of the Holocene Optimum, and was the expansion and extension under the joint influences of agricultural civilization and maritime civilization. However, after 4000 cal. a BP, the geographical contraction of prehistoric cultures in Zhejiang occurred under the background of dry-cold climate trend and deterioration of coastal marine environment. It is evidenced from the above fact that the development, expansion and contraction of prehistoric cultures are positively correlated to environmental change. The change of the climatic environment is just the underlying reason for these changes and transitions of production modes and economic forms. Therefore, the climatic environment is the dominant factor of prehistoric culture vicissitudes in Zhejiang region, which has exerted great influence on distribution, dissemination, expansion and transmutation of the culture.

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    Cited: Baidu(9)
    RS analysis of glaciers change in the Heihe River Basin, Northwest China, during the recent decades
    Baojuan HUAI, Zhongqin LI, Shengjie WANG, Meiping SUN, Ping ZHOU, Yan XIAO
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2014, 24 (6): 993-1008.   doi: 10.1007/s11442-014-1133-z
    Abstract828)   HTML2)    PDF (5136KB)(900)      

    The Heihe River Basin is the second largest inland river basin in Northwest China and it is also a hotspot in arid hydrology, water resources and other aspects of researches in cold regions. In addition, the Heihe River Basin has complete landscape, moderate watershed size, and typical social ecological environmental problems. So far, there has been no detailed assessment of glaciers change information of the whole river basin. 1:50,000 topographic map data, Landsat TM/ETM+ remote sensing images and digital elevation model data were used in this research. Through integrated computer automatic interpretation and visual interpretation methods, the object-oriented image feature extraction method was applied to extract glacier outline information. Glaciers change data were derived from analysis, and the glacier variation and its response to climate change in the period 1956/1963-2007/ 2011 were also analyzed. The results show that: (1) In the period 1956/1963-2007/2011, the Heihe River Basin’s glaciers had an evident retreat trend, the total area of glaciers decreased from 361.69 km2 to 231.17 km2; shrinking at a rate of 36.08%, with average single glacier area decrease 0.14 km2; the total number of the glaciers decreased from 967 to 800. (2) Glaciers in this basin are mainly distributed at elevations of 4300-4400 m, 4400-4500 m and 4500-4600 m; and there are significant regional differences in glaciers distribution and glaciers change. (3) Compared with other western mountain glaciers, glaciers retreat in the Heihe River Basin has a higher rate. (4) Analysis of the six meteorological stations’ annual average temperature and precipitation data from 1960 to 2010 suggests that the mean annual temperature increased significantly and the annual precipitation also showed an increasing trend. It is concluded that glacier shrinkage is closely related with temperature rising, besides, glacier melting caused by rising temperatures greater than glacier mass supply by increased precipitation to some extent.

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    Cited: Baidu(11)
    A review on evapotranspiration data assimilation based on hydrological models
    Qingqing DONG, Chesheng *ZHAN, Huixiao WANG, Feiyu WANG, Mingcheng ZHU
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2016, 26 (2): 230-242.   doi: 10.1007/s11442-016-1265-4
    Abstract332)   HTML2)    PDF (308KB)(433)      

    Accurate estimation of evapotranspiration (ET), especially at the regional scale, is an extensively investigated topic in the field of water science. The ability to obtain a continuous time series of highly precise ET values is necessary for improving our knowledge of fundamental hydrological processes and for addressing various problems regarding the use of water. This objective can be achieved by means of ET data assimilation based on hydrological modeling. In this paper, a comprehensive review of ET data assimilation based on hydrological modeling is provided. The difficulties and bottlenecks of using ET, being a non-state variable, to construct data assimilation relationships are elaborated upon, with a discussion and analysis of the feasibility of assimilating ET into various hydrological models. Based on this, a new easy-to-operate ET assimilation scheme that includes a water circulation physical mechanism is proposed. The scheme was developed with an improved data assimilation system that uses a distributed time-variant gain model (DTVGM), and the ET-soil humidity nonlinear time response relationship of this model. Moreover, the ET mechanism in the DTVGM was improved to perfect the ET data assimilation system. The new scheme may provide the best spatial and temporal characteristics for hydrological states, and may be referenced for accurate estimation of regional evapotranspiration.

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    Cited: Baidu(4)
    The implication of mass elevation effect of the Tibetan Plateau for altitudinal belts
    Yonghui YAO, Mei XU, Baiping ZHANG
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2015, 25 (12): 1411-1422.   doi: 10.1007/s11442-015-1242-3
    Abstract837)   HTML0)    PDF (1621KB)(1137)      

    The heating effect (or mass elevation effect, MEE) of the Tibetan Plateau (TP) is intense due to its massive body. Some studies have been undertaken on its role as the heat source in summer and its implications for Asian climate, but little has been known of the implications of its MEE for the distribution of mountain altitudinal belts (MABs). Using air temperature data observed and remotely sensed data, MAB/treeline data, and ASTER GDEM data, this paper compares the height of MABs and alpine treelines in the main TP and the surrounding mountains/lowland and explains the difference from the point of view of MEE. The results demonstrate: 1) at same elevation, air temperature and the length of growing season gradually increase from the eastern edge to the interior TP, e.g., at 4500 m (corresponding to the mean altitude of the TP), the monthly mean temperature is 3.58°C higher (April) to 6.63°C higher (June) in the interior plateau than in the Sichuan Basin; the 10°C isotherm for the warmest month goes upward from the edge to the interior of the plateau, at 4000 m in the Qilian Mts. and the eastern edges of the plateau, and up to 4600-5000 m in Lhasa and Zuogong; the warmth index at an altitude of 4500 m can be up to 15°C·month in the interior TP, but much lower at the eastern edges. 2) MABs and treeline follow a similar trend of rising inwards: dark-coniferous forest is 1000-1500 m higher and alpine steppe is about 700-900 m higher in the interior TP than at the eastern edges.

