Journal of Geographical Sciences ›› 2022, Vol. 32 ›› Issue (1): 177-192.doi: 10.1007/s11442-022-1941-5

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Exploring the historical evolution of tourism-environment interaction in protected area: A case study of Mt. Bogda

PAN Xumei1,2(), YANG Zhaoping1,2, HAN Fang1,2()   

  1. 1. State Key Laboratory of Desert and Oasis Ecology, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, CAS, Urumqi 830011, China
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2020-11-06 Accepted:2021-08-10 Online:2022-01-25 Published:2022-03-25
  • Contact: HAN Fang;
  • About author:Pan Xumei (1991-), PhD, specialized in tourism geography, tourism development and protection. E-mail:
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China(41971192)


Protected areas have a double mandate of both “protection” and “use.” Nature- based tourism is considered an effective tool in terms of environmental conservation. Understanding the causes and consequences of a spatiotemporal succession of tourism construction is an important channel to explore the changes of tourism-environment interaction in the protected area. To analyze the spatio-temporal variations in tourism construction lands, we adopted Mt. Bogda as an example. We systematically quantified the interaction between these changes and environmental variables and explored the evolution process of tourism-environment interaction of the mountainous protected area in the northwest arid region. Our results revealed the following: (1) In the Bogda protected area, the proportion of tourism construction lands first appeared to be increasing, then decreasing dramatically, and finally growing slowly. The spatial expansion of tourism construction lands followed the “core-periphery” pattern, respectively showing shapely infilling, reasonable agglomeration, barycenter shift, and outlying growth from 1990 to 2018 as the stages of concentrating on the core. (2) The higher land-use intensity of tourism construction drove the changes of landscape fragmentation, diversity, stability, primitive, and nature degree in the protected area. The coupling coordination between tourism and the environment in the Bogda area decreased at first, and then slowly increased. Meanwhile, tourism did not cause irreversible damage to the natural environment, and the coupling coordination degree between tourism and the environment was still in the state of balanced development. It expressed the states of original balanced, development exceeds environment and barely balanced, and superiorly balanced. The historical evolution of tourism-environment interaction in Bogda reflects the pattern of periodic changes in China’s protected areas to a certain extent.

Key words: tourism-environment interaction, mountain world natural heritage site, land use and land cover, coupling coordination of tourism-environment