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    China’s food security situation and key questions in the new era: A perspective of farmland protection
    LIANG Xinyuan, JIN Xiaobin, HAN Bo, SUN Rui, XU Weiyi, LI Hanbing, HE Jie, LI Jin
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2022, 32 (6): 1001-1019.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-022-1982-9
    Abstract264)   HTML13)    PDF (1273KB)(116)      

    As the world’s largest developing country, the ability of China’s agricultural resource utilization to effectively support the current and future food security goals has been affected by a variety of factors (e.g., transformed supply channels, tightening international situation and frequent emergencies) in recent years and has attracted extensive attention from the academic community subject to multiple factors. This study uses literature review, statistical analysis, and spatial analysis methods to systematically explore China’s food security situation in the context of farmland resource constraints. It is found that the demand-side pressures such as demographic changes, social class differentiation, and dietary structure adjustments derived from economic growth and rapid urbanization have placed extremely high expectations on food supply. However, the quantitative restrictions, utilization ways, and health risks of farmland resources on the supply side constitute a huge hidden concern that affects the stability of food production. Although China’s farmland protection system is undergoing a transition from focusing on quantity management to sustainable use, the matching and coordinating demand pressure and supply capacity for food security is unbalanced. Therefore, facing uncertain future development scenarios, policymakers should focus on building a resilient space for China’s farmland protection to withstand the interference of major emergencies. The existing farmland protection space policy can be integrated by establishing a national farmland strategic reserve system (based on resilient space), and further development of targeted use control measures for zoning, grading, and classification will help realize sustainable China’s farmland resources use.

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    Spatio-temporal patterns and driving mechanism of farmland fragmentation in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain
    ZHENG Yuhan, LONG Hualou, CHEN Kunqiu
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2022, 32 (6): 1020-1038.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-022-1983-8
    Abstract152)   HTML9)    PDF (3085KB)(42)      

    Exploring the spatio-temporal variations of farmland landscape patterns in a traditional agricultural region can provide scientific support for decision-making on sustainable rural land use and rural vitalization development. This study established a comprehensive evaluation index for farmland fragmentation with multiple aspects (dominance, integrity, aggregation, regularity, and connectivity) at the county scale. The goal was to identify the evolution of farmland fragmentation in the traditional agricultural region of the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain during 2000-2015 and investigate underlying drivers using panel data of 359 counties. Results showed an accelerating but fluctuating fragmentation pattern of the farmland landscape. The indexes of dominance, integrity, and aggregation of farmland decreased most sharply, while the index of connectivity increased. Furthermore, the evolution of the farmland fragmentation pattern showed significant spatio-temporal heterogeneity, which is similar to the trajectory of urbanization and land use transition. Farmland fragmentation in municipal districts also emerged earlier and was more severe than in county-level cities and counties. Factors influenced by advancing urbanization include the proportion of artificial land, population density, and proportion of primary industry; these factors drove the evolution of farmland fragmentation. In contrast, the increase in income of rural residents and production efficiency of farmland were the key factors contributing to the improvement in farmland connectivity.

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    An influencing mechanism for ecological asset gains and losses and its optimization and promotion pathways in China
    LI Jiahui, HUANG Lin, CAO Wei
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2022, 32 (10): 1867-1885.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-022-2027-0
    Abstract147)   HTML2)    PDF (10080KB)(15)      

    Accounting for the gains and losses of ecological assets holds scientific significance in sustaining human well-being. Based on related research on ecological assets, we established a county-scale ecological asset accounting technology system by analyzing the temporal and spatial variations of county-level ecological assets in China from 1990 to 2018 and clarified the factors which caused the gains and losses of ecological assets. On these bases, optimization and promotion pathways were proposed. The results show that the number of counties dominated by farmland and forest ecological resources accounted for about 45% and 37% of the total counties, respectively. From 1990 to 2018, the quality of county-level ecological stock assets showed an increasing trend, while the water conservation volume decreased in nearly 70% of the counties. The number of counties with the gains (47%) and losses (37%) of ecological flow assets demonstrated spatial patterns which showed the same segmentation characteristics as the “Hu Huanyong Line”, that is, the counties in the vastness of northwest China experienced significant gains, while decreases were widespread in eastern and southern China. The change of ecological assets in more than 70% of the counties was driven by climate change and human activities. The average degree of impact of human activities driving the ecological asset gains in counties was about 80%, while that of climate change causing the ecological asset losses was about 60%. According to various ecological resource types, gain and loss status, and its driving factors, counties in China can be classified into five types: climate change mitigation, climate change adaptation, ecological resources restoration, ecological resources protection, and ecological resources management. Our results indicate that differentiated optimization and promotion pathways can be adopted to achieve desired ecological asset gains.

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    Ecological changes and the tradeoff and synergy of ecosystem services in western China
    NIU Linan, SHAO Quanqin, NING Jia, HUANG Haibo
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2022, 32 (6): 1059-1075.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-022-1985-6
    Abstract122)   HTML5)    PDF (1364KB)(41)      

    Since the implementation of the Development of Western Regions in 2000, a series of major ecological construction projects have been implemented, leading to a series of changes in the ecological conditions and ecological services of western China. This study calculated the amount of ecosystem services in total in the western region from 2000 to 2019, and analyzed ecological changes and the characteristics of spatio-temporal variations in ecological services. A relevant analysis method was applied to explore the tradeoff and synergy of service. It was found that the area of settlements and wetland ecosystems in the western region increased significantly from 2000 to 2015, whereas grassland showed a downward trend year by year. The vegetation fraction showed a decreasing belt-like distribution from south to north. It showed a fluctuating increase during 2000 to 2019, with inter-annual and large spatial differences. The water conservation service (WCS) had a slight downward trend from 2000 to 2019, and the main decreasing areas were distributed in southeastern Tibet, the western part of the Three Rivers Source region, and the karst rocky desertification area. The soil conservation service (SCS) showed an increasing but fluctuating trend, with the greatest increases observed in the Loess Plateau region, western Sichuan and Yunnan, northwest Tibet, and southeast Tibet. The windbreak and sand fixation service (SFS) showed a downward trend, and the sharp decline was mainly in the central and western parts of Inner Mongolia, Tibet and parts of northern Xinjiang. Ecosystem supply and WCS, and SCS were mainly synergistic, which were found in areas north of the Qinling Mountains-Huaihe River (QM-HR) line, especially in Ningxia and Inner Mongolia. Ecosystem supply was mainly tradeoffs with SFS, and it was found in the agriculture-pastoral transition zone. The synergistic degree of ecosystem services in areas subjected to ecological engineering policy was greater than that in non-engineering areas. Quantitative assessment of ecosystem service changes and their tradeoffs is helpful for scientific ecological management and maximizing ecological benefits.

