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    Progress in watershed geography in the Yangtze River Basin and the affiliated ecological security perspective in the past 20 years, China
    GAO Yang, JIA Junjie, LU Yao, SUN Xiaomin, WEN Xuefa, HE Nianpeng, YANG Tiantian
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2020, 30 (6): 867-880.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-020-1759-y
    Abstract308)   HTML19)    PDF (1720KB)(54)      

    Bibliometrics was used to statistically analyze key zones within the Yangtze River Basin (YRB) funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) and national ministries over the past 20 years. This study determined that funds that derived from national ministries have mainly focused on issues related to environmental pollution, ecological security, technological water regulations, and river basin ecosystems, which offer a better understanding of the national requirements and the scientific knowledge of the YRB in combination with data from the NSFC. Under a background of bolstering the construction of green ecological corridors in the economic belt of the YRB, this study proposes future conceptual watershed research initiatives in this region as a study objective by reinforcing the implementation of the Chinese Ecosystem Research Network (CERN) and by emphasizing the use of new technologies, new methods, and new concepts for the prospective design of frontier research under the perspective of geoscience and earth system science. This study promotes large-scale scientific field and research objectives based on big science and big data.

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    Beautiful China Initiative: Human-nature harmony theory, evaluation index system and application
    FANG Chuanglin, WANG Zhenbo, LIU Haimeng
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2020, 30 (5): 691-704.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-020-1750-7
    Abstract238)   HTML5)    PDF (3207KB)(29)      

    The Beautiful China Initiative (BCI) is a plan for the sustainable development of the Chinese nation as well as for China to fulfill the United Nations’ 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The Chinese government’s “five-in-one” approach provides strategic arrangements for developing the BCI, and President Xi Jinping proposed a timetable and “road map” for the BCI at the National Conference on Ecological and Environmental Protection. Nevertheless, the theoretical basis, evaluation index system, evaluation criteria and effectiveness of the BCI are currently unclear. This paper begins by exploring the basic content of the BCI from narrow and broad perspectives. It regards the theory of human-nature harmonious coexistence and the five-in-one beauty theory as the core theoretical bases of the BCI and constructs a five-element BCI evaluation index system (ecological environment, green development, social harmony, system perfection and cultural heritage) and utilizes the assessment method of the United Nations’ Human Development Index to assess scientifically the effectiveness of the BCI in 341 prefecture-level cities. The results show the average BCI index (the Chinese Academy of Sciences Beauty Index) score to be 0.28, which is quite low, while the average scores for the individual element indexes of the ecological environment index, green development index, social harmony index, system perfection index and cultural heritage index are 0.6, 0.22, 0.29, 0.22 and 0.07, respectively. All of these are relatively low values, with relatively large discrepancies in regional development, indicating that progress in the BCI is generally slow and unbalanced. To realize the BCI’s timetable and roadmap to a high quality and high standard, it is suggested that a common system for evaluating the progress of the BCI is developed and promulgated so that dynamic monitoring and phased evaluations can take place; BCI technical assessment standards are compiled and published; BCI comprehensive zoning is undertaken; pilot projects adapted to local conditions are launched in BCI sample areas; and BCI results are incorporated into performance indicators at all levels of government.

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    Geographical thoughts on the relationship between ‘Beautiful China’ and land spatial planning
    CHEN Mingxing, LIANG Longwu, WANG Zhenbo, ZHANG Wenzhong, YU Jianhui, LIANG Yi
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2020, 30 (5): 705-723.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-020-1751-6
    Abstract190)   HTML5)    PDF (1926KB)(44)      

    The concept of ‘Beautiful China’ is a new goal of ecological construction in the new era of socialism and aims to meet the needs of people as they strive for a better life. National land spatial planning is one major component of the Chinese state’s overall planning for various spatial types. The concept of ‘Beautiful China’ is thus a leading goal of Chinese development in the second centenary. The background of this concept aims for ‘ecological beauty’ as well as the combined beauty of ‘economy-politics-culture-society-ecology.’ The construction of ‘Beautiful China’ therefore necessitates a differentiated evaluation index system that is built on the basis of local conditions. This concept is intimately related to land spatial planning and the idea of Beautiful China guides an important direction for this planning which itself provides an important mechanism and spatial guarantee for construction. The establishment of land spatial planning nevertheless needs to strengthen further discussion of the regional system of human-land relationship, point axis system, main functional division, sustainable development, resources and environmental carrying capacity as well as new urbanization, and the rural multi-system. The aim of this paper is to summarize current thinking in land spatial planning, scientifically analyze the natural geographical conditions, the socioeconomic development, the interrelationship of the land space, plan the goal, vision and path of land space, encourage the public to participate in and carry out dynamic evaluation, build an intelligent system platform for land and spatial planning to realize the goal of ‘Beautiful China’ from a geographical perspective. And they can also present key ideas relating to the compilation and implementation of land spatial planning.

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    Spatio-temporal variation in China’s climatic seasons from 1951 to 2017
    MA Bin, ZHANG Bo, JIA Lige
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2020, 30 (9): 1387-1400.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-020-1788-6
    Abstract185)   HTML3)    PDF (2155KB)(143)      

    In this paper, meteorological industry standard, daily mean temperature, and an improved multiple regression model are used to calculate China’s climatic seasons, not only to help understand their spatio-temporal distribution, but also to provide a reference for China’s climatic regionalization and crop production. It is found that the improved multiple regression model can accurately show the spatial distribution of climatic seasons. The main results are as follows. There are four climatic seasonal regions in China, namely, the perennial-winter, no-winter, no-summer and discernible regions, and their ranges basically remained stable from 1951 to 2017. The cumulative anomaly curve of the four climatic seasonal regions clarifies that the trend of China’s climatic seasonal regions turned in 1994, after which the area of the perennial-winter and no-summer regions narrowed and the no-winter and discernible regions expanded. The number of sites with significantly reduced winter duration is the largest, followed by the number of sites with increased summer duration, and the number of sites with large changes in spring and autumn is the least. Spring advances and autumn is postponed due to the shortened winter and lengthened summer durations. Sites with significant change in seasonal duration are mainly distributed in Northwest China, the Sichuan Basin, the Huanghe-Huaihe-Haihe (Huang-Huai-Hai) Plain, the Northeast China Plain, and the Southeast Coast.

