Journal of Geographical Sciences ›› 2010, Vol. 20 ›› Issue (2): 248-260.doi: 10.1007/s11442-010-0248-0

• Water Resources • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Spatial and temporal variability of daily precipitation in Haihe River basin, 1958–2007

CHU Jianting1,2,3, XIA Jun1, XU Chongyu4, LI Lu1,2, WANG Zhonggen1   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Water Cycle &|Related Land Surface Processes, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    2. Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039, China;
    3. Institute of Physics &|Meteorology, University of Hohenheim, Garbenstr. 30, D-70955 Stuttgart, Germany;
    4. Department of Geosciences, University of Oslo, P O BOX 1047 Blindern, N-0316 Oslo, Norway
  • Received:2009-08-18 Revised:2009-10-12 Online:2010-04-15 Published:2010-04-15
  • Contact: Xia Jun, Professor, E-mail:
  • About author:Chu Jianting, Ph.D, specialized in climate change, land surface processes and water resources research
  • Supported by:

    National Basic Research Program of China, No.2010CB428406; The Key Knowledge Innovation Project of the CAS, No.KZCX2-YW-126; Key Project of National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.40730632


The seasonal variability and spatial distribution of precipitation are the main cause of flood and drought events. The study of spatial distribution and temporal trend of precipitation in river basins has been paid more and more attention. However, in China, the precipitation data are measured by weather stations (WS) of China Meteorological Administration and hydrological rain gauges (RG) of national and local hydrology bureau. The WS data usually have long record with fewer stations, while the RG data usually have short record with more stations. The consistency and correlation of these two data sets have not been well understood. In this paper, the precipitation data from 30 weather stations for 1958–2007 and 248 rain gauges for 1995–2004 in the Haihe River basin are examined and compared using linear regression, 5-year moving average, Mann-Kendall trend analysis, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Z test and F test methods. The results show that the annual precipitation from both WS and RG records are normally distributed with minor difference in the mean value and variance. It is statistically feasible to extend the precipitation of RG by WS data sets. Using the extended precipitation data, the detailed spatial distribution of the annual and seasonal precipitation amounts as well as their temporal trends are calculated and mapped. The various distribution maps produced in the study show that for the whole basin the precipitation of 1958–2007 has been decreasing except for spring season. The decline trend is significant in summer, and this trend is stronger after the 1980s. The annual and seasonal precipitation amounts and changing trends are different in different regions and seasons. The precipitation is decreasing from south to north, from coastal zone to inland area.

Key words: climate change, spatial and temporal variability of precipitation, Mann-Kendall method, Kolmogorov- Smirnov test, Z test, F test, Haihe River basin