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    Dynamic changes and transitions of agricultural landscape patterns in mountainous areas: A case study from the hinterland of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area
    HUANG Mengqin, LI Yangbing, RAN Caihong, LI Mingzhen
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2022, 32 (6): 1039-1058.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-022-1984-7
    Abstract116)   HTML8)    PDF (15104KB)(46)      

    Analyzing the agricultural landscape patterns in mountainous areas is critical to clarify the dynamic changes and development direction of agricultural landscapes. This also plays a significant role in the rational planning and management of agricultural land. A theoretical framework for agricultural landscape pattern transitions in mountainous areas is proposed to fill the gap of current research with an empirical study in the Caotangxi Watershed, Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA), China. The transition characteristics of agricultural landscape patterns from 2000 to 2018 as represented by sloping farmland, abandoned land, and orchards are analyzed from a holistic-local perspective. The results indicate that the orchards expanded along river valleys, and abandoned land expanded at high elevations, which led to reduced sloping farmland. This phenomenon gives regional landscape differences at the holistic and local levels. Namely, it enhances the region’s holistic landscape diversity but causes fragmentation and aggregation of landscape patches in local areas. The agricultural landscape pattern transitions within the farming range in the study area are manifested primarily in four modes: sloping farmland-orchard conversion type (FOCT), comprehensive conversion type (CCT), partially abandoned type (PAT), and wholly abandoned type (WAT). Each transition mode reveals different development stages of the mountainous agricultural landscape patterns. In general, the agricultural landscape pattern transition is driven by socioeconomic factors in mountainous areas of the TGRA and is bidirectional. This attribute is expressed as the transition from the traditional grain-planting landscape with an even distribution to the eco-economic win-win orchard in valleys and transitions from sloping farmland to abandoned land in high-elevation areas. Overall, the results of this study reveal the uniqueness of agricultural landscape pattern evolutions in China’s mountainous areas in recent decades, which has enlightened the in-depth understandings of rural land use and agricultural ecosystems in mountainous areas of the TGRA, as well as improvements in rural developments and ecological environments.

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    Developing socio-hydrology: Research progress, opportunities and challenges
    XIA Jun, DONG Yi, ZOU Lei
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2022, 32 (11): 2131-2146.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-022-2040-3
    Abstract113)   HTML0)    PDF (1403KB)(4)      

    The development of industrialization and urbanization has intensified the coupling of human activities and hydrological processes and promoted the emergence of socio-hydrology. This paper addresses the issue of socio-hydrology due to new development and social demand for hydrological sciences and sustainable development. Four key scientific issues are identified through systematic analysis and summary of the relative research and international progress, i.e., (1) the long-term dynamic process of socio-hydrological system evolution; (2) quantitative description and driving mechanism analysis of socio-hydrological coupling system; (3) prediction of the trajectories of socio-hydrological system co-evolution, and (4) integrated water resource management from the perspective of water systems. Moreover, opportunities and challenges for developing socio-hydrology are emphasized, including (1) strengthening the research of interdisciplinary theoretical systems; (2) improving and broadening socio-hydrological research technical methods, and (3) supporting integrated water resources management (IWRM) for sustainable utilization goals (SDGs). The review is expected to provide a reference for the future development of socio-hydrology discipline.

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    Spatio-temporal variations and influencing factors of energy-related carbon emissions for Xinjiang cities in China based on time-series nighttime light data
    ZHANG Li, LEI Jun, WANG Changjian, WANG Fei, GENG Zhifei, ZHOU Xiaoli
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2022, 32 (10): 1886-1910.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-022-2028-z
    Abstract103)   HTML2)    PDF (6062KB)(18)      

    This essay combines the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program Operational Linescan System (DMSP-OLS) nighttime light data and the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) nighttime light data into a “synthetic DMSP” dataset, from 1992 to 2020, to retrieve the spatio-temporal variations in energy-related carbon emissions in Xinjiang, China. Then, this paper analyzes several influencing factors for spatial differentiation of carbon emissions in Xinjiang with the application of geographical detector technique. Results reveal that (1) total carbon emissions continued to grow, while the growth rate slowed down in the past five years. (2) Large regional differences exist in total carbon emissions across various regions. Total carbon emissions of these regions in descending order are the northern slope of the Tianshan (Mountains) > the southern slope of the Tianshan > the three prefectures in southern Xinjiang > the northern part of Xinjiang. (3) Economic growth, population size, and energy consumption intensity are the most important factors of spatial differentiation of carbon emissions. The interaction between economic growth and population size as well as between economic growth and energy consumption intensity also enhances the explanatory power of carbon emissions’ spatial differentiation. This paper aims to help formulate differentiated carbon reduction targets and strategies for cities in different economic development stages and those with different carbon intensities so as to achieve the carbon peak goals in different steps.

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    Spatial non-stationary characteristics between grass yield and its influencing factors in the Ningxia temperate grasslands based on a mixed geographically weighted regression model
    SONG Xiaolong, MI Nan, MI Wenbao, LI Longtang
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2022, 32 (6): 1076-1102.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-022-1986-5
    Abstract100)   HTML2)    PDF (7148KB)(10)      

    Spatial models are effective in obtaining local details on grassland biomass, and their accuracy has important practical significance for the stable management of grasses and livestock. To this end, the present study utilized measured quadrat data of grass yield across different regions in the main growing season of temperate grasslands in Ningxia of China (August 2020), combined with hydrometeorology, elevation, net primary productivity (NPP), and other auxiliary data over the same period. Accordingly, non-stationary characteristics of the spatial scale, and the effects of influencing factors on grass yield were analyzed using a mixed geographically weighted regression (MGWR) model. The results showed that the model was suitable for correlation analysis. The spatial scale of ratio resident-area index (PRI) was the largest, followed by the digital elevation model, NPP, distance from gully, distance from river, average July rainfall, and daily temperature range; whereas the spatial scales of night light, distance from roads, and relative humidity (RH) were the most limited. All influencing factors maintained positive and negative effects on grass yield, save for the strictly negative effect of RH. The regression results revealed a multiscale differential spatial response regularity of different influencing factors on grass yield. Regression parameters revealed that the results of Ordinary least squares (OLS) (Adjusted R2 = 0.642) and geographically weighted regression (GWR) (Adjusted R2 = 0.797) models were worse than those of MGWR (Adjusted R2 = 0.889) models. Based on the results of the RMSE and radius index, the simulation effect also was MGWR > GWR > OLS models. Ultimately, the MGWR model held the strongest prediction performance (R2 = 0.8306). Spatially, the grass yield was high in the south and west, and low in the north and east of the study area. The results of this study provide a new technical support for rapid and accurate estimation of grassland yield to dynamically adjust grazing decision in the semi-arid loess hilly region.