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    Spatio-temporal evolution and influencing factors of urban green development efficiency in China
    ZHOU Liang, ZHOU Chenghu, CHE Lei, WANG Bao
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2020, 30 (5): 724-742.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-020-1752-5
    Abstract174)   HTML2)    PDF (876KB)(42)      

    To resolve conflicts between development and the preservation of the natural environment, enable economic transformation, and achieve the global sustainable development goals (SDGs), green development (GD) is gradually becoming a major strategy in the construction of an ecological civilization and the ideal of building a “beautiful China”, alongside the transformation and reconstruction of the global economy. Based on a combination of the concept and implications of GD, we first used the Slacks Based Model with undesirable outputs (SBM-Undesirable), the Theil index, and the spatial Markov chain to measure the spatial patterns, regional differences, and spatio-temporal evolution of urban green development efficiency (UGDE) in China from 2005 to 2015. Second, by coupling natural and human factors, the mechanism influencing UGDE was quantitatively investigated under the framework of the human-environment interaction. The results showed that: (1) from 2005 to 2015, the UGDE increased from 0.475 to 0.523, i.e., an overall increase of 10%. In terms of temporal variation, there was a staged increase, with its evolution having the characteristics of a “W-shaped” pattern. (2) The regional differences in UGDE followed a pattern of eastern > central > western. For different types of urban agglomeration, the UGDE had inverted pyramid cluster growth characteristics that followed a pattern of “national level > regional level > local level”, forming a stable hierarchical scale structure of “super cities > mega cities > big cities > medium cities > small cities”. (3) UGDE in China has developed with significant spatial agglomeration characteristics. High-efficiency type cities have positive spillover effects, while low-efficiency cities have negative effects. Different types of urban evolution processes have a path dependence, and a spatial club convergence phenomenon exists, in which areas with high UGDE are concentrated and drive low UGDE elsewhere. (4) Under the framework of regional human-environment interaction, the degree of human and social influence on UGDE is greater than that of the natural background. The economic strength, industrial structure, openness, and climate conditions of China have positively promoted UGDE.

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    Spatiotemporal evolution of urban carbon emission performance in China and prediction of future trends
    WANG Shaojian, GAO Shuang, HUANG Yongyuan, SHI Chenyi
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2020, 30 (5): 757-774.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-020-1754-3
    Abstract165)   HTML0)    PDF (1602KB)(28)      

    Climate change resulting from CO2 emissions has become an important global environmental issue in recent years. Improving carbon emission performance is one way to reduce carbon emissions. Although carbon emission performance has been discussed at the national and industrial levels, city-level studies are lacking due to the limited availability of statistics on energy consumption. In this study, based on city-level remote sensing data on carbon emissions in China from 1992-2013, we used the slacks-based measure of super-efficiency to evaluate urban carbon emission performance. The traditional Markov probability transfer matrix and spatial Markov probability transfer matrix were constructed to explore the spatiotemporal evolution of urban carbon emission performance in China for the first time and predict long-term trends in carbon emission performance. The results show that urban carbon emission performance in China steadily increased during the study period with some fluctuations. However, the overall level of carbon emission performance remains low, indicating great potential for improvements in energy conservation and emission reduction. The spatial pattern of urban carbon emission performance in China can be described as “high in the south and low in the north,” and significant differences in carbon emission performance were found between cities. The spatial Markov probabilistic transfer matrix results indicate that the transfer of carbon emission performance in Chinese cities is stable, resulting in a “club convergence” phenomenon. Furthermore, neighborhood backgrounds play an important role in the transfer between carbon emission performance types. Based on the prediction of long-term trends in carbon emission performance, carbon emission performance is expected to improve gradually over time. Therefore, China should continue to strengthen research and development aimed at improving urban carbon emission performance and achieving the national energy conservation and emission reduction goals. Meanwhile, neighboring cities with different neighborhood backgrounds should pursue cooperative economic strategies that balance economic growth, energy conservation, and emission reductions to realize low-carbon construction and sustainable development.

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    A comparative study of land price estimation and mapping using regression kriging and machine learning algorithms across Fukushima prefecture, Japan
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2020, 30 (5): 794-822.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-020-1756-1
    Abstract146)   HTML2)    PDF (8028KB)(28)      

    Finding accurate methods for estimating and mapping land prices at the macro-scale based on publicly accessible and low-cost spatial data is an essential step in producing a meaningful reference for regional planners. This asset would assist them in making economically justified decisions in favor of key investors for development projects and post-disaster recovery efforts. Since 2005, the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, and Transport of Japan has made land price data open to the public in the form of observations at dispersed locations. Although this data is useful, it does not provide complete information at every site for all market participants. Therefore, estimating and mapping land prices based on sound statistical theories is required. This paper presents a comparative study of spatial prediction of land prices in 2015 in Fukushima prefecture based on geostatistical methods and machine learning algorithms. Land use, elevation, and socioeconomic factors, including population density and distance to railway stations, were used for modeling. Results show the superiority of the random forest algorithm. Overall, land prices are distributed unevenly across the prefecture with the most expensive land located in the western region characterized by flat topography and the availability of well-connected and highly dense economic hotspots.

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    Spatio-temporal pattern and driving forces of urbanization in China’s border areas
    SONG Zhouying, ZHU Qiaoling
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2020, 30 (5): 775-793.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-020-1755-2
    Abstract141)   HTML5)    PDF (2274KB)(24)      

    Border area is not only an important gateway for inland opening-up, but also an important part of completing the building of a moderately prosperous society and optimizing national urban spatial pattern in China. Due to the location, natural resources endowment, and traffic accessibility, the urbanization speed is relatively slow in border areas. Therefore, it is a special area that needs to pay close attention to, especially under the background of the Belt and Road Initiative and China’s regional coordinated development program. Based on the county-level data from 2000 to 2015, this paper tries to analyze the spatio-temporal pattern of urbanization in 134 border counties, and applies geographical detector method to study the driving forces of urbanization in border areas. Conclusions are as follows: (1) From 2000 to 2015, urbanization rate in border areas has been lower than the national average, and the gap has been widening. Some border counties in southern Xinjiang, Tibet, northeast of Inner Mongolia, and Yunnan, are even facing the problem of population loss. (2) In the same period, urbanization rate in the northwestern and southwestern border is low, while their urbanization rate grows relatively faster comparing with other border counties; urbanization rate in Tibet border is the lowest and grows relatively slowly; urbanization rate in the northeastern and northern border is slightly higher, but it grows slowly or even stagnates. (3) Transportation and industry are the important driving forces of urbanization in border areas, while the driving forces of market is relatively weak. And there are obvious mutual reinforcements among the driving forces, while the effort and explanatory power of resource force increases obviously after interaction. (4) Urbanization rate in the northwestern and southwestern border areas grows relatively fast, with industrial force and transportation force, market force and administrative force as the main driving forces respectively. Tibet border area has the lowest urbanization rate and growth rate, as the driving force of urbanization with strong contribution has not yet formed in Tibet. In the northeastern and northern border areas, the contribution of transportation force to urbanization is greater than other forces, and its interaction with market and industry has obvious effects.