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    Cited: Baidu(2)
    Contamination and health risk assessment of heavy metals in road dust in Bayan Obo Mining Region in Inner Mongolia, North China
    Kexin LI, Tao LIANG, Zhiping YANG, Zhiping YANG
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2015, 25 (12): 1439-1451.   doi: 10.1007/s11442-015-1244-1
    Abstract911)   HTML0)    PDF (1766KB)(1126)      

    The objective of this study was to investigate the concentration and spatial distribution patterns of 9 potentially toxic heavy metal elements (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Pb, Cu, Zn, Mn, and Ni) in road dust in the Bayan Obo Mining Region in Inner Mongolia, China. Contamination levels were evaluated using the geoaccumulation index and the enrichment factor. Human health risks for each heavy metal element were assessed using a human exposure model. Results showed that the dust contained significantly elevated heavy metal elements concentrations compared with the background soil. The spatial distribution pattern of all tested metals except for As coincided with the locations of industrial areas while the spatial distribution of As was associated with domestic sources. The contamination evaluation indicated that Cd, Pb, and Mn in road dust mainly originated from anthropogenic sources with a rating of “heavily polluted” to “extremely polluted,” whereas the remaining metals originated from both natural and anthropogenic sources with a level of “moderately polluted”. The non-cancer health risk assessment showed that ingestion was the primary exposure route for all metals in the road dust and that Mn, Cr, Pb, and As were the main contributors to non-cancer risks in both children and adults. Higher HI values were calculated for children (HI=1.89), indicating that children will likely experience higher health risks compared with adults (HI=0.23). The cancer risk assessment showed that Cr was the main contributor, with cancer risks which were 2-3 orders of magnitude higher than those for other metals. Taken in concert, the non-cancer risks posed by all studied heavy metal elements and the cancer risks posed by As, Co, Cr, Cd, and Ni to both children and adults in Bayan Obo Mining Region fell within the acceptable range.

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    Cited: Baidu(17)
    Water resource utilization efficiency and spatial spillover effects in China
    Caizhi SUN, Liangshi ZHAO, Wei ZOU, Defeng ZHENG
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2014, 24 (5): 771-788.   doi: 10.1007/s11442-014-1119-x
    Abstract576)   HTML1)    PDF (973KB)(655)      

    Based on provincial panel data of water footprint and grey water footprint, and with the help of data envelopment analysis model considering and without considering the undesirable output, this paper estimates the water resources utilization efficiency in China from 1997 to 2011. The spatial weighting matrix based on economy-spatial distance function is established to discuss spatial autocorrelation of water resources utilization efficiency. With the help of absolute β-convergence model, this paper concludes that there exists β-convergence in the water resources utilization efficiency. Under the conditions of considering and without considering the undesirable output, it takes about 52.6 and 5.6 years respectively to achieve the extent of half of convergence. By mean of the spatial Durbin econometric model, this paper studies spatial spillover effects of the provincial water resources utilization efficiency in China. The results are as follows. 1) With considering and without considering the undesirable output, there is significant spatial correlation in provincial water resource efficiency in China. 2) Under the two cases, the spatial autoregressive coefficients (ρ) are 0.278 and 0.507 respectively, at 1% significance level. There exist the spatial spillover effects of provincial water resources utilization efficiency. 3) With considering the undesirable output, these factors of the education funds, the transportation infrastructure, and the industrial and agricultural water consumption proportion have positive impacts. These factors of foreign direct investment, the industry value-added water consumption per ten thousand yuan, per capita water consumption, and the total precipitation have negative impacts. 4) Without considering the undesirable output, the factor of GDP per laborer has a greater positive significant influence on the water resources utilization efficiency. However the facts of industry value-added water consumption in ten thousand yuan and the transportation infrastructure have no significant influence. 5) Regardless of undesirable output of water resources utilization efficiency, the assessment of the present real water resources utilization in China will be distorted and policy-making will be misled. The water efficiency measure considering environmental factors (such as gray water footprint) is more reasonable.

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    Rural vitalization in China: A perspective of land consolidation
    Hualou LONG, Yingnan ZHANG, Shuangshuang TU
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2019, 29 (4): 517-530.   doi: 10.1007/s11442-019-1599-9
    Abstract70)   HTML5)    PDF (448KB)(160)      

    The core objective of rural vitalization is to systemically establish a coupling pattern of various rural development elements including population, land and industry. As one of the prerequisites, land resources is required to be optimally allocated via land consolidation. Consequently, land consolidation contributes greatly to population agglomeration, industrial development and resources support under the context of combating rural decline. Based on the key elements affecting rural development, this paper elaborates the connotation of rural vitalization and land consolidation in the new era as well as their relationships. Furthermore, the paper analyzes the alternative paths for achieving rural vitalization via land consolidation, and discusses the future directions of land consolidation and rural vitalization. The conclusions are drawn as follows: (1) To cope with the loss and decline of the intrinsic elements in rural areas, rural vitalization is a development strategy aimed at realizing economic, political, cultural and ecological rejuvenation in rural area by reshaping socio-economic morphology and spatial pattern in rural territory. (2) From the perspective of rural vitalization, land consolidation is endowed with new connotation, which should not only target at activating the key elements of rural development, but also place emphasis on coordinating material space and spirit core as well as integrating the restructuring of the physical space and the rural governance system. (3) Land consolidation should be compatible with regional natural conditions and the current stage of socio-economic development. According to the principle of regional planning and classification strategy, the appropriate models and paths should be adopted to promote the benign interactions of population, land and industry based on engineering techniques and ecological means. (4) Under the background of national strategy of rural vitalization, it is necessary to reshape the value orientation of land consolidation based on a scientific understanding of urban-rural relations and rural territorial functions, coordinate land consolidation planning and rural vitalization planning under the unified spatial planning system, and explore the new model combining land consolidation and multifunctional agriculture.

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    Identifying multispecies dispersal corridor priorities based on circuit theory: A case study in Xishuangbanna, Southwest China
    Yijie YIN, Shiliang LIU, Yongxiu SUN, Shuang ZHAO, Yi AN, Shikui DONG, COXIXO Ana
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2019, 29 (7): 1228-1242.   doi: 10.1007/s11442-019-1655-5
    Abstract115)   HTML7)    PDF (3613KB)(73)      

    Ecological corridor networks can efficiently improve regional landscape connectivity. Corridors for multiple faunal species movements are receiving increasing attention and graph theory is considered a promising way to explore landscape connectivity. In Xishuangbanna, the circuit theory was applied to explore the corridor networks for biodiversity for the first time. In addition, disturbances caused by the road network and the protection efficiency of National Nature Reserves and planned area for corridors were evaluated. Results indicated that the regional corridor networks could be estimated using a modified circuit method and Zonation model. Spatially, the key corridors were concentrated in the central-western, southeastern and northern regions. We detected 66 main intersections between key corridors and the road buffer. Of these points, 65% are forest, 23% grassland and 12% farmland. More than half of the area of National Nature Reserves constituted the top 50% of the corridors, and the planned corridor areas could efficiently protect some key corridors. However, these reserves only protected about 17% of regional key corridors, and the corridor conservation area in the western and northern regions were absent. The issues addressed in our study aided in the elucidation of the importance of regional landscape connectivity assessments and operational approaches in conservation planning.