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    Spatiotemporal distribution of sea-island prehistoric dune sites, Holocene sea levels, and aeolian sand activities in Fujian Province, China
    JIN Jianhui, LING Zhiyong, LI Zhizhong, ZUO Xinxin, FAN Xuechun, HUANG Yunming, WANG Xiaoyang, WEI Changfu, REN Yongqing, QIU Junjie
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2022, 32 (6): 1157-1176.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-022-1990-9
    Abstract96)   HTML3)    PDF (8310KB)(15)      

    The lower reaches of the Minjiang River and its adjacent areas were among the most active prehistoric archaeological areas in Fujian Province. The accumulation types of Neolithic archaeological strata are roughly divided into dune sites and dune/shell mound sites. The sites can also be roughly divided into estuarine, coastal, and sea-island sites based on their geomorphic features. The cultural development of these prehistoric sites is of great significance for understanding the migration and spread of Austronesian civilization. Based on luminescence dating of typical Neolithic sites on Haitan Island, their quartz-OSL (optically stimulated luminecesence) burial ages were determined. Synthesizing previously published results, the temporospatial distribution characteristics of the sea-island sites on Haitan Island are discussed, and the relationship between Neolithic human activities and regional geomorphic processes is analyzed. The results show that: (1) the spatial and temporal distribution of the Haitan Island Neolithic sites are closely related to small-scale geomorphic features and are controlled by mesoscale geomorphic processes. The sites were mainly distributed in the foothills of two high hills along an NNE-SSW trend. With an increase in altitude, the features were distributed as “single site (I) - superimposed site - single site (II)” and appear successively. Single type sites (I) mainly appeared at low sea level, whereas single type sites (II) mainly appeared at high sea level. Superimposed sites were not subject to sea level changes. The relative elevation of the superimposed sites in the study area indicates the optimal residential area for human activities in the region. The single site with an elevation lower than the optimal residential area was mainly restricted by the lowest residential area, whereas the single site at a higher elevation than the optimal residential area was mainly affected by livelihood patterns. (2) High sea level caused by the “backwater effect” in low latitude areas in the southern hemisphere, and coastal aeolian sand activity influenced by sea level fluctuations in the middle Holocene correspond well with human activities recorded in the cultural stratigraphy of sea-island type sites. The altitude of coastal aeolian sand accumulation can be used as an indirect index to estimate the age of coastal dunes.

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    Water sources for typical desert vegetation in the Ebinur Lake basin
    HAO Shuai, LI Fadong
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2022, 32 (6): 1103-1118.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-022-1987-4
    Abstract92)   HTML2)    PDF (2596KB)(55)      

    In arid and semi-arid environments, desert vegetation plays an important role in preventing soil erosion by wind and helps maintain the stability of desert and oasis ecosystems. Four types of typical desert vegetation, namely Populus euphratica, Haloxylon ammodendron, Nitraria sibirica, and Halostachs caspica, corresponding to different habitats (i.e., river bank, sand dune, desert, and salt marsh) were chosen as the model vegetation in this research. The δ2H and δ18O for rainwater, soil water, and plant water were applied to identify the water sources and quantify the proportions of different water sources used over the entire plant growth period (from March to October). The results showed that the precipitation δ2H and δ18O in the Ebinur Lake basin varied from -142.5‰ to -0.6‰ and from -20.16‰ to 1.20‰, respectively. The largest δ2H and δ18O values occurred in summer and the smallest in winter. The soil water δ2H and δ18O of the four habitats decreased gradually with increasing depth. The δ2H and δ18O values of water extracted from the stems of the four plants had similar variation trends, that is, the maximum was observed in spring and the minimum in summer. Among the four plants, H. caspica had the highest stable isotopic values in the stem water, followed by N. sibirica, H. ammodendron, and P. euphratica. The water sources and utilization ratios of desert vegetation varied across different growth stages. Throughout the growing period, H. ammodendron mainly used groundwater, whereas the water source proportions used by N. sibirica varied greatly throughout the growing season. In spring, plants mainly relied on surface soil water, with a contribution rate of 80%-94%. However, in summer, the proportion of deep soil water used was 31%-36%; and in autumn, the proportion of middle soil water used was 33%-36%. H. caspica mainly relied on topsoil water in spring and autumn, and the proportion of soil water in the middle layer slightly increased to 20%-36% in summer. P. euphratica mainly used intermediate soil water in spring with a utilization rate of 53%-54%. In summer, groundwater was the main source, with a utilization rate of 72%-88%, and only 2%-5% came from river water, whereas in autumn, the river water utilization rate rose to 11%-21%. The results indicated that there were significant differences in water use sources during the growing period for desert vegetation in arid areas. This research provides a theoretical basis for understanding water use mechanisms, water adaptation strategies, and vegetation restoration and management in arid areas.

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    Spatiotemporal evolution of national development zones and their impact on urban land growth in China
    WANG Zhihan, KONG Xuesong, CHENG Peng
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2022, 32 (8): 1451-1470.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-022-2005-6
    Abstract86)   HTML2)    PDF (5864KB)(19)      

    Development zones are important growth poles for promoting regional economic development. However, the spatiotemporal relationship between development zone construction and urban land growth is still unclear. This paper analyzes the spatiotemporal changes of national-level development zones (NDZs), approximately 219 national economic development zones, and 156 high-tech development zones during 1990-2018 in China. The impact of development zone establishment on the growth of surrounding urban land was quantitatively explored using circle buffering analysis and time series comparative analysis. The results show that China’s NDZs spread from the southeast coast to the inland area from 1990 to 2018, and the establishment of the development zones has an obvious promoting effect on the surrounding urban land growth. The scope and intensity of influences of the development zone established in different periods present distinct nonstationarity in space and time. Overall, the impact on urban land (IU) of China’s NDZs established in different years was mostly highest at the 100 m buffer zone radius, while the slope of the IU was mostly negative, which meant that the 100 m buffer zone radius of the development zone center was the most efficient scale to promote urban land growth. In the meantime, the curve of IU of NDZs established before 1990, during 1996-2000 and 2001-2005 has a clear inflection point, which indicates that the most efficient scales of NDZs established before 1990, during 1996-2000, and 2001-2005 are 1300 m, 900-1000 m, and 800 m, respectively. NDZs established in other periods do not have the most obvious efficient scale. The development zone played the greatest role in promoting urban land growth from 2000 to 2010. Three association modes, including post-growth, pre-growth and steady-growth, were identified based on the differences in geographical location, establishment time, and type of development zones. We quantitatively identify the impact of the growth pole of NDZs on urban land growth from the perspective of spatiotemporal evolution. The findings would provide decision-making support for optimizing the spatial relationship between development zone construction and urban land growth.