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    Analysis of critical river discharge for saltwater intrusion control in the upper South Branch of the Yangtze River Estuary
    SUN Zhaohua, FAN Jiewei, YAN Xin, XIE Cuisong
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2020, 30 (5): 823-842.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-020-1757-0
    Abstract137)   HTML0)    PDF (1785KB)(20)      

    Saltwater intrusion in the estuary area threatens the use of freshwater resources. If river discharge increases to a critical value, then saltwater intrusion frequency and salinity level decreases. In this study, long-term river discharge and tidal range data in the Yangtze River Estuary (YRE) and salinity data obtained in the upper South Branch of the YRE were used to analyze the characteristics of different variables and the basic law of their interactions. Two methods, namely, the material analysis method and empirical models, were applied to determine the critical river discharge for saltwater intrusion control. Results are as follows: (1) the salinity might exceed the drinking water standard of China when the river discharge was less than 30,000 m3/s. Approximately 69% of salinity excessive days occurred when the river discharge was less than 15,000 m3/s; (2) the tidal range in the YRE roughly varied in sinusoidal pattern with a 15-day cycle length. Exponential relationship existed between daily salinity (chlorinity) and daily mean tidal range. Combining these two features with the cumulative frequency statistics of tidal ranges, it was showed that notable saltwater intrusion occurred when the tidal range was more than 2.7 m at Qinglonggang station. Moreover, the critical discharge was found to be slightly higher than 11,000 m3/s; (3) various of empirical models for salinity prediction could be chosen to calculate the critical discharge. The values obtained by different models were in the range of 11,000-12,000 m3/s; (4) the proposed critical discharge to reduce notable saltwater intrusion was 11,500 m3/s. After the Three Gorges Reservoir operation, the minimum river discharge into the YRE in 2008-2017 was below the critical discharge, thereby suggesting an increase in the minimum river discharge by reservoir regulation in drought periods.

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    Distribution of fluoride in surface water and a health risk assessment in the upper reaches of the Yongding River
    WANG Tao, SHAO Zhijiang, YU Hui, BAH Hamidou
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2020, 30 (6): 908-920.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-020-1761-4
    Abstract131)   HTML1)    PDF (1759KB)(16)      

    The excessive exposure to high concentrations of fluoride in drinking water can lead to a serious disease called fluorosis. The upstream region of the Yongding River is an ecological protection area for Beijing. Some studies have reported that there is a high concentration of fluoride in the groundwater in this area. However, there are few data on the distribution of fluoride in surface water and health risk assessments in this area. In this study, the fluoride concentrations were determined by using the spectrophotometric method using data from 2013 to 2017 from 9 surface water quality monitoring stations in the upper reaches of the Yongding River. The health risks of fluoride were assessed using the approach developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). The results indicated that the fluoride content in the drinking water ranged from 0.30 to 1.50 mg L-1, with an average of 0.86 mg L-1. In total, 22.7% of the analyzed samples exceeded the Chinese limit of 1.0 mg L-1 for fluoride, and 5.5% of samples had less than the permissible limit of 0.5 mg L-1. Higher fluoride concentrations and fluorosis hotspots were found to be predominately located downstream of the Yanghe River close to the Guanting Reservoir, where 71.4% of samples exceeded the limit of 1.0 mg/L-1. The spatial distribution of high fluoride concentrations was found to be primarily determined by industry. The hazard quotient (HQ) index for children, teenagers and adults indicated that 19.6%, 15.6%, and 5.1% of the samples in the upper reaches of the Yongding River, respectively, posed health hazards to the associated groups. Furthermore, the HQ index more than 1 for children, teenagers and adults had values of 64.3%, 56.1%, and 19.4%, respectively, in samples from the downstream region of the Yanghe River. Therefore, there are potential risks of dental and skeletal fluorosis in the upper river reaches of the Yongding River. It is imperative to take measures to reduce the fluoride pollution in surface water and control fluorosis. Action should be taken to improve the disposal of industrial waste.

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    Agent-based model of land system: Theory, application and modelling framework
    DAI Erfu, MA Liang, YANG Weishi, WANG Yahui, YIN Le, TONG Miao
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2020, 30 (10): 1555-1570.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-020-1799-3
    Abstract131)   HTML24)    PDF (919KB)(136)      

    Land change science has become an interdisciplinary research direction for understanding human-natural coupling systems. As a process-oriented modelling approach, agent based model (ABM) plays an important role in revealing the driving forces of land change and understanding the process of land change. This paper starts from three aspects: The theory, application and modeling framework of ABM. First, we summarize the theoretical basis of ABM and introduce some related concepts. Then we expound the application and development of ABM in both urban land systems and agricultural land systems, and further introduce the case study of a model on Grain for Green Program in Hengduan Mountainous region, China. On the basis of combing the ABM modeling protocol, we propose the land system ABM modeling framework and process from the perspective of agents. In terms of urban land use, ABM research initially focused on the study of urban expansion based on landscape, then expanded to issues like urban residential separation, planning and zoning, ecological functions, etc. In terms of agricultural land use, ABM application presents more diverse and individualized features. Research topics include farmers’ behavior, farmers’ decision-making, planting systems, agricultural policy, etc. Compared to traditional models, ABM is more complex and difficult to generalize beyond specific context since it relies on local knowledge and data. However, due to its unique bottom-up model structure, ABM has an indispensable role in exploring the driving forces of land change and also the impact of human behavior on the environment.

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    Impact of cultivated land fragmentation on spatial heterogeneity of agricultural agglomeration in China
    XU Weiyi, JIN Xiaobin, LIU Jing, ZHOU Yinkang
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2020, 30 (10): 1571-1589.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-020-1800-1
    Abstract129)   HTML37)         

    Systematically revealing the impact of cultivated land fragmentation (CLF) on the geographical agglomeration pattern of agricultural specialization (AS) has positive significance for national agricultural production management. Based on the data of the second national land survey and agricultural production, this study has explored the impact of CLF on spatial heterogeneity of agricultural agglomeration in China by comprehensively using the Theil index, ordinary least square model and geographically weighted regression. Results showed that: (1) the regional differentiation of the CLF in China is obvious, and the cultivated land fragmentation index is generally characterized by increasing pattern from northwest to southeast. (2) Spatially, the development level of AS in China has formed three high-value clusters in the Northeast China Plain, the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, and the middle of the Middle-lower Yangtze Plain; and the low-value contiguous areas centered on the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau and the Sichuan Basin and surrounding regions, with significant spatial differences. The contribution of grain crops, economic crops, and vegetables and melon to the level of AS was 74.63%, 9.09%, and 16.28%, respectively, and the pattern of agricultural geographical aggregation dominated by grain crops has primarily taken in shape. (3) CLF is significantly negatively correlated with AS, and every 1% increase in the degree of CLF will result in a decrease of about 0.2% in AS. However, the impact of CLF on the geographic agglomeration of different crop categories or groups varies significantly. Among them, CLF has a prominent impact on the specialization level of grain crops and vegetables and melon. Each 1% increase in the CLF will reduce the specialization level of grain crops by 0.38%, and increase the level of vegetables and melon by about 0.22%. (4) According to the landscape characteristics of cultivated land, the degree of spatial division and agglomeration of cultivated land patches have a significant impact on the formation of geographical agglomeration pattern of AS, and the intensity and direction of influence show significant regional differentiation, while the patch size has no significant impact.