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    Spatial differences and driving forces of land urbanization in China
    Xueqin LIN, Yang WANG, Shaojian WANG, Dai WANG
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2015, 25 (5): 545-558.   doi: 10.1007/s11442-015-1186-7
    Abstract844)   HTML1)    PDF (719KB)(780)      

    Land urbanization plays an important supporting and restriction role in the rapid and sustainable development of urbanization in China, and it shows distinctive spatial heterogeneity. Applying urban area as the basic research unit and urban construction land area as the core indicator, this paper establishes the conceptual framework and calculation method for the quantity and rate of land urbanization process. The study evaluates the spatial differentiation pattern of absolute and relative process of land urbanization in 658 cities in China from 2000 to 2010. The spatial distribution of cities with rapid land urbanization process is discussed, and the contribution rate and its spatial heterogeneity of major land use types are examined with the aid of GIS. The main conclusions are as follows: (1) Land urbanization in China shows a clear spatial difference. The greater the city scale, the faster its land urbanization. The cities with rapid land urbanization show a significant pattern of central distribution in coastal regions and a scattered distribution in the inland regions. (2) Over the last 10 years, the average quantity of land urbanization in the 656 cities was 3.82 km2, the quantity of land urbanization is differentiated by administrative grade. The average rate of land urbanization was 6.89%, obviously faster than the speed of population urbanization. The rate of land urbanization reveals a pattern of differentiation between coastal and other cities. (3) In the past 10 years, the two primary land use types associated with land urbanization in China are residential and industrial, with a combined contribution rate of 52.49%. The greater the scale of the city, the more significant the driving effect of industrial land. In small- and medium-scale cities of the western and central regions, the growth of residential land is the primary driver of land urbanization, while in coastal urban agglomerations and cities on important communication axes, the growth of industrial land is the main driver. (4) Overall, urban population agglomeration, industrial growth and investment are the three drivers of land urbanization in China, but cities of different scales have different drivers.

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    A review on trade-off analysis of ecosystem services for sustainable land-use management
    Xiangzheng DENG, Zhihui LI, GIBSON John
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2016, 26 (7): 953-968.   doi: 10.1007/s11442-016-1309-9
    Abstract789)   HTML16)    PDF (246KB)(1383)      

    Ecosystem services are substantial elements for human society. The central challenge to meet the human needs from ecosystems while sustain the Earth’s life support systems makes it urgent to enhance efficient natural resource management for sustainable ecological and socioeconomic development. Trade-off analysis of ecosystem services can help to identify optimal decision points to balance the costs and benefits of the diverse human uses of ecosystems. In this sense, the aim of this paper is to provide key insights into ecosystem services trade-off analysis at different scales from a land use perspective, by comprehensively reviewing the trade-offs analysis tools and approaches that addressed in ecology, economics and other fields. The review will significantly contribute to future research on trade-off analysis to avoid inferior management options and offer a win-win solution based on comprehensive and efficient planning for interacting multiple ecosystem services.

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    Cited: Baidu(21)
    Grassland coverage inter-annual variation and its coupling relation with hydrothermal factors in China during 1982-2010
    Wei ZHOU, Chengcheng GANG, Yizhao CHEN, Shaojie MU, Zhengguo SUN, Jianlong LI
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2014, 24 (4): 593-611.   doi: 10.1007/s11442-014-1108-0
    Abstract969)   HTML4)    PDF (9023KB)(1258)      

    GIMMS (Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies) NDVI (Normalised Difference Vegetation Index) from 1982 to 2006 and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) NDVI from 2001 to 2010 were blended to extract the grass coverage and analyze its spatial pattern. The response of grass coverage to climatic variations at annual and monthly time scales was analyzed. Grass coverage distribution had increased from northwest to southeast across China. During 1982-2010, the mean nationwide grass coverage was 34% but exhibited apparent spatial heterogeneity, being the highest (61.4%) in slope grasslands and the lowest (17.1%) in desert grasslands. There was a slight increase of the grass coverage with a rate of 0.17% per year. Increase in slope grasslands coverage was as high as 0.27% per year, while in the plain grasslands and meadows the grass coverage increase was the lowest (being 0.11% per year and 0.1% per year, respectively). Across China, the grass coverage with extremely significant increase (P<0.01) and significant increase (P<0.05) accounted for 46.03% and 11% of the total grassland area, respectively, while those with extremely significant and significant decrease accounted for only 4.1% and 3.24%, respectively. At the annual time scale, there are no significant correlations between grass coverage and annual mean temperature and precipitation. However, the grass coverage was somewhat affected by temperature in alpine and sub-alpine grassland, alpine and sub-alpine meadow, slope grassland and meadow, while grass coverage in desert grassland and plain grassland was more affected by precipitation. At the monthly time-scale, there are significant correlations between grass coverage with both temperature and precipitation, indicating that the grass coverage is more affected by seasonal fluctuations of hydrothermal conditions. Additionally, there is one-month time lag-effect between grass coverage and climate factors for each grassland types.