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    Anthropogenic origin of a change in the fire-climate relationship in northern China after ~2000 yr BP: Evidence from a 15,500-year black carbon record from Dali Lake
    ZHANG Zhiping, LIU Jianbao, CHEN Shengqian, ZHANG Shanjia, JIA Xin, ZHOU Aifeng, ZHAO Jiaju, CHEN Jie, SHEN Zhongwei, CHEN Fahu
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2022, 32 (6): 1136-1156.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-022-1989-2
    Abstract80)   HTML4)    PDF (5709KB)(29)      

    There are debates regarding whether a wet and warm climate or a dry and cold climate dominated Holocene fire activity in northern China on the millennial timescale, and when human activities overtook climate change as the dominant control on fire occurrence in the region. Here we present a high-resolution fire history for the past ~15,500 years from a sediment core in Dali Lake, located in the foothills of the Greater Hinggan Mountains, one of the areas of highest fire risk in China. The results demonstrate that fire activity was rare during the last deglaciation (~15,500-11,700 yr BP), gradually increased at the beginning of the Holocene, and reached its highest level during ~9000-5000 yr BP, after which there was a decreasing trend. However, after ~2000 yr BP this decreasing trend ended, and the most prominent feature is a peak in fire activity during the Medieval Warm Period (MWP). Overall, fire activity corresponded well to changes in the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) precipitation on the millennial timescale during ~15,500-2000 yr BP, but this relationship changed after ~2000 yr BP. We propose that fire activity in northern China on the millennial timescale during ~15,500-2000 yr BP was dominated by the biofuels reserve under the control of the EASM precipitation. In contrast, with the intensification of human activities after ~2000 yr BP, human activity caused a ~62%-73% increase in fire activity, which altered the fire-climate relationship that had previously prevailed in northern China. Our results indicate that a wet-warm climate (increased EASM intensity), rather than a dry-cold climate, was the dominant control on fire activity in northern China during 15,500-2000 yr BP on the millennial timescale, but that human activities played an important role in fire occurrence after ~2000 yr BP.

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    Examining spatio-temporal variations in carbon budget and carbon compensation zoning in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration based on major functional zones
    XIA Siyou, YANG Yu
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2022, 32 (10): 1911-1934.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-022-2029-y
    Abstract77)   HTML0)    PDF (1581KB)(11)      

    Research on the carbon budget and zoning for carbon compensation in major functional zones (MFZs) is important for formulating strategies for low-carbon development for each functional zone, promoting the collaborative governance of the regional ecological environment, and achieving high-quality development. Such work can also contribute to achieving peak emissions and carbon neutrality. This paper constructs a theoretical framework for the carbon budget and carbon compensation from the perspective of the MFZ, uses 157 county-level units of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration (BTHUA) as the study area, and introduces the concentration index, normalized revealed comparative advantage index, and Self Organizing Mapping-K-means (SOM-K-means) model to examine spatio-temporal variations in the carbon budget and carbon compensation zoning for the BTHUA from the perspective of MFZs. The authors propose a scheme for the spatial minimization of carbon emissions as oriented by low-carbon development. The results show that: (1) From 2000 to 2017, the carbon budget exhibited an upward trend of volatility, its centralization index was higher than the “warning line” of 0.4, and large regional differences in it were noted on the whole. (2) There were significant regional differences in the carbon budget, and carbon emissions exhibited a core-periphery spatial pattern, with a high-value center at Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan that gradually decreased as it moved outward. However, the spatial pattern of carbon absorption tended to be stable, showing an inverted “U-shaped” pattern. It was high in the east, north, and west, and was low in the middle and the south. (3) The carbon budget was consistent with the strategic positioning of the MFZ, and the optimized development zone and key development zone were the main pressure-bearing areas for carbon emissions, while the key ecological functional zone was the dominant zone of carbon absorption. The difference in the centralization index of carbon absorption among the functional zones was smaller than that in the centralization index of carbon emissions. (4) There were 53 payment areas, 64 balanced areas, and 40 obtaining areas in the study area. Nine types of carbon compensation zones were finally formed in light of the strategic objectives of the MFZ, and directions and strategies for low-carbon development are proposed for each type. (5) It is important to strengthen research on the carbon balance and horizontal carbon compensation at a microscopic scale, enrich the theoretical framework of regional carbon compensation, integrate it into the carbon trading market, and explore diversified paths for achieving peak emissions and carbon neutrality.

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    Scientific attributes and expression methods of geographical boundary
    TANG Guoan, LI Jilong, XIONG Liyang, NA Jiaming
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2022, 32 (6): 1119-1135.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-022-1988-3
    Abstract76)   HTML3)    PDF (1242KB)(31)      

    A scientific delineation of geographical boundaries reflects the cognitive level of scientific abstraction and systematic analysis of the spatial variation of geographical objects and is a basic scientific issue of geography. From the perspective of earth system science, this study first explicates the core issues (e.g., basic concepts, scientific contents, and basic properties) of geographical boundaries. Based on the principles of scientificity and systematicness, we then classify geographical boundaries in terms of intrinsic mechanisms, extrinsic appearance and scientific attributes. Furthermore, this paper analyzes the mathematical connotation and representation methods of geographical boundaries, discusses the characteristics of and differences between traditional and modern methods for geographical boundary delineation. Finally, we present a framework for a “geographical boundary model” with an integration of qualitative, quantitative, and positioning methods. Focusing on geographical boundary (a basic theoretical problem in geography), this study engaged in concept definition and method analysis, with the findings enriching the theory and methodology of geographical information science.