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    Exploring the spatio-temporal impacts of farmland reforestation on ecological connectivity using circuit theory: A case study in the agro-pastoral ecotone of North China
    LIU Xiaojing, LIU Dianfeng, ZHAO Hongzhuo, HE Jianhua, LIU Yaolin
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2020, 30 (9): 1419-1435.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-020-1790-z
    Abstract129)   HTML3)    PDF (2801KB)(44)      

    Farmland reforestation can contribute substantially to ecological restoration. Previous studies have extensively examined the ecological effects of farmland reforestation, but few of them have investigated the spatiotemporal responses of broad-scale landscape connectivity to reforestation. By using a typical agro-pastoral ecotone in northern China as a case study, we addressed this issue based on an innovative integration of circuit theory approach and counterfactual analysis. The forest connectivity through multiple dispersal pathways was measured using the circuit theory approach, and its spatiotemporal changes after reforestation were evaluated by counterfactual analysis. The results showed that from 2000-2015, the reforested farmland occupied 2095 km2, and 12.5% was on steeply sloped land. Farmland reforestation caused a greater increase in ecological connectivity by adding new ecological corridors and stepping stones in scattered forest areas rather than in areas with dense forest distributions. The newly added corridors and stepping stones were fragmented, short and narrow and thus deserve powerful protection. Future reforestation to improve landscape connectivity should highlight pinch point protection and obstacle removal as well as the tradeoff between farmland loss and farmer survival. Our findings are expected to inform the optimization of the Grain for Green policy from the perspective of broad-scale biodiversity conservation.

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    Using water isotopes and hydrogeochemical evidences to characterize groundwater age and recharge rate in the Zhangjiakou area, North China
    ZHANG Qinghua, LUO Zhuanxi, LU Wen, HARALD Zepp, ZHAO Yufeng, TANG Jialiang
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2020, 30 (6): 935-948.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-020-1763-2
    Abstract118)   HTML1)    PDF (1245KB)(377)      

    Despite the increasing depletion of the groundwater at the Zhangjiakou aquifer system in the northwest of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, little information is available on the hydrological process of groundwater in this region. In this study, we utilized water isotopes composition (δ18O, δD and3H) of groundwater, river and precipitation to identify the characteristics of hydrochemistry, groundwater age and recharge rates in different watersheds of the Zhangjiakou area. Results showed that the river water and groundwater could be characterized as HCO3-Mg·Na, HCO3·Cl-Na and HCO3-Mg·Na, HCO3·Cl-Na, HCO3·Cl-Na·Mg types, respectively. The δD and δ18O values in precipitation were linearly correlated, which is similar to the Global Meteorological Water Line (GMWL). Furthermore, the decreasing values of the δD and δ18O from precipitation to surface water and groundwater indicate that groundwater is mainly recharged by atmospheric precipitation. In addition, the variation of3H concentration with depth suggests that groundwater shallower than around 100 m is generally modern water. In contrast, groundwater deeper around 100 m is a mixture of modern and old waters, which has longer residence times. Groundwater showed a relatively low tritium concentration in the confined aquifers, indicating the groundwater recharged might be relatively old groundwater of over 60 years. The flow velocity of the groundwater in the study area varied from 1.10 to 2.26 m/a, and the recharge rates ranged from 0.034 to 0.203 m/a. The obtained findings provide important insights into understanding the groundwater recharge sources and hydrochemistry in the Zhangjiakou area, in turn developing a sustainable groundwater management plan.

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    Attribution analysis for water yield service based on the geographical detector method: A case study of the Hengduan Mountain region
    DAI Erfu, WANG Yahui
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2020, 30 (6): 1005-1020.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-020-1767-y
    Abstract112)   HTML1)    PDF (2338KB)(20)      

    Ecosystem services, which include water yield services, have been incorporated into decision processes of regional land use planning and sustainable development. Spatial pattern characteristics and identification of factors that influence water yield are the basis for decision making. However, there are limited studies on the driving mechanisms that affect the spatial heterogeneity of ecosystem services. In this study, we used the Hengduan Mountain region in southwest China, with obvious spatial heterogeneity, as the research site. The water yield module in the InVEST software was used to simulate the spatial distribution of water yield. Also, quantitative attribution analysis was conducted for various geomorphological and climatic zones in the Hengduan Mountain region by using the geographical detector method. Influencing factors, such as climate, topography, soil, vegetation type, and land use type and pattern, were taken into consideration for this analysis. Four key findings were obtained. First, water yield spatial heterogeneity is influenced most by climate-related factors, where precipitation and evapotranspiration are the dominant factors. Second, the relative importance of each impact factor to the water yield heterogeneity differs significantly by geomorphological and climatic zones. In flat areas, the influence of evapotranspiration is higher than that of precipitation. As relief increases, the importance of precipitation increases and eventually, it becomes the most influential factor. Evapotranspiration is the most influential factor in a plateau climate zone, while in the mid-subtropical zone, precipitation is the main controlling factor. Third, land use type is also an important driving force in flat areas. Thus, more attention should be paid to urbanization and land use planning, which involves land use changes, to mitigate the impact on water yield spatial pattern. The fourth finding was that a risk detector showed that Primarosol and Anthropogenic soil areas, shrub areas, and areas with slope <5° and 25°-35° should be recognized as water yield important zones, while the corresponding elevation values are different among different geomorphological and climatic zones. Therefore, the spatial heterogeneity and influencing factors in different zones should be fully considered while planning the maintenance and protection of water yield services in the Hengduan Mountain region.

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    Identification of the key factors affecting Chinese carbon intensity and their historical trends using random forest algorithm
    TANG Zhipeng, MEI Ziao, LIU Weidong, XIA Yan
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2020, 30 (5): 743-756.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-020-1753-4
    Abstract112)   HTML3)    PDF (685KB)(424)      

    The Chinese government ratified the Paris Climate Agreement in 2016. Accordingly, China aims to reduce carbon dioxide emissions per unit of gross domestic product (carbon intensity) to 60%-65% of 2005 levels by 2030. However, since numerous factors influence carbon intensity in China, it is critical to assess their relative importance to determine the most important factors. As traditional methods are inadequate for identifying key factors from a range of factors acting in concert, machine learning was applied in this study. Specifically, random forest algorithm, which is based on decision tree theory, was employed because it is insensitive to multicollinearity, is robust to missing and unbalanced data, and provides reasonable predictive results. We identified the key factors affecting carbon intensity in China using random forest algorithm and analyzed the evolution in the key factors from 1980 to 2017. The dominant factors affecting carbon intensity in China from 1980 to 1991 included the scale and proportion of energy-intensive industry, the proportion of fossil fuel-based energy, and technological progress. The Chinese economy developed rapidly between 1992 and 2007; during this time, the effects of the proportion of service industry, price of fossil fuel, and traditional residential consumption on carbon intensity increased. Subsequently, the Chinese economy entered a period of structural adjustment after the 2008 global financial crisis; during this period, reductions in emissions and the availability of new energy types began to have effects on carbon intensity, and the importance of residential consumption increased. The results suggest that optimizing the energy and industrial structures, promoting technological advancement, increasing green consumption, and reducing emissions are keys to decreasing carbon intensity within China in the future. These approaches will help achieve the goal of reducing carbon intensity to 60%-65% of the 2005 level by 2030.