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    Cited: Baidu(19)
    Spatial pattern and its evolution of Chinese provincial population: Methods and empirical study
    Yu DENG, Shenghe LIU, Jianming CAI, Xi LU, P NIELSEN Chris
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2015, 25 (12): 1507-1520.   doi: 10.1007/s11442-015-1248-x
    Abstract830)   HTML0)    PDF (879KB)(983)      

    China has been experiencing an unprecedented urbanization process. In 2011, China’s urban population reached 691 million with an urbanization rate of 51.27%. Urbanization level is expected to increase to 70% in China in 2030, reflecting the projection that nearly 300 million people would migrate from rural areas to urban areas over this period. At the same time, the total fertility rate of China’s population is declining due to the combined effect of economic growth, environmental carrying capacity, and modern social consciousness. The Chinese government has loosened its “one-child policy” gradually by allowing childbearing couples to have the second child as long as either of them is from a one-child family. In such rapidly developing country, the natural growth and spatial migration will consistently reshape spatial pattern of population. An accurate prediction of the future spatial pattern of population and its evolution trend are critical to key policy-making processes and spatial planning in China including urbanization, land use development, ecological conservation and environmental protection. In this paper, a top-down method is developed to project the spatial distribution of China’s future population with considerations of both natural population growth at provincial level and the provincial migration from 2010 to 2050. Building on this, the spatial pattern and evolution trend of Chinese provincial population are analyzed. The results suggested that the overall spatial pattern of Chinese population will be unlikely changed in next four decades, with the east area having the highest population density and followed by central area, northeast and west area. Four provinces in the east, Shanghai, Beijing, Tianjin and Jiangsu, will remain the top in terms of population density in China, and Xinjiang, Qinghai and Tibet will continue to have the lowest density of population. We introduced an index system to classify the Chinese provinces into three categories in terms of provincial population densities: Fast Changing Populated Region (FCPR), Low Changing Populated Region (LCPR) and Inactive Populated Region (IPR). In the FCPR, China’s population is projected to continue to concentrate in net immigration leading type (NILT) area where receives nearly 99% of new accumulated floating population. Population densities of Shanghai, Beijing, Zhejiang will peak in 2030, while the population density in Guangdong will keep increasing until 2035. Net emigration leading type (NELT) area will account for 75% of emigration population, including Henan, Anhui, Chongqing and Hubei. Natural growth will play a dominant role in natural growth leading type area, such as Liaoning and Shandong, because there will be few emigration population. Due to the large amount of moving-out labors and gradually declining fertility rates, population density of the LCPR region exhibits a downward trend, except for Fujian and Hainan. The majority of the western provinces will be likely to remain relatively low population density, with an average value of no more than 100 persons per km2.

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    Cited: Baidu(25)
    Construction and progress of Chinese terrestrial ecosystem carbon, nitrogen and water fluxes coordinated observation
    Guirui YU, Wei REN, Zhi CHEN, Leiming ZHANG, Qiufeng WANG, Xuefa WEN, Nianpeng HE, Li ZHANG, Huajun FANG, Xianjin ZHU, Yang GAO, Xiaomin SUN
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2016, 26 (7): 803-826.   doi: 10.1007/s11442-016-1300-5
    Abstract691)   HTML8)    PDF (3439KB)(861)      

    Eddy Covariance technique (EC) achieves the direct measurement on ecosystem carbon, nitrogen and water fluxes, and it provides scientific data for accurately assessing ecosystem functions in mitigating global climate change. This paper briefly reviewed the construction and development of Chinese terrestrial ecosystem flux observation and research network (ChinaFLUX), and systematically introduced the design principle and technology of the terrestrial ecosystem carbon, nitrogen and water fluxes coordinated observation system of ChinaFLUX. In addition, this paper summarized the main progress of ChinaFLUX in the ecosystem carbon, nitrogen and water exchange and environmental controlling mechanisms, the spatial pattern of carbon, nitrogen and water fluxes and biogeographical mechanisms, and the regional terrestrial ecosystem carbon budget assessment. Finally, the prospects and emphases of the terrestrial ecosystem carbon, nitrogen and water fluxes coordinated observation of ChinaFLUX are put forward to provide theoretical references for the development of flux observation and research in China.

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    Cited: Baidu(5)
    Hydrological processes of glacier and snow melting and runoff in the Urumqi River source region, eastern Tianshan Mountains, China
    Meiping SUN, Xiaojun YAO, Zhongqin LI, Mingjun ZHANG
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2015, 25 (2): 149-164.   doi: 10.1007/s11442-015-1159-x
    Abstract1114)   HTML13)    PDF (1210KB)(1407)      

    Hydrological processes were compared, with and without the influence of precipitation on discharge, to identify the differences between glacierized and non-glacierized catchments in the Urumqi River source region, on the northern slope of the eastern Tianshan Mountains, during the melting season (May-September) in 2011. The study was based on hydrological data observed at 10-min intervals, meteorological data observed at 15-min intervals, and glacier melting and snow observations from the Empty Cirque, Zongkong, and Urumqi Glacier No.1 gauging stations. The results indicated that the discharge differed markedly among the three gauging stations. The daily discharge was more than the nightly discharge at the Glacier No.1 gauging station, which contrasted with the patterns observed at the Zongkong and Empty Cirque gauging stations. There was a clear daily variation in the discharge at the three gauging stations, with differences in the magnitude and duration of the peak discharge. When precipitation was not considered, the time-lags between the maximum discharge and the highest temperature were 1-3 h, 10-16 h, and 5-11 h at the Glacier No.1, Empty Cirque, and Zongkong gauging stations, respectively. When precipitation was taken into consideration, the corresponding time-lags were 0-1 h, 13 h, and 6-7 h, respectively. Therefore, the duration from the generation of discharge to confluence was the shortest in the glacierized catchment and the longest in the catchment where was mainly covered by snow. It was also shown that the hydrological process from the generation of discharge to confluence shortened when precipitation was considered. The factors influencing changes in the discharge among the three gauging stations were different. For Glacier No.1 station, the discharge was mainly controlled by heat conditions in the glacierized region, and the discharge displayed an accelerated growth when the temperature exceeded 5°C in the melt season. It was found that the englacial and subglacial drainage channel of Glacier No.1 had become simpler during the past 20 years. Its weaker retardance and storage of glacier melting water resulted in rapid discharge confluence. It was also shown that the discharge curve and the time-lag between the maximum discharge and the highest temperature could be used to reveal the evolution of the drainage system and the process of glacier and snow melting at different levels of glacier coverage.