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    Glacier area changes in the Nujiang-Salween River Basin over the past 45 years
    JI Xuan, CHEN Yunfang, JIANG Wei, LIU Chang, YANG Luyi
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2022, 32 (6): 1177-1200.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-022-1991-8
    Abstract75)   HTML2)    PDF (7171KB)(18)      

    Automated image classification and visual interpretation of Landsat imagery were used to extract the glacier boundary in the Nujiang-Salween River Basin (NSRB) around the years 1975, 2000, and 2020. The spatiotemporal characteristics of glacier area changes in the NSRB were determined and the reasons for the spatial heterogeneity in glacier area changes were discussed, based on comparative analyses of temperature and precipitation data from meteorological stations around the NSRB. The results indicate that 1) the total glacier area in the NSRB decreased by 477.78 km² (28.17%) at a rate of -0.62%/a in 1975-2020. Most shrinkage occurred at low and mid altitudes, with the most severe occurring at 5290-5540 m, accounting for 40% of the total shrinkage. Considering other river basins in China, the relative glacier area change rate in the NSRB was similar to that for typical inland river basins in northwest China but lower than that for other transboundary river basins in the southeastern Tibetan Plateau. 2) These areal changes in the NSRB presented obvious regional differences. The glaciers in the Hengduan Mountains retreated significantly, followed by those in the Nyainqentanglha Mountains, with relatively low shrinkage observed in the Tanggula Mountains. The number of cold and hot spots indicating areal changes increased after 2000, along with their spatial heterogeneity. 3) The glacier shrinkage rate over different time intervals was positively correlated with temperature. Thus, spatial heterogeneity of climate change effects could elucidate differences in the glacier area change rate in different regions of the NSRB. The temperature rise was determined as the primary reason for the significant glacial retreat over the past 45 years. As the significant warming trend continues, the glacier area in the NSRB is likely to shrink further.

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    Spatio-temporal correlation between human activity intensity and land surface temperature on the north slope of Tianshan Mountains
    CHEN Hongjin, LIU Lin, ZHANG Zhengyong, LIU Ya, TIAN Hao, KANG Ziwei, WANG Tongxia, ZHANG Xueying
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2022, 32 (10): 1935-1955.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-022-2030-5
    Abstract72)   HTML1)    PDF (4127KB)(21)      

    Research on the spatio-temporal correlation between the intensity of human activities and the temperature of earth surfaces is of great significance in many aspects, including fully understanding the causes and mechanisms of climate change, actively adapting to climate change, pursuing rational development, and protecting the ecological environment. Taking the north slope of Tianshan Mountains, located in the arid area of northwestern China and extremely sensitive to climate change, as the research area, this study retrieves the surface temperature of the mountain based on MODIS data, while characterizing the intensity of human activities thereby data on the night light, population distribution and land use. The evolution characteristics of human activity intensity and surface temperature in the study area from 2000 to 2018 were analyzed, and the spatio-temporal correlation between them was further explored. It is found that: (1) The average human activity intensity (0.11) in the research area has kept relatively low since this century, and the overall trend has been slowly rising in a stepwise manner (0.0024·a-1); in addition, the increase in human activity intensity has lagged behind that in construction land and population by 1-2 years. (2) The annual average surface temperature in the area is 7.18 ℃ with a pronounced growth. The rate of change (0.02 ℃·a-1) is about 2.33 times that of the world. The striking boost in spring (0.068 ℃·a-1) contributes the most to the overall warming trend. Spatially, the surface temperature is low in the south and high in the north, due to the prominent influence of the underlying surface characteristics, such as elevation and vegetation coverage. (3) The intensity of human activity and the surface temperature are remarkably positively correlated in the human activity areas there, showing a strong distribution in the east section and a weak one in the west section. The expression of its spatial differentiation and correlation is comprehensively affected by such factors as scopes of human activities, manifestations, and land-use changes. Vegetation-related human interventions, such as agriculture and forestry planting, urban greening, and afforestation, can effectively reduce the surface warming caused by human activities. This study not only puts forward new ideas to finely portray the intensity of human activities but also offers a scientific reference for regional human-land coordination and overall development.

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    Multi-scale analysis of trade-off/synergistic effects of forest ecosystem services in the Funiu Mountain Region, China
    ZHANG Jingjing, ZHU Wenbo, ZHU Lianqi, LI Yanhong
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2022, 32 (5): 981-999.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-022-1981-x
    Abstract70)   HTML8)    PDF (2056KB)(27)      

    The trade-offs and synergies of forest ecosystem service are important research topics for several disciplines. The multi-scale analysis of service trade-offs and synergies assists in the implementation of more effective forest resource management. Based on multi-source data including forest distribution, topography, NDVI, meteorology and soil conditions, key forest ecosystem services, including total forest volume, carbon storage, water yield, soil retention and habitat quality were mapped and evaluated for the Funiu Mountain Region through integrated deployment of the CASA model, the InVEST3.2 model and the ArcGIS10.2 software. The characteristics of trade-offs and synergies among different ecosystem services were then mapped and considered across multiple spatial scales (i.e., by region, north and south slopes, vertical belt) using the spatial overlay analysis method. The main results are as follows: (1) Mean forest volume is 49.26 m3/ha, carbon density is 156.94 t/ha, water yield depth is 494.46 mm, the unit amount of soil retention is 955.4 t/ha, and the habitat quality index is 0.79. (2) The area of forests with good synergy is 28.79%, and the area of forests with poor synergy is 10.15%, while about 61.06% of forests show severe trade-offs and weak trade-offs. The overall benefits of forest ecosystem services in the study area are still low. In the future, bad synergy and severe trade-off areas should be the focus of forest resource management and efficiency regulation. (3) Synergy between ecosystem services is better for forest on south slope than that on north slope. Deciduous broad-leaved forest belt at moderate elevations on south slope in the mountains (SIII) has the highest synergies, while that at low elevations on north slope (NI) exhibits the lowest synergy levels.

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    Regional variation of urban air quality in China and its dominant factors
    ZHAO Yanyan, ZHANG Xiaoping, CHEN Mingxing, GAO Shanshan, LI Runkui
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2022, 32 (5): 853-872.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-022-1975-8
    Abstract65)   HTML7)    PDF (2018KB)(14)      

    It is of great theoretical and practical importance to carry out research on the spatio-temporal evolution of urban air pollution and its driving forces, which helps to facilitate a deeper understanding of the mutual feedback mechanisms between the urban environment and socio-economic systems. Comprehension of these mechanisms will contribute to the design and implementation of efficient environmental policies that ultimately will improve the quality of urbanization development. This paper illustrates the spatio-temporal evolutionary characteristics of six urban ambient air pollutant concentrations, namely, CO, NO2, O3, PM10, PM2.5, SO2, in 286 sample cities above the prefecture level in China from 2014 to 2019. The interactions between the pollutant concentrations are analyzed based on panel regression models. A random forest model is then employed to explore the correlations between the concentrations of these six pollutants and 13 natural and socio-economic impact factors to isolate the most crucial ones. The results reveal three aspects. First, within the research period, the average annual concentration of O3 increased while that of other pollutants decreased year by year. Second, there were significant interactions between concentrations of the six pollutants, leading to obvious compound air pollution in urban areas. Third, the impact of natural and socio-economic factors on urban air quality varied greatly among different air pollutants, with air temperature, vegetation coverage, urbanization level and traffic factors ranking high and the different response thresholds to the dominant influencing factors. In light of the limited ability of humans to control the natural environment and meteorological conditions, it is recommended that urban air quality be further improved by optimizing urban density, controlling anthropogenic emission sources, and implementing strict air pollution prevention and control measures.