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    A review of mass flux monitoring and estimation methods for biogeochemical interface processes in watersheds
    LU Yao, GAO Yang, YANG Tiantian
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2020, 30 (6): 881-907.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-020-1760-5
    Abstract111)   HTML12)    PDF (1511KB)(32)      

    The magnitude of mass flux is closely associated with biogeochemical watershed processes, which can generate a considerable amount of pertinent information. Moreover, both the accuracy and precision of mass flux estimation results directly affects the perception of the ecological environmental status, which in turn affects both the formulation and implementation of river basin management planning. In practical applications, the true value of flux is unknown and can only be estimated. Flux results obtained using different monitoring and estimation methods also differ significantly. However, in existing studies on mass flux associated with biogeochemical watershed interfaces, the application of monitoring and estimation methods lacks uniform criteria or references. Accordingly, this study summarizes and deconstructs results from recent studies on biogeochemical watershed interface processes and compares the advantages, disadvantages and applicability of the monitoring and estimation methods used by these studies. This particular study is intended to be used as a reference for the selection of flux calculation methods.

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    Differential changes in precipitation and runoff discharge during 1958-2017 in the headwater region of Yellow River of China
    HOU Bingfei, JIANG Chao, SUN Osbert Jianxin
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2020, 30 (9): 1401-1418.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-020-1789-5
    Abstract106)   HTML1)    PDF (1635KB)(38)      

    Maintenance of steady streamflow is a critical attribute of the continental river systems for safeguarding downstream ecosystems and agricultural production. Global climate change imposes a potential risk to water supply from the headwater by changing the magnitude and frequency of precipitation and evapotranspiration in the region. To determine if and to what extent the recent climate changes affected streamflow in major river systems, we examined the pattern of temporal variations in precipitation, temperature, evapotranspiration and changes in runoff discharge during 1958-2017 in the headwater region of the Yellow River in northeastern Tibetan Plateau. We identified 1989 as the turning point for a statistically significant 14% reduction in streamflow discharge (P < 0.05) for the period 1989-2017 compared with 1958-1988, approximately coinciding with changes in the monthly distribution but not the interannual variations of precipitation, and detected a mismatch between precipitation and runoff after 2000. Both annual precipitation and runoff discharge displayed four- and eight-year cyclic patterns of changes for the period 1958-1988, and a six-year cyclic pattern of changes for the period 1989-2017, with two intensified two-year cyclic patterns in the changes of precipitation and a three-year cyclic pattern in the change of runoff further detected for the later period. Our results indicate that the temporal changes in runoff are not strictly consistent with the temporal variations of precipitation in the headwater region of Yellow River during the period 1958-2017. In particular, a full recovery in annual precipitation was not reflected in a full recovery in runoff toward the end of the study period. While a review of literature yielded no apparent evidence of raised evapotranspiration in the region due to recent warming, we draw attention to increased local retention of rainwater as a possible explanation of differential changes in precipitation and runoff.

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    Spatial patterns of Pinus tabulaeformis and Pinus massoniana forests in Qinling-Daba Mountains and the boundary of subtropical and warm temperate zones
    YAO Yonghui, HU Yufan, KOU Zhixiang, ZHANG Baiping
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2020, 30 (9): 1523-1533.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-020-1797-5
    Abstract101)   HTML1)    PDF (2222KB)(160)      

    The Qinling Mountains is not only the geographical boundary between North and South China, but also the boundary between subtropical and warm temperate zones. It plays an important role in the geo-ecological pattern of China. However, there is controversy about the specific location of this geographical boundary in academic community due to the complexity, transition and heterogeneity of the transitional zone, as well as the differences in the delimitation indicators and research purposes. To further reveal the characteristics of the North-South transitional zone and clarify the specific location of the geo-ecological boundary between North and South China, combined with SRTM topographic data, temperature and precipitation data, Pinus massoniana forest and Pinus tabulaeformis forest, which represent subtropical coniferous forest in South China and temperate coniferous forest in North China respectively, were chosen to analyze their spatial distributions in the Qinling-Daba Mountains and the climatic conditions at their boundary with the climatic indexes of annual precipitation, the coldest month (January) average temperature, the warmest month (July) average temperature and the annual average temperature. The results show that: (1) Pinus massoniana and Pinus tabulaeformis forests and the climate indicators of their boundary can be used as one of the vegetation-climate indexes for the delimitation of subtropical and warm temperate zones. The boundary between the subtropical coniferous forest (Pinus massoniana forest) and temperate coniferous forest (Pinus tabulaeformis forest) is located along the south slope of Funiu Mountain to the north edge of Hanzhong Basin (the south slope of Qinling Mountains) at an altitude of 1000-1200 m, where the climatic indictors are stable: the annual precipitation is about 750-1000 mm, the annual average temperature is about 12-14℃, the coldest monthly average temperature is 0-4℃, and the warmest monthly average temperature is about 22-26℃. (2) It can be more scientifically to delimitate the boundary of subtropical and warm temperate zones in China by comprehensively considering the vegetation-climate indicators. Additionally, the boundary between subtropical and warm temperate zones in Qinling-Daba Mountains should be a transitional zone consisting of the boundaries of coniferous forests, broad-leaved forests and shrubs between subtropical and warm temperate zones. The results provide a scientific basis for the selection of delimitation index of subtropical and warm temperate zones.