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    Cited: Baidu(6)
    Evolving a core-periphery pattern of manufacturing industries across Chinese provinces
    Qiliang MAO, Fei WANG, Jun LI, Suocheng DONG
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2014, 24 (5): 924-942.   doi: 10.1007/s11442-014-1129-8
    Abstract531)   HTML2)    PDF (687KB)(673)      

    This paper, concerning uneven development in China, empirically analyzes the core-periphery gradient of manufacturing industries across provinces (autonomous regions, municipalities), and assesses the extent to which these provinces have changed in recent years. Since China’s reform and opening-up, the spatial structure of the economy has presented a significant core-periphery pattern, the core evidently skewing towards east-coastal areas. With the deepening of market reforms and expansion of globalization, industrial location is gradually in line with the development advantages of provinces. The core provinces specialize in those industries characterized by strong forward and backward linkages, as well as a high consumption ratio, a high degree of increasing returns to scale, and labor or human-capital intensity. However, it is the opposite with regard to peripheral provinces, in addition, energy intensive industries are gradually concentrating in these areas. To a certain degree, the comparative advantage theory and new economic geography identify the underlying forces that determine the spatial distribution of manufacturing industries in China. This paper indicates that the industrialization of regions along different gradients becomes unsynchronized will be a long-term trend. Within a certain period, regions are bound to develop industrial sectors in line with their respective characteristics and development stage. A core-periphery pattern of industries also indicates that industrial development differentials across regions arise because of not only the uneven distribution of industries but also the inconsistent evolving trends of industrial structure for each province.

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    Cited: Baidu(7)
    Anthropogenic effect on forest landscape pattern and Cervidae habitats in northeastern China
    Wen WU, Yuehui LI, Yuanman HU, Yu CHANG, Zaiping XIONG
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2019, 29 (7): 1098-1112.   doi: 10.1007/s11442-019-1647-5
    Abstract141)   HTML9)    PDF (778KB)(94)      

    Species abundance and habitat distribution are two important aspects of species conservation studies and both are affected by similar environmental factors. Forest resource inventory data in 2010 were used to evaluate the patterns of habitat for target species of Cervidae in six typical forestry bureaus of the Yichun forest area in the Lesser Xing’an Mountains, northeastern China. A habitat suitability index (HSI) model was used based on elevation, slope, aspect, vegetation and age of tree. These five environmental factors were selected by boosted regression tree (BRT) analysis from 14 environmental variables collected during field surveys. Changes in habitat caused by anthropogenic activities mainly involving settlement and road factors were also considered. The results identified 1780.49 km2 of most-suitable and 1770.70 km2 of unsuitable habitat areas under natural conditions, covering 16.38% and 16.29% of the entire study area, respectively. The area of most-suitable habitat had been reduced by 4.86% when human interference was taken into account, whereas the unsuitable habitat area had increased by 11.3%, indicating that anthropogenic disturbance turned some potential habitats into unsuitable ones. Landscape metrics indicated that average patch area declined while patch density and edge density increased. This suggests that as habitat becomes fragmented and its quality becomes degraded by human activities, cervid populations will be threatened with extirpation. The study helped identify the spatial extent of habitat influenced by anthropogenic interference for the local cervid population. As cervid species clearly avoid human activities, more attention should be paid on considering the way and intensity of human activities for habitat management as fully as possible.

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    How forest gaps shaped plant diversity along an elevational gradient in Wolong National Nature Reserve?
    Li CHEN, Wangya HAN, Dan LIU, Guohua LIU
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2019, 29 (7): 1081-1097.   doi: 10.1007/s11442-019-1646-6
    Abstract114)   HTML18)    PDF (1204KB)(94)      

    Understanding the underlying ecological processes that control plant diversity within (α-diversity) and among (β-diversity) forest gaps is important for managing natural forest ecosystems, and it is also a prerequisite for identifying the formation and maintenance mechanisms of forest plant communities. In this study, we focused on the interrelationships among habitat type (gap/non-gap plots), gap size, elevation and environmental factors, and we explored their effects on plant diversity (α-diversity and β-diversity). To do this, a total of 21 non-gap (i.e., closed canopy) plots (100 m2) and 63 gap plots, including 21 with large gaps (200-410 m2), 21 with medium gaps (100-200 m2) and 21 with small gaps (38.5- 100 m2),were selected along an elevational gradient in a subalpine coniferous forest of southwestern China. Using structural equation models (SEMs), we analyzed how forest gaps affected plant diversity (α-diversity and β-diversity) along an elevational gradient. The results showed that (1) as elevation increased, unimodal patterns of α-diversity were found in different-sized gaps, and β-diversity showed a consistent sinusoidal function pattern in different-sized gaps. The gap size was positively related to α-diversity, but this effect disappeared above 3500 masl. Moreover, the patterns of α-diversity and β-diversity in non-gap plots were irregular along the elevational gradient. (2) SEMs demonstrated that many environmental factors, such as the annual mean air temperature (AMAT), ultraviolet-A radiation (365 nm, UV-A365), ultraviolet-B1 radiation (297 nm, UV-B297), moss thickness (MT), soil carbon/nitrogen ratio (C/N ratio), NH4-N and NO3-N, were significantly affected by elevation, which then affected α-diversity and β-diversity. The photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD), UV-A365 and UV-B297 were significantly higher in plots with forest gaps than in the non-gap plots. Moreover, the PPFD and UV-A365 were positively and directly affected by gap size. Surprisingly, except for the NH4-N and the C/N ratios, the below-ground environmental factors showed little or no relationships with forest gaps. All of these effects contributed to plant diversity. Overall, the above-ground environmental factors were more sensitive to gap-forming disturbances than the below-ground environmental factors, which affected α-diversity and β-diversity. The predicted pathway in the SEMs of the elevational effects on α-diversity and β-diversity was relatively complicated compared with the effects of forest gaps. These results can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms driving the diversity-habitat relationship in the subalpine coniferous forests of southwestern China.