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    Understanding land for high-quality development
    JIN Gui, PENG Jian, ZHANG Lixiao, ZHANG Zhengyu
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2023, 33 (2): 217-221.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-023-2079-9
    Abstract64)   HTML13)    PDF (150KB)(58)      
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    Exploring detailed urban-rural development under intersecting population growth and food production scenarios: Trajectories for China’s most populous agricultural province to 2030
    GAO Peichao, XIE Yiru, SONG Changqing, CHENG Changxiu, YE Sijing
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2023, 33 (2): 222-244.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-023-2080-3
    Abstract63)   HTML12)    PDF (31049KB)(50)      

    Henan, China, is likely the most populous agricultural province worldwide. It is China’s major grain-producing area, with a continuously increasing population (96 million), which is greater than 93% of countries worldwide. However, this province has been experiencing unprecedented urbanization recently due to national policies and measures, such as a plan to build the capital city of Henan into a national center, resulting in severe conflicts in land use that endanger food security regionally and globally. To facilitate decision-making on this problem, we explored the detailed urban-rural development of Henan by modeling these land-use conflicts. Conventional modeling of a region’s urban-rural development is to navigate trade-offs (a) solely between different land-use types (b) by assuming that each type provides a single service (e.g., croplands produce all the food), and (c) under a polynomial regression-based projection of population. In contrast, we considered both land-use type and intensity, resulting in a detailed land system for Henan. By introducing the concept of land system services (e.g., food production), we established a many-to-many relationship between land system classes and services. These allowed us to carry out the most comprehensive modeling of Henan’s urban-rural development under eighteen combined scenarios of population growth and land-use policies on food production. The modeling results of these scenarios provide a solid basis for making decisions regarding Henan’s urban-rural development. We also revealed the influence mechanism of population growth, land-use policies, and their combinations, highlighting the benefits of securing food production by agricultural intensification rather than merely expanding the area of cropland.

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    Urbanization under globalization: How does the Belt and Road Initiative affect urbanization levels in participating countries
    MA Haitao
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2022, 32 (11): 2170-2188.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-022-2042-1
    Abstract63)   HTML1)    PDF (659KB)(6)      

    China’s Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) presents the world with a new era of inclusive globalization, which will shape urbanization patterns globally. This study considered the launch of BRI as a quasi-experiment, where we evaluated the BRI’s impact on urbanization by way of difference-in-differences (DID) and propensity score matching (PSM) methods. The results showed that the BRI exerted a significantly negative effect on urbanization in its first three years. Its positive effect emerged from the fifth year onwards, indicating that the BRI’s positive effect on urbanization required a period of practical experience. Heterogeneous analysis and placebo test were also conducted to verify the robustness of the model. The effects in low-income countries were revealed to have been much greater than in high-income countries, meaning the BRI had been conducive to promote local urban growth in underdeveloped economies. Finally, the geographical detector model was introduced to discuss the influencing mechanism of urbanization in BRI and non-BRI countries, showing external factors were the prominent driving forces in BRI countries, whereas internal drivers played an important role in non-BRI countries. Our findings indicated that the implementation of the BRI contributed to building global economic growth and supporting a shared future.

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    Morphological differentiation characteristics and classification criteria of lunar surface relief amplitude
    DENG Jiayin, CHENG Weiming, LIU Qiangyi, JIAO Yimeng, LIU Jianzhong
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2022, 32 (11): 2365-2378.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-022-2052-z
    Abstract63)   HTML0)    PDF (6990KB)(10)      

    Lunar landforms are the results of geological and geomorphic processes on the lunar surface. It is very important to identify the types of lunar landforms. Geomorphology is the scientific study of the origin and evolution of morphological landforms on planetary surfaces. Elevation and relief amplitude are the most commonly used geomorphic indices in geomorphological classification studies. Previous studies have determined the elevation classification criteria of the lunar surface. In this paper, we focus on the classification criteria of the topographic relief amplitude of the lunar surface. To estimate the optimal window for calculating the relief amplitude of the lunar surface, we use the mean change-point method based on LOLA (Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter) Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data and SLDEM2015 DEM data combining observations from LOLA and SELenological and Engineering Explorer Terrain Camera (SELENE TC). The classification criterion of the lunar surface relief amplitude is then determined according to the statistical analysis of basic lunar landforms. Taking the topographic relief amplitudes of 100 m, 200 m, 300 m, 700 m, 1500 m and 2500 m as thresholds, the lunar surface is divided into seven geomorphic types, including minor microrelief plains (< 100 m), minor microrelief platforms [100 m, 200 m), microrelief landforms [200 m, 300 m), small relief landforms [300 m, 700 m), medium relief landforms [700 m, 1500 m), large relief landforms [1500 m, 2500 m) and extremely large relief landforms (≥ 2500 m). The minor microrelief plains are mainly distributed in the maria and the basalt filled floors of craters and basins, while the minor microrelief platforms are mainly in the transition regions between the maria and highlands. The microrelief landforms are mainly located in regions with relatively high topography, such as wrinkle ridges and sinuous rilles in the mare. The small relief landforms are mainly scattered in the central peak and floor fractures of craters. The medium relief landforms are mainly distributed in the transition regions between crater floors and crater walls, between crater walls and crater rims, between basin floors and basin walls, and between basin walls and basin rims. Large and extremely large relief landforms are mainly found along crater walls and basin walls. The classification criteria determination for assessing lunar surface relief amplitude described in this paper can provide important references for the construction of digital lunar surface geomorphology classification schemes.