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    Accumulation phenomena in fluvial processes and the corresponding stochastic model
    JING Huan, ZHONG Deyu, ZHANG Hongwu, SHI Xufang, WANG Yanjun
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2020, 30 (6): 1021-1040.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-020-1768-x
    Abstract99)   HTML6)    PDF (1553KB)(13)      

    Accumulation occurs widely in fluvial processes. Accurately accounting for the effects of previous water and sediment conditions on accumulation is essential for studying riverbed evolution. In this study, to reveal the physical mechanisms of accumulation, various geometric observations of both the upstream and downstream reaches of dams on several typical fluvial channels were analyzed. The changes in water and sediment conditions were defined as external disturbances. Assuming that the probability of an external disturbance conforms to a Poisson distribution, and that the response intensity induced by an individual disturbance decays exponentially over time, a mathematical description of the accumulation of internal responses to external disturbances is given. Furthermore, a corresponding theoretical model for simulating the spatiotemporal readjustments of characteristic river variables is proposed based on stochastic theory. The proposed models are then applied to investigate spatiotemporal readjustment in the upper and lower reaches of dams following their construction. The results indicate that temporally, the vertical, lateral, and overall readjustment rates of the reaches are relatively fast in the early period following dam construction but then decrease rapidly over time. Accumulated riverbed degradation, channel width, and sedimentation continuously increase until a new dynamic equilibrium is reached. These phenomena reflect the representative accumulation characteristics of fluvial processes. Spatially, the erosion intensities in downstream reaches decrease nonlinearly along the channel until eventually diminishing. The unbalanced spatial distribution of erosion intensity arises from the system response characterized by propagation in space but decay over time, which is characteristic of accumulation phenomena after disturbances. The results of the developed model show that the spatiotemporal readjustments of the studied cross-sections and channel reaches can be accurately described by the unified theoretical formula derived herein. The model predictions show good agreement with observed field data with determination coefficients of 0.92, 0.93, 0.76, and 0.95 for vertical, lateral, longitudinal, and overall readjustments, respectively. The proposed theoretical models account for both the accumulation characteristics of fluvial processes and their spatial distributions. In demonstrating the proposed approach, this study provides a theoretical basis and new calculation method for quantitatively describing the spatiotemporal readjustments of non-equilibrium fluvial channels following external disturbances.

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    Effects of land use and cultivation time on soil organic and inorganic carbon storage in deep soils
    YU Xia, ZHOU Weijian, WANG Yunqiang, CHENG Peng, HOU Yaoyao, XIONG Xiaohu, DU Hua, YANG Ling, WANG Ya
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2020, 30 (6): 921-934.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-020-1762-3
    Abstract97)   HTML1)    PDF (2472KB)(294)      

    The vertical distribution and exchange mechanisms of soil organic and inorganic carbon (SOC, SIC) play an important role in assessing carbon (C) cycling and budgets. However, the impact of land use through time for deep soil C (below 100 cm) is not well known. To investigate deep C storage under different land uses and evaluate how it changes with time, we collected soil samples to a depth of 500 cm in a soil profile in the Gutun watershed on the Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP); and determined SOC, SIC, and bulk density. The magnitude of SOC stocks in the 0-500 cm depth range fell into the following ranking: shrubland (17.2 kg m-2) > grassland (16.3 kg m-2) > forestland (15.2 kg m-2) > cropland (14.1 kg m-2) > gully land (6.4 kg m-2). The ranking for SIC stocks were: grassland (104.1 kg m-2) > forestland (96.2 kg m-2) > shrubland (90.6 kg m-2) > cropland (82.4 kg m-2) > gully land (50.3 kg m-2). Respective SOC and SIC stocks were at least 1.6- and 2.1-fold higher within the 100-500 cm depth range, as compared to the 0-100 cm depth range. Overall SOC and SIC stocks decreased significantly from the 5th to the 15th year of cultivation in croplands, and generally increased up to the 70th year. Both SOC and SIC stocks showed a turning point at 15 years cultivation, which should be considered when evaluating soil C sequestration. Estimates of C stocks greatly depends on soil sampling depth, and understanding the influences of land use and time will improve soil productivity and conservation in regions with deep soils.

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    A study of the construction times of the ancient cities in Ganjia Basin, Gansu Province, China
    XIA Huan, ZHANG Dongju, WANG Qiang, WU Duo, DUAN Yanwu, CHEN Fahu
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2020, 30 (9): 1467-1480.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-020-1793-9
    Abstract97)   HTML0)    PDF (4219KB)(19)      

    The Ganjia Basin in Xiahe County, Gansu Province, China, is located on the northeastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau. The area lies in the transitional zone between the Plateau ethnic groups dominated by ancestral Tibetans, and the Central Plains dynasties dominated by ancestral Han in history. The Ganjia Basin is therefore well suited to studying the history of the intermixing of the Han and Tibetan peoples. In this study, we collected samples of organic materials from two ancient cities, Bajiaocheng (BJC) and Sirougucheng (SRGC), in the Ganjia Basin, which were used for radiocarbon dating. Our aims were to determine the construction times and function of the cities, based on the radiocarbon ages, Bayesian age modeling, and the analysis of relevant historical records. The results are used to discuss the role of the Ganjia Basin in the conflicts between and the integration of the two ethnic groups during the historical period. We conclude that BJC was established during 663-732 CE (Common Era); its early occupation history can be divided into an initial establishment phase (670-780 CE) and a phase of regeneration (880-1030 CE). SRGC was probably built at the time of the transition between the Song and Yuan dynasties (~1271 CE). Combining the dating results with an analysis of the architectural styles and historical records, we conclude that BJC was originally built by the Tubo Kingdom as a military stronghold, and its major functions were military, economic and religious, and to support the major eastward expansion of the Tubo. SRGC was most likely a temple-focused city intended to promote Tibetan Buddhism which was a major political and religious leadership for the Tibetans at that time, reflecting changes in the status of different religions in the Ganjia Basin. In addition, the intermixing and blending of the Han and Tibetan groups, reflected by the human activities in the Ganjia Basin, was an important demographic and cultural foundation for the formation of the culturally-diverse but spiritually-united modern Chinese people.

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    Iterative construction of low-altitude UAV air route network in urban areas: Case planning and assessment
    XU Chenchen, LIAO Xiaohan, YE Huping, YUE Huanyin
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2020, 30 (9): 1534-1552.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-020-1798-4
    Abstract95)   HTML0)    PDF (7777KB)(21)      

    With the rapid increase of Unmanned Aircraft Vehicle (UAV) numbers, the contradiction between extensive flight demands and limited low-altitude airspace resources has become increasingly prominent. To ensure the safety and efficiency of low-altitude UAV operations, the low-altitude UAV public air route creatively proposed by the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) and supported by the Civil Aviation Administration of China (CAAC) has been gradually recognized. However, present planning research on UAV low-altitude air route is not enough to explore how to use the ground transportation infrastructure, how to closely combine the surface pattern characteristics, and how to form the mechanism of “network”. Based on the solution proposed in the early stage and related researches, this paper further deepens the exploration of the low-altitude public air route network and the implementation of key technologies and steps with an actual case study in Tianjin, China. Firstly, a path-planning environment consisting of favorable spaces, obstacle spaces, and mobile communication spaces for UAV flights was pre-constructed. Subsequently, air routes were planned by using the conflict detection and path re-planning algorithm. Our study also assessed the network by computing the population exposure risk index (PERI) and found that the index value was greatly reduced after the construction of the network, indicating that the network can effectively reduce the operational risk. In this study, a low-altitude UAV air route network in an actual region was constructed using multidisciplinary approaches such as remote sensing, geographic information, aviation, and transportation; it indirectly verified the rationality of the outcomes. This can provide practical solutions to low-altitude traffic problems in urban areas.

