Journal of Geographical Sciences ›› 2021, Vol. 31 ›› Issue (1): 111-129.doi: 10.1007/s11442-021-1835-y

• Research Articles • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Revealing ecosystem services relationships and their driving factors for five basins of Beijing

GAO Jiangbo1(), ZUO Liyuan1,2   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Land Surface Pattern and Simulation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2020-08-05 Accepted:2020-10-10 Online:2021-01-25 Published:2021-03-25
  • About author:Gao Jiangbo, PhD, specialized in ecosystem services at river basin. E-mail:
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China(41671098);National Natural Science Foundation of China(42071288);National Key Research and Development Program of China(2018YFC1508900);National Key Research and Development Program of China(2018YFC1508801);Beijing Environmental Quality Monitoring Project (2018)(Y88M1800AL)


A clear understanding of the relationships among multiple ecosystem services (ESs) is the foundation for sustainable urban ecosystem management. Quantitatively identifying the factors that influence ES trade-offs and synergies can contribute to deepening ES research, from knowledge building to decision making. This study simulated soil conservation, water yield and carbon sequestration in Beijing, China, from 2015-2018. The spatial trade-offs and synergies of these three ESs within the five major river basins in Beijing were explored using geographically weighted regression. Furthermore, geographical detector was applied to quantitatively identify the driving mechanism of the environmental factors for the ES trade-offs and synergies. The results show the following: (1) the spatial relationships between soil conservation and water yield, as well as between water yield and carbon sequestration, were mainly trade-offs. There was a spatial synergy between soil conservation and carbon sequestration. (2) Regarding the