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    The driving effect of informal economies on urbanization in China
    HUANG Gengzhi, XING Zuge, WEI Chunzhu, XUE Desheng
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2022, 32 (5): 785-805.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-022-1972-y
    Abstract63)   HTML119)    PDF (641KB)(26)      

    This paper examines the rise of informal economies in China, a hidden driving force overlooked in studies on China’s urbanization. Estimating the size of informal economies using the multiple indicators multiple causes model, the paper employs mathematical models to examine the driving effect of informal economies on urbanization and to reveal the paths by which such effect works. The results were as follows. (1) In 2018, the size of the informal economy in China accounted for 23.5% of GDP with an output value of 21.16 trillion yuan. (2) The informal economy had a driving effect on China’s urbanization, and every 1-percentage- point increase in its share of the GDP led to an increase of 0.291 percentage points in the urbanization rate. (3) The informal economy’s effect on urbanization showed regional differences, decreasing in size from the eastern to the central to the western regions. (4) The informal economy drives urbanization through four paths - by promoting foreign direct investment (FDI), fixed asset investment (FAI), social consumption (SC), and secondary sector employment (SSE). Their effect sizes are ranked in descending order as follows: FDI > FAI > SC > SSE. This paper contributes to theories on urbanization dynamics and process in China by highlighting the role of the informal economy as a hidden economic power lurking in the city.

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    Imbalance of inter-provincial forest carbon sequestration rate from 2010 to 2060 in China and its regulation strategy
    CAI Weixiang, XU Li, LI Mingxu, SUN Osbert Jianxin, HE Nianpeng
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2023, 33 (1): 3-17.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-023-2071-4
    Abstract62)   HTML114)    PDF (962KB)(78)      

    Forest ecosystem, as a predominant component of terrestrial ecosystems in view of carbon sinks, has a high potential for carbon sequestration. Accurately estimating the carbon sequestration rate in forest ecosystems at provincial level, is a prerequisite and basis for scientifically formulating the technical approaches of carbon neutrality and the associated regulatory policies in China. However, few researches on future carbon sequestration rates (CSRs) for Chinese forest ecosystems for provincial-level regions (hereafter province) have been reported, especially for forest soils. In this study, we quantitatively assessed the carbon sequestration rates of existing forest ecosystems of all the provinces from 2010 to 2060 using the Forest Carbon Sequestration model (FCS), in combination with large quantities of field-measured data in China under three future climate scenarios (RCP2.6, RCP4.5, and RCP8.5). Results showed that CSRs across provinces varied from 0.01 TgC a-1 to 36.74 TgC a-1, with a mean of 10.09 ± 0.43 TgC a-1. Inter-provincial differences have been observed in forest CSRs. Regarding the spatial variations in CSRs on a unit area basis within provinces, the eastern region provinces have a larger capacity for sequestration than the western region, while the western region has greater CSR per unit GDP and per capita. Moreover, there are significant negative correlations between the CSRs per capita in each province and the corresponding GDP per capita, under the assumption that GDP per capita is constant in the future across provinces. In summary, there is a significant regional imbalance in CSR among provinces. Special technological and policy interventions are required to realize carbon sink potential sustainably. An overlap in China’s poorer areas and areas with stronger carbon sinks has indicated that existing policies to support traditional carbon trading are insufficient. Regulatory measures such as “regional carbon compensation” must be adopted urgently in line with the Chinese characteristics, so that people in western or underdeveloped regions can consciously strengthen forest protection and enhance forest carbon sinks through coordinated regional development while ensuring that China’s forests play a greater role in carbon neutrality strategies.

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    Influencing factors of manufacturing agglomeration in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region based on enterprise big data
    HUANG Yujin, SHENG Kerong, SUN Wei
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2022, 32 (10): 2105-2128.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-022-2039-9
    Abstract61)   HTML0)    PDF (1026KB)(8)      

    Industrial agglomeration is a highly prominent geographical feature of economic activities, and it is an important research topic in economic geography. However, mechanism-based explanations of industrial agglomeration often differ due to a failure to distinguish properly between the spatial distribution of industries and the stages of industrial agglomeration. Based on micro data from three national economic censuses, this study uses the Duranton-Overman (DO) index method to calculate the spatial distribution of manufacturing industries (three-digit classifications) in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region (BTH region hereafter) from 2004 to 2013 as well as the hurdle model to explain quantitatively the influencing factors and differences in the two stages of agglomeration formation and agglomeration development. The research results show the following: (1) In 2004, 2008, and 2013, there were 124, 127, and 129 agglomerations of three-digit industry types in the BTH region, respectively. Technology-intensive and labor-intensive manufacturing industries had high agglomeration intensity, but overall agglomeration intensity declined during the study period, from 0.332 to 0.261. (2) There are two stages of manufacturing agglomeration, with different dominant factors. During the agglomeration formation stage, the main locational considerations of enterprises are basic conditions. Agricultural resources and transportation have negative effects on agglomeration formation, while labor pool and foreign investment have positive effects. In the agglomeration development stage, enterprises focus more on factors such as agglomeration economies and policies. Internal and external industry linkages both have a positive effect, with the former having a stronger effect, while development zone policies and electricity, gas, and water resources have a negative effect. (3) Influencing factors on industrial agglomeration have a scale effect, and they all show a weakening trend as distance increases, but different factors respond differently to distance.

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    Assessment of the socioeconomic development levels of six economic corridors in the Belt and Road region
    YOU Zhen, SHI Hui, FENG Zhiming, XIAO Chiwei
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2022, 32 (11): 2189-2204.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-022-2043-0
    Abstract60)   HTML0)    PDF (2275KB)(5)      

    Recent years have witnessed rapid and widespread economic growth in regions involved in China’s Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), mainly due to the construction of six economic corridors. This paper aims to quantify the levels of six economic corridors according to the socioeconomic development levels in the BRI regions. Here, a gridded socioeconomic development index was first created, and a dividing line was drawn to reveal the distribution characteristics of socioeconomic development in the BRI regions. A classification method was then applied to identify local development levels. Finally, we created an economic corridor development index (ECDI) to evaluate the progress of six economic corridors. The results reveal spatial heterogeneity within the socioeconomic groups of BRI regions, which can be roughly divided into offshore (or Part A, 50.54%) and inland (or Part B, 49.46%) areas. Although both parts comprise roughly the same area, over 95% of the population is located in offshore regions. The China-Mongolia-Russia Economic Corridor has the highest development index due to a stable political environment and long-running cooperation. The China-Pakistan Economic Corridor suffers from the lowest ECDI but with strong development potential. Our methods can provide critical reference and practice for the future evaluation of the level of regional development. The results of this study can offer policymakers some insight into reducing socioeconomic inequality in the BRI regions.