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    Vertical differentiation of land cover in the central Himalayas
    ZHANG Yili, WU Xue, ZHENG Du
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2020, 30 (6): 969-987.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-020-1765-0
    Abstract93)   HTML3)    PDF (1937KB)(17)      

    Characterized by obvious altitudinal variation, habitat complexity, and diversity in land cover, the Mt. Qomolangma region within the central Himalayas is one of the most sensitive areas to climate change in the world. At the same time, because the Mt. Qomolangma region possesses the most complete natural vertical spectrum in the world, it is also an ideal place to study the vertical structure of alpine land cover. In this study, land cover data for 2010 along with digital elevation model data were used to define three methods for dividing the northern and southern slopes in the Mt. Qomolangma region, i.e., the ridgeline method, the sample transect method, and the sector method. The altitudinal distributions of different land cover types were then investigated for both the northern and southern slopes of the Mt. Qomolangma region by using the above three division methods along with ArcGIS and MATLAB tools. The results indicate that the land cover in the study region was characterized by obviously vertical zonation with the south-six and north-four pattern of vertical spectrum that reflected both the natural vertical structure of vegetation and the effects of human activities. From low to high elevation, the main land cover types were forests, grasslands, sparse vegetation, bare land, and glacier/snow cover. The compositions and distributions of land cover types differed significantly between the northern and southern slopes; the southern slope exhibited more complex land cover distributions with wider elevation ranges than the northern slope. The area proportion of each land cover type also varied with elevation. Accordingly, the vertical distribution patterns of different land cover types on the southern and northern slopes could be divided into four categories, with glaciers/snow cover, sparse vegetation, and grasslands conforming to unimodal distributions. The distribution of bare land followed a unimodal pattern on the southern slope but a bimodal pattern on the northern slope. Finally, the use of different slope division methods produced similar vertical belt structures on the southern slope but different ones on the northern slope. Among the three division methods, the sector method was better to reflect the natural distribution pattern of land cover.

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    Simulation and construction of the glacier mass balance in the Manas River Basin, Tianshan, China from 2000 to 2016
    ZHAO Guining, ZHANG Zhengyong, LIU Lin, LI Zhongqin, WANG Puyu, XU Liping
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2020, 30 (6): 988-1004.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-020-1766-z
    Abstract93)   HTML4)    PDF (1133KB)(14)      

    The glacier mass balance (GMB) is an important link between climate and water resources and has remarkable regulatory functions in river runoff. To simulate changes of the GMB and to analyze the recharge rates of glacier meltwater to runoff in the Manas River Basin (MRB) during 2000-2016, MOD11C3, TRMM 3B43 and other multi-source remote sensing data were used to drive the degree-day model. The results showed that: (1) the accuracy of the remote sensing meteorological data can be corrected effectively by constructing the temperature and precipitation inversion models, and the characteristics of glacial climate can be finely described through downscaling. The average annual temperature was -7.57 °C and the annual precipitation was 410.71 mm in the glacier area of the MRB. The zone at an altitude of about 4200 m was a severe climate change zone, and above and below that zone, the temperature drop rates were -0.03°C/100 m and -0.57°C/100 m, respectively, while precipitation gradients were -2.66 mm/100 m and 4.89 mm/100 m, respectively. (2) The overall GMB was negative with a cumulative GMB of up to -9811.19 mm w.e. and the average annual GMB fluctuated between -464.85 and -632.19 mm w.e. Besides, the glacier melted slowly during 2000-2002 and 2008-2010, but rapidly for 2002-2008 and 2010-2016, while the most serious loss of the glacier occurred in 2005-2009. Moreover, the vertical changes of the GMB increased at 244.83 mm w.e./100 m in the ablation zone but only at 18.77 mm w.e./100 m in the accumulation zone. (3) The intraannual runoff strongly responded to the change of the GMB especially in July and August when the loss of the GMB accounted for 75.4% of the annual loss, and when runoff accounted for 55.1% of the annual total. Due to differences in the annual precipitation and snow meltwater outside the glacier, the interannual glacier meltwater recharge rates fluctuated between 19% and 31%. The recharge rate of glacier meltwater to runoff in the MRB was close to that for other basins in the Tianshan Mountains, which may be used as a basis to confirm the reliability of the estimated GMB results. Furthermore, based on the present findings, it is recommended that the research community pursue studies on the GMB in other alpine river basins.

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    Simulation on the stochastic evolution of hydraulic geometry relationships with the stochastic changing bankfull discharges in the Lower Yellow River
    SONG Xiaolong, ZHONG Deyu, WANG Guangqian
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2020, 30 (5): 843-864.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-020-1758-z
    Abstract92)   HTML0)    PDF (3447KB)(15)      

    Extreme weather is an important noise factor in affecting dynamic access to river morphology information. The response characteristics of river channel on climate disturbances draw us to develop a method to investigate the dynamic evolution of bankfull channel geometries (including the hydraulic geometry variables and bankfull discharges) with stochastic differential equations in this study. Three different forms of random inputs, including single Gaussian white noise and compound Gaussian/Fractional white noise plus Poisson noise, are explored respectively on the basis of the classical deterministic models. The model parameters are consistently estimated by applying a composite nonparametric maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) method. Results of the model application in the Lower Yellow River reveal the potential responses of bankfull channel geometries to climate disturbances in a probabilistic way, and, the calculated average trends mainly run to synchronize with the measured values. Comparisons among the three models confirm the advantage of Fractional jump-diffusion model, and through further discussion, stream power based on such a model is concluded as a better systematic measure of river dynamics. The proposed method helps to offer an effective tool for analyzing fluvial relationships and improves the ability of crisis management of river system under varying environment conditions.

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    Patterns and trends in grain self-sufficiency on the Tibetan Plateau during 1985-2016
    SHI Wenjiao, LU Changhe, SHI Xiaoli, CUI Jiaying
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2020, 30 (10): 1590-1602.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-020-1801-0
    Abstract92)   HTML11)    PDF (1164KB)(61)      

    Capacity for grain self-sufficiency on the Tibetan Plateau (TP) is an important basis for ensuring social stability and regional sustainability. Thus, based on county-level statistical data for population, grain production and consumption, we analyzed patterns and trends in grain supply and demand at regional, provincial, and county levels on the TP between 1985 and 2016. We applied two indices to evaluate capacity for grain self-sufficiency and found that the regional average self-sufficiency rate increased quickly by 1.97%/a since 1989, reaching 173.03% on the plateau over the period between 2010 and 2016. This indicates that grain supply in this region is able to fully meet demand. In addition, all provinces apart from Xinjiang exhibited similar increasing trends, attaining grain self-sufficiency during 2010-2016. Furthermore, 59% of counties attained grain self-sufficiency over this period, mainly distributed in southern Tibet, in the Sichuan-Tibet junction area, and in eastern Qinghai Province. A number of gaps in grain supply and demand occurred within the headwater regions of the Yangtze and Yellow rivers as well as on the Qiangtang Plateau. Grain self-sufficiency significantly increased over the study period in 36% of counties, mainly distributed in the agricultural areas of southeastern Tibet and in eastern Qinghai. Across the whole plateau, capacity for grain self-sufficiency substantially increased between 1985 and 2016, although serious spatial imbalances remain.