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    The driving effects of urbanization on economic growth and water use change in China: A provincial-level analysis in 1997-2011
    Chao BAO, Xiaojie CHEN
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2015, 25 (5): 530-544.   doi: 10.1007/s11442-015-1185-8
    Abstract728)   HTML1)    PDF (943KB)(733)      

    As one of the key issues in China’s sustainable development, rapid urbanization and continuous economic growth are accompanied by a steady increase of water consumption and a severe urban water crisis. A better understanding of the relationship among urbanization, economic growth and water use change is necessary for Chinese decision makers at various levels to address the positive and negative effects of urbanization. Thus, we established a complete decomposition model to quantify the driving effects of urbanization on economic growth and water use change for China and its 31 provincial administrative regions during the period of 1997-2011. The results show that, (1) China’s urbanization only contributed about 30% of the economic growth. Therefore, such idea as urbanization is the major driving force of economic growth may be weakened. (2) China’s urbanization increased 2352×108 m3 of water use by increasing the economic aggregate. However, it decreased 4530×108 m3 of water use by optimizing the industrial structure and improving the water use efficiency. Therefore, such idea as urbanization is the major driving force of water demand growth may be reacquainted. (3) Urbanization usually made greater contribution to economic and water use growth in the provincial administrative regions in east and central China, which had larger population and economic aggregate and stepped into the accelerating period of urbanization. However, it also made greater contribution to industrial structure optimization and water use efficiency improvement, and then largely decreased total water use. In total, urbanization had negative effects on water use growth in most provincial administrative regions in China, and the spatiotemporal differences among them were lessened on the whole. (4) Though urbanization helps to decrease water use for China and most provincial administrative regions, it may cause water crisis in urban built-up areas or urban agglomerations. Therefore, China should construct the water transfer and compensation mechanisms between urban and rural areas, or low and high density urban areas as soon as possible.

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    Cited: Baidu(18)
    Spatiotemporal patterns and characteristics of land-use change in China during 2010-2015
    Jia NING, Jiyuan LIU, Wenhui Kuang, Xinliang XU, Shuwen ZHANG, Changzhen YAN, Rendong LI, Shixin WU, Yunfeng HU, Guoming DU, Wenfeng CHI, Tao PAN, Jing NING
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2018, 28 (5): 547-562.   doi: 10.1007/s11442-018-1490-0
    Abstract792)   HTML60)    PDF (3130KB)(1158)      

    Land use/cover change is an important theme on the impacts of human activities on the earth systems and global environmental change. National land-use changes of China during 2010-2015 were acquired by the digital interpretation method using the high-resolution remotely sensed images, e.g. the Landsat 8 OLI, GF-2 remote sensing images. The spatiotemporal characteristics of land-use changes across China during 2010-2015 were revealed by the indexes of dynamic degree model, annual land-use changes ratio etc. The results indicated that the built-up land increased by 24.6×103 km2 while the cropland decreased by 4.9×103 km2, and the total area of woodland and grassland decreased by 16.4×103 km2. The spatial pattern of land-use changes in China during 2010-2015 was concordant with that of the period 2000-2010. Specially, new characteristics of land-use changes emerged in different regions of China in 2010-2015. The built-up land in eastern China expanded continually, and the total area of cropland decreased, both at decreasing rates. The rates of built-up land expansion and cropland shrinkage were accelerated in central China. The rates of built-up land expansion and cropland growth increased in western China, while the decreasing rate of woodland and grassland accelerated. In northeastern China, built-up land expansion slowed continually, and cropland area increased slightly accompanied by the conversions between paddy land and dry land. Besides, woodland and grassland area decreased in northeastern China. The characteristics of land-use changes in eastern China were essentially consistent with the spatial govern and control requirements of the optimal development zones and key development zones according to the Major Function-oriented Zones Planning implemented during the 12th Five-Year Plan (2011-2015). It was a serious challenge for the central government of China to effectively protect the reasonable layout of land use types dominated with the key ecological function zones and agricultural production zones in central and western China. Furthermore, the local governments should take effective measures to strengthen the management of territorial development in future.

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    Cited: Baidu(66)
    An economic tie network-structure analysis of urban agglomeration in the middle reaches of Changjiang River based on SNA
    Qian SUN, Fanghua TANG, Yong TANG
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2015, 25 (6): 739-755.   doi: 10.1007/s11442-015-1199-2
    Abstract455)   HTML2)    PDF (345KB)(741)      

    Due to its great strategic significance in integrating regional coordinated development and enhancing the rise of Central China, urban agglomeration in the middle reaches of Changjiang (Yangtze) River has attracted much attention from both theoretical and practical aspects. Such research into the area’s economic network structure is beneficial for the formation of an urban- and regional-development strategy. This paper constructs an economic tie model based on a modified gravitation model. Subsequently, referring to social network analysis, the paper empirically studies the network density, network centrality, subgroups and structural holes of the middle reaches of Changjiang River’s urban agglomeration economic network. The findings are fourfold: (1) an economic network of urban agglomeration in the middle reaches of Changjiang River has been formed, and economic ties between the cities in this network are comparatively dense; (2) the urban agglomeration in the middle reaches of Changjiang River can be divided into four significant subgroups, with each subgroup having its own obvious economic communications, while there is less economic-behavioral heterogeneity among subgroups - this is especially true for the two subgroups that exist in the Poyang Lake Ecological Economic Zone; (3) an economy pattern driven by the central cities of Wuhan, Changsha and Nanchang has emerged in the urban agglomeration of the middle reaches of Changjiang River, while these three capital cities have exerted great radiation abilities to their surrounding cities, the latter are less able to absorb resources from the former; (4) the Wuhan Metropolitan Areas and the Poyang Lake Ecological Economic Zone have more structural holes than the Ring of Changsha, Zhuzhou and the Xiangtan City Clusters, meaning that cities at the periphery of these two areas are easily constrained by central cities. The Ring of Changsha, Zhuzhou and the Xiangtan City Clusters have fewer structural holes; thus, the cities in this area will not face as many constraints as those in the other two areas.