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    Functional zoning in national parks under multifactor trade-off guidance: A case study of Qinghai Lake National Park in China
    ZHAO Li, DU Mingxi, ZHANG Wei, LI Congjuan, LIU Qiuyu, KANG Xiang, ZHOU Dian
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2022, 32 (10): 1969-1997.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-022-2032-3
    Abstract59)   HTML4)    PDF (11030KB)(15)      

    Functional zoning is an important mechanism for achieving national park planning and management objective. Better functional zoning is of great significance to the protection of ecosystem legitimacy and integrity, the appropriate utilization of resources, community integration, and feasible management. In the present study, the proposed Qinghai Lake National Park is the research object. Based on the critical goal of ecological protection, the importance of ecosystem service functions and the ecological sensitivities were evaluated. The results showed that the ecosystem service functions and the ecological sensitivity of the whole region are high. Among them, lake, river and wetland as the most strictly protected ecosystems account for the highest proportion. Then this study divided the proposed Qinghai Lake National Park into five functional areas through grid calculations, spatial analysis and multifactor trade-off. The results indicated that the goal of functional zoning for national park is to maximize the overall utility of park protection value and its comprehensive functions based on its spatial units with different functions, management and control requirements. The zoning scheme addresses the lack of sustainable development in Qinghai Lake National Park due to ecological environmental changes and single-resource zoning with resource protection as the primary goal. This study can serve as a reference for spatial functional zoning methods of national land parks, nature reserves and other natural protected areas.

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    Classification and detection of dominant factors in geospatial patterns of traditional settlements in China
    WU Shaolin, DI Baofeng, Susan L. USTIN, Constantine A. STAMATOPOULOS, LI Jierui, ZUO Qi, WU Xiao, AI Nanshan
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2022, 32 (5): 873-891.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-022-1976-7
    Abstract59)   HTML9)    PDF (6533KB)(22)      

    The geospatial distribution pattern in traditional Chinese settlements (TCSs) reflects the traditional harmony between humans and nature, which has been learned over centuries. However, TCSs have experienced serious disturbances by urbanization and migration. It is crucial to explore the local wisdom of geospatial patterns and dominant factors for TCSs at the national scale in China. This study sought to determine the geospatial wisdom of traditional settlements to enrich our future settlement development with the aim of establishing Chinese settlement values for modern living. Herein, a dataset of 4000 TCSs were analyzed and clustered for environmental factors that affect their geospatial patterns by machine learning algorithms. We concluded that (1) five geospatial patterns of TCSs were clustered on a national scale, and the threshold of environmental factors of TCS groups was detected. (2) Environmental conditions and settlement concepts interacted and determined the similarities and differences among TCS groups. (3) The key boundary for TCSs and the dominant factors for each zone were determined, and topographical conditions and hydrologic resources played significant roles in all five TCS zones. This study provides a better understanding of the adaptability of the environment in relation to the TCSs and aids in planning TCS conservation and rural revitalization.

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    Dynamic evolution and the mechanism of modern gully agriculture regional function in the Loess Plateau
    QU Lulu, LI Yurui, WANG Yongsheng, DONG Shijie, WEN Qi
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2022, 32 (11): 2229-2250.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-022-2045-y
    Abstract57)   HTML2)    PDF (2904KB)(9)      

    The agricultural regional type and function are the key theoretical issues in agricultural geography research. Gully agriculture in the Loess Plateau is a new regional type of agricultural system with the coupling development of the modern gully human-earth relationship. The study of its functional changes is of great practical significance for food security, rural revitalization and sustainable development of regional agriculture in the region of interest. This paper analyses the multifunctional change of gully agriculture in the Loess Plateau and its dynamic mechanism by using large-scale remote sensing data, topographic relief amplitude model, and spatial econometric model to understand internal implications for evolution differentiation at the basin level. The results show that: (1) The spatial concentration of production and supply function of agricultural products (APF) in the gully of the Loess Plateau gully is high, while the ecological conservation and maintenance function (ECF), employment and social security function (ESF), cultural heritage and leisure function (CRF) are relatively low. The four functions’ spatial distribution has revealed an apparent regularity. (2) APF has been significantly enhanced, which is mainly distributed in point clusters and strips in the farming and pastoral areas in northern Shaanxi to the Yanhe river basin. The high-value areas of ESF are clustered around the urbanized metropolitan circles and urban-rural staggered areas along the Great Wall. ECF is concentrated in areas with significant natural endowments and excellent ecological conditions. CRF is significantly higher in the municipal districts and the surrounding regional central cities. (3) There are noticeable differences in the gully agriculture regional function (GARF) evolution process due to the geographical environment and socio-economic development stages. In this regard, natural factors have tremendously affected APF, ESF, and ECF, while socio-economic factors greatly differ in the four functions. There are still differences in the driving mechanisms of modern gully agriculture evolution types; hence many critical policies in the Loess Plateau can directly affect the function evolution paths. The dynamic evolution of GARF can reflect the general law of rural human-earth system transition in gully areas, thereby providing policy ideas for high-quality development of agriculture in the Loess Plateau.

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    Development of center pivot irrigation farmlands from 2009 to 2018 in the Mu Us dune field, China: Implication for land use planning
    LIU Xiaokang, DONG Zhibao, DING Yaping, LU Ruijie, LIU Liyun, DING Zhiyong, LI Yijing
    Journal of Geographical Sciences    2022, 32 (10): 1956-1968.   DOI: 10.1007/s11442-022-2031-4
    Abstract56)   HTML0)    PDF (14318KB)(18)      

    The Mu Us dune field in China has become a focal region for research of the prevention and control of desertification. Agricultural practices in this area have been modernized in recent years, evidenced by the development of Center Pivot Irrigation (CPI) farmlands. However, the impacts of CPI farmlands on combating desertification remain poorly understood. This study chose the southeastern part of the Mu Us dune field as a study area to investigate the variations of CPI farmlands from 2009 to 2018 and the influencing factors. The results showed growth trends in both the number and the area of these CPI farmland units over the period. The areas of meso- and micro-scale CPI farmland units stabilized over time to mainly 0-0.2 km2 and 0.2-0.4 km2, respectively; Topography, temperature, and geological substratum were preliminarily identified as the major natural factors driving the development of the CPI farmlands. Within the context of varied stakeholders, the potential for soil erosion, and damage to natural vegetation, the current study suggests that strict management of CPI farmland is required through effective long-term planning and land-use policies. The results of this study can assist in realizing the sustainable development of agriculture and its ecological significance in dune field areas.

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