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    Magnetic characteristics of lake sediments in Qiangyong Co Lake, southern Tibetan Plateau and their application to the evaluation of mercury deposition
    GAO Xing, KANG Shichang, LIU Qingsong, CHEN Pengfei, DUAN Zongqi
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2020, 30 (9): 1481-1494.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-020-1794-8
    Abstract86)   HTML0)    PDF (2452KB)(14)      

    Heavy metals, one of the most toxic classes of pollutants, are resistant to degradation and harmful to the biological environment. The lakes that have developed on the Tibetan Plateau are ideal regions to investigate historic heavy metal pollution, particularly through the use of the reliable210Pb dating technique. Environmental magnetism has been successfully applied to estimate heavy metal pollution in different environmental systems due to its characteristics of simple processing steps, good sensitivity, and non-destructibility. However, it has not yet been applied to assess heavy metal pollution in lake sediments on the Tibetan Plateau. A series of environmental magnetic investigations of Qiangyong Co Lake sediments (southern Tibetan Plateau) was therefore conducted to explore the relationship between magnetic minerals and mercury (Hg) concentrations. The results showed that the magnetic mineral species in lake sediments remained stable, with similar levels of four different components from 1899 to 2011. However, the proportion of component 1 (C1, hematite) increased continuously with the corresponding decrease in the proportion of C2 (goethite), while the proportions of C3 and C4 (magnetite) did not change significantly. As a result, the bulk magnetic signals (e.g., SIRM and χlf) were unsuitable for the evaluation of the Hg concentration; however, the proportion of hematite had a strong positive correlation with the Hg concentration. It is possible that the Qiangyong Glacier (the main water supply for Qiangyong Co Lake) has experienced faster melting with global and local warming, and the Hg trapped in cryoconite and ice was released. Hematite, with a large specific surface area, has a strong capacity for absorbing Hg, and both materials are ultimately transported to Qiangyong Co Lake. The proportion of hematite in a sample is therefore a suitable semi-quantitative proxy that can be used to evaluate the Hg concentration in Qiangyong Co Lake sediments. This study confirmed that the variation of magnetic minerals can provide a new method to estimate the variation of Hg concentrations and to study the process of Hg deposition in lakes in the southern Tibetan Plateau on the basis of a detailed environmental magnetic analysis.

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    Influence of canopy and topographic position on soil moisture response to rainfall in a hilly catchment of Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China
    LIU Muxing, WANG Qiuyue, GUO Li, YI Jun, LIN Henry, ZHU Qing, FAN Bihang, ZHANG Hailin
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2020, 30 (6): 949-968.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-020-1764-1
    Abstract84)   HTML1)    PDF (4428KB)(15)      

    Rainfall provides essential water resource for vegetation growth and acts as driving force for hydrologic process, bedrock weathering and nutrient cycle in the steep hilly catchment. But the effects of rainfall features, vegetation types, topography, and also their interactions on soil water movement and soil moisture dynamics are inadequately quantified. During the coupled wet and dry periods of the year 2018 to 2019, time-series soil moisture was monitored with 5-min interval resolution in a hilly catchment of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area in China. Three hillslopes covered with evergreen forest (EG), secondary deciduous forest mixed with shrubs (SDFS) and deforested pasture (DP) were selected, and two monitoring sites with five detected depths were established at upslope and downslope position, respectively. Several parameters expressing soil moisture response to rainfall event were evaluated, including wetting depth, cumulative rainfall amount and lag time before initial response, maximum increase of soil water storage, and transform ratio of rainwater to soil water. The results indicated that rainfall amount is the dominant rainfall variable controlling soil moisture response to rainfall event. No soil moisture response occurred when rainfall amounts was <8 mm, and all the deepest monitoring sensors detected soil moisture increase when total rainfall amounts was >30 mm. In the wet period, the cumulative rainfall amount to trigger surface soil moisture response in EG-up site was significantly higher than in other five sites. However, no significant difference in cumulative rainfall amount to trigger soil moisture response was observed among all study sites in dry period. Vegetation canopy interception reduced the transform ratio of rainwater to soil water, with a higher reduction in vegetation growth period than in other period. Also, interception of vegetation canopy resulted in a larger accumulated rainfall amount and a longer lag time for initiating soil moisture response to rainfall. Generally, average cumulative rainfall amount for initiating soil moisture response during dry period of all sites (3.5-5.6 mm) were less than during wet period (5.7-19.7 mm). Forests captured more infiltration water compared with deforested pasture, showing the larger increments of both soil water storage for the whole soil profile and volumetric soil water content at 10 cm depth on two forest slopes. Topography dominated soil subsurface flow, proven by the evidences that less rainfall amount and less time was needed to trigger soil moisture response and also larger accumulated soil water storage increment in downslope site than in corresponding upslope site during heavy rainfall events.

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    Exploring the urban-rural development differences and influencing factors in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain of China
    CHENG Mingyang, LI Linna, ZHOU Yang
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2020, 30 (10): 1603-1616.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-020-1802-z
    Abstract83)   HTML4)    PDF (1695KB)(79)      

    Uneven urban and rural development is one of the main reasons for the decline of the countryside. This imbalance could be measured by the urban-rural difference index (URDI). Existing studies on urban-rural differences have focused on single dimension between urban and rural areas, and lack a systematic multi-dimensional measurement. Based on the construction of an index system and model for measuring urban-rural differences, this study took the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain (HHHP) as the study area, explores the spatial pattern of urban-rural differences in the area, and used geographical weighted regression models to identify the factors affecting urban-rural development differences. Results show that the mean value of URDI in the HHHP was 0.295, and the URDI in its western region was higher than that in the east. The average URDI was relatively high in the western counties along the Beijing-Guangzhou Railway. The low level of urban-rural “population-land-industry” development in the HHHP is an important reason for the small differences between urban and rural areas. Improvements in road transportation infrastructure have led to an increase in the urban-rural development gap. However, the driving force of the road network on urban development is greater than that on rural areas. The role of county economic agglomeration is gaining strength. In the process of rapid economic development, more attention should be paid to the development of the rural economy and the overall revitalization of the countryside. The equivalent allocation of social service facilities is an effective way to solve the problem of urban-rural imbalance. Further analysis demonstrated that terrain factors have relatively little influence on the URDI. This study provides a new perspective and measurement method for understanding the integration of urban and rural development, and provides a useful reference for guiding the urban-rural integration development and the rural revitalization.

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