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    Cited: Baidu(15)
    Evidence for a recent warming and wetting in the source area of the Yellow River (SAYR) and its hydrological impacts
    Hui TIAN, Yongchao LAN, Jun WEN, Huijun JIN, Chenghai WANG, Xin WANG, Yue KANG
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2015, 25 (6): 643-668.   doi: 10.1007/s11442-015-1194-7
    Abstract578)   HTML1)    PDF (1378KB)(653)      

    Climate change investigation at a watershed-scale plays a significant role in revealing the historical evolution and future trend of the runoff variation in watershed. This study examines the multisource hydrological and meteorological variables over the source area of the Yellow River (SAYR) from 1961 to 2012 and the future climate scenarios in the region during 2006-2100 based on the CMIP5 projection data. It recognizes the significant characteristics of the recent climate change in the SAYR and predicts the change trend of future flow in the region. It is found that (1) The climate in the SAYR has experienced a significant warm-wet change since the early 2000s, which is very different from the antecedent warm-dry trend since the late 1980s; (2) The warm-wet trend in the northwestern SAYR (the headwater area of the Yellow River (HAYR), is more obvious than that in the whole SAYR; (3) With precipitation increase, the runoff in the region also experienced an increasing process since 2006. The runoff variations in the region are sensitive to the changes of precipitation, PET and maximum air temperature, but not very sensitive to changes in mean and minimum air temperatures; (4) Based on the CMIP5 projection data, the warm-wet climate trend in SAYR are likely to continue until 2049 if considering three different (i.e. RCP2.6, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) greenhouse gas emission scenarios, and the precipitation in SAYR will not be less than the current level before 2100; however, it is estimated that the recent flow increase in the SAYR is likely to be the decadal change and it will at most continue until the 2020s; (5) The inter-annual variations of the East Asian winter monsoon are found to be closely related to the variations of annual precipitation in the region. Meanwhile, the increased precipitation as well as the increase of potential evapotranspiration (PET) being far less than that of precipitation in the recent period are the main climate causes for the flow increase in the region.

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    Cited: Baidu(5)
    Spatial-temporal pattern changes of main agriculture natural disasters in China during 1990-2011
    Xindong DU, Xiaobin JIN, Xilian YANG, Xuhong YANG, Xiaomin XIANG, Yinkang ZHOU
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2015, 25 (4): 387-398.   doi: 10.1007/s11442-015-1175-x
    Abstract728)   HTML0)    PDF (931KB)(642)      

    China is a disaster prone country, and a comprehensive understanding of change of disasters is very important for China’s agricultural development. In this study, statistical techniques and geographic information system tools are employed to quantify the main agriculture disasters changes and effects on grain production in China during the period of 1990-2011. The results show that China’s grain production was severely affected by disasters including drought, flood, hail, frost and typhoon. The annual area covered by these disasters reached up to 48.7×106 ha during the study period, which accounted for 44.8% of the total sown area, and about 55.1% of the per unit area grain yield change was caused by disasters. In addition, all of the disasters showed high variability, different changing trends, and spatial distribution. Drought, flood, and hail showed significantly decreasing trends, while frost and typhoon showed increasing trends. Drought and flood showed gradual changes and were distributed across the country, and disasters became more diversified from north to south. Drought was the dominated disaster type in northern China, while flood was the most important disaster type in the southern part. Hail was mainly observed in central and northern China, and frost was mainly distributed in southern China. Typhoon was greatly limited to the southeast coast. Furthermore, the resilience of grain production of each province was quite different, especially in several major grain producing areas, such as Shandong, Liaoning, Jilin and Jiangsu, where grain production was seriously affected by disasters. One reason for the difference of resilience of grain production was that grain production was marginalized in developed provinces when the economy underwent rapid development. For China’s agricultural development and grain security, we suggest that governments should place more emphasis on grain production, and invest more money in disaster prevention and mitigation, especially in the major grain producing provinces.

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    Cited: Baidu(6)
    A quantitative morphometric comparison of cockpit and doline karst landforms
    Fuyuan LIANG, Yunyan DU, Yong GE, Ce LI
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2014, 24 (6): 1069-1082.   doi: 10.1007/s11442-014-1139-6
    Abstract714)   HTML0)    PDF (1718KB)(490)      

    This study presented a quantitative comparison of cockpit and doline karst by examining the numbers and characteristics of typical types of landform entities that are developed in Guilin (Guangxi, China), La Alianza (PR, USA), Avalton (KY, USA), and Oolitic (IN, USA). Five types of landform entities were defined: isolated hill (IH), clustered hills (CHs), isolated sinkhole (IS), clustered sinkholes (CSs), and clustered hills with sinkholes (CHSs). An algorithm was developed to automatically identify these types of landform entities by examining the contour lines on topographic maps of two cockpit karst areas (Guilin and La Alianza) and two doline karst areas (Oolitic and Avalton). Within each specific study area, the CHSs is the least developed type yet with a larger size and higher relief. The IH and IS entities are smaller in size, lower in relief, and outnumber their clustered counterparts. The total numbers of these types of entities are quite different in cockpit and doline karst areas. Doline karst is characterized by more negative (IS and CSs) than positive (IH and IHs) landforms and vice versa for cockpit karst. For example, the Guilin study area has 1192 positive landform entities in total, which occupy 9.81% of the total study area. It has only 622 negative landform entities occupying only 3.91% of the total study area. By contrast, the doline karst in Oolitic has 130 negative while only 10 positive landform entities. The positive and negative landforms in Oolitic occupy 12.68% and 2.61% of the total study area, respectively. Furthermore, average relief and slope of the landform entities are much higher and steeper in the cockpit karst than the doline karst areas. For instance, the average slope of CHs in Alvaton is 3.90 degrees while it is 19.78 degrees in La Alianza. The average relief of CSs is 4.07 m and 34.29 m in Oolitic and Guilin respectively. Such a difference within a specific area or between the cockpit and doline karst may reveal different controls on the development of karst landscape.

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    Cited: Baidu(2)
    Variations of the alpine precipitation from an ice core record of the Laohugou glacier basin during 1960-2006 in western Qilian Mountains, China
    Xiang QIN, Xiaoqing CUI, Wentao DU, Zhiwen DONG, Jiawen REN, Jizu CHEN
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2015, 25 (2): 165-176.   doi: 10.1007/s11442-015-1160-4
    Abstract620)   HTML0)    PDF (677KB)(610)      

    The net accumulation record of ice core is one of the most reliable indicators for reconstructing precipitation changes in high mountains. A 20.12 m ice core was drilled in 2006 from the accumulation zone of Laohugou Glacier No.12 in the northeastern Tibetan Plateau, China. We obtained the precipitation from the ice core net accumulation during 1960-2006, and found out the relationship between Laohugou ice core record and other data from surrounding sites of the northeastern Tibetan Plateau. Results showed that during 1960-2006, the precipitation in the high mountains showed firstly an increasing trend, while during 1980 to 2006 it showed an obvious decreasing trend. Reconstructed precipitation change in the Laohugou glacier basin was consistent with the measured data from the nearby weather stations in the lower mountain of Subei, and the correlation coefficient was 0.619 (P<0.001). However, the precipitation in the high mountain was about 3 times more than that of the lower mountain. The precipitation in Laohugou Glacier No.12 of the western Qilian Mountains corresponded well to the net accumulation of Dunde ice core during the same period, tree-ring reconstructed precipitation, the measured data of multiple meteorological stations in the northeastern Tibetan Plateau, and also the changes of adjacent PDSI drought index. Precipitation changes of the Laohugou glacier basin and other sites of the northeastern Tibetan Plateau had significantly positive correlation with ENSO, which implied that the regional alpine precipitation change was very likely to be influenced by ENSO.

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    Cited: Baidu(6)
    Review on carbon emissions, energy consumption and low-carbon economy in China from a perspective of global climate change
    Lei SHEN, Yanzhi *SUN
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2016, 26 (7): 855-870.   doi: 10.1007/s11442-016-1302-3
    Abstract583)   HTML12)    PDF (871KB)(799)      

    Accompanying the rapid growth of China’s population and economy, energy consumption and carbon emission increased significantly from 1978 to 2012. China is now the largest energy consumer and CO2 emitter of the world, leading to much interest in researches on the nexus between energy consumption, carbon emissions and low-carbon economy. This article presents the domestic Chinese studies on this hotpot issue, and we obtain the following findings. First, most research fields involve geography, ecology and resource economics, and research contents contained some analysis of current situation, factors decomposition, predictive analysis and the introduction of methods and models. Second, there exists an inverted “U-shaped” curve connection between carbon emission, energy consumption and economic development. Energy consumption in China will be in a low-speed growth after 2035 and it is expected to peak between 6.19-12.13 billion TCE in 2050. China’s carbon emissions are expected to peak in 2035, or during 2020 to 2045, and the optimal range of carbon emissions is between 2.4-3.3 PgC/year (1 PgC=1 billion tons C) in 2050. Third, future research should be focused on global carbon trading, regional carbon flows, reforming the current energy structure, reducing energy consumption and innovating the low-carbon economic theory, as well as establishing a comprehensive theoretical system of energy consumption, carbon emissions and low-carbon economy.

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    Cited: Baidu(14)
    Slope spectrum critical area and its spatial variation in the Loess Plateau of China
    Guoan TANG, Xiaodong SONG, Fayuan LI, Yong ZHANG, Liyang XIONG
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2015, 25 (12): 1452-1466.   doi: 10.1007/s11442-015-1245-0
    Abstract724)   HTML0)    PDF (2593KB)(729)      

    Slope spectrum has been proved to be a significant methodology in revealing geomorphological features in the study of Chinese loess terrain. The determination of critical areas in deriving slope spectra is an indispensable task. Along with the increase in the size of the study area, the derived spectra are becoming more and more alike, such that their differences can be ignored in favor of a standard. Subsequently, the test size is defined as the Slope Spectrum Critical Area (SSCA). SSCA is not only the foundation of the slope spectrum calculation but also, to some extent, a reflection of geomorphological development of loess relief. High resolution DEMs are important in extracting the slope spectrum. A set of 48 DEMs with different landform areas of the Loess Plateau in northern Shaanxi province was selected for the experiment. The spatial distribution of SSCA is investigated with a geo-statistical analysis method, resulting in values ranging from 6.18 km2 to 35.1 km2. Primary experimental results show that the spatial distribution of SSCA is correlated with the spatial distribution of the soil erosion intensity, to a certain extent reflecting the terrain complexity. The critical area of the slope spectrum presents a spatial variation trend of weak-strong-weak from north to south. Four terrain parameters, gully density, slope skewness, terrain driving force (Td) and slope of slope (SOS), were chosen as indicators. There exists a good exponential function relationship between SSCA and gully density, terrain driving force (Td) and SOS and a logarithmic function relationship between SSCA and slope skewness. Slope skewness increases, and gully density, terrain driving force and SOS decrease with increasing SSCA. SSCA can be utilized as a discriminating factor to identify loess landforms, in that spatial distributions of SSCA and the evolution of loess landforms are correlative. Following the evolution of a loess landform from tableland to gully-hilly region, this also proves that SSCA can represent the development degree of local landforms. The critical stable regions of the Loess Plateau represent the degree of development of loess landforms. Its chief significance is that the perception of stable areas can be used to determine the minimal geographical unit.

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    Cited: Baidu(9)
    Hydrochemical characteristics and element contents of natural waters in Tibet, China
    Yuan TIAN, Chengqun YU, Kunli LUO, Xinjie ZHA, Jianshuang WU, Xianzhou ZHANG, Runxiang NI
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2015, 25 (6): 669-686.   doi: 10.1007/s11442-015-1195-6
    Abstract571)   HTML4)    PDF (811KB)(711)      

    Sixty water samples (35 groundwater samples, 22 surface water samples and three hot-spring water samples) were collected at 36 points from villages and towns in Lhasa city, Nagchu (Nagqu) prefecture, Ali (Ngari) prefecture and Shigatse (Xigaze) prefecture (Tibet) in 2013 to study the hydrochemical characteristics and element contents of natural waters. The concentrations of elements were determined in the water samples and compared with the concentrations in water samples from other regions, such as southeast Qinghai, south Xinjiang, east Sichuan and west Tibet. The hydrochemical species in different areas were also studied. Water in most parts of Tibet reaches the requirements of the Chinese national standard and the World Health Organization international standard. The pH values of the water samples ranged from 6.75 to 8.21 and the value for the mean total dissolved solids was 225.54 mg/L. The concentration of arsenic in water from Ali prefecture exceeded the limit of both the Chinese national standard and the international standard and the concentration of fluoride in water from Shuanghu exceeded the limit of both the Chinese national standard and the international standard. The main hydrochemical species in water of Tibet is Ca (HCO3)2. From south to north, the main cation in water changes from Ca2+ to Na+, whereas the main anions in water change from HCO3- to Cl- and SO42-. The chemistry of river water and melt water from ice and snow is dominated by the rocks present at their source, whereas the chemistry of groundwater is affected by many factors. Tectonic divisions determine the concentrations of the main elements in water and also affect the hydrochemical species present.

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    Cited: Baidu(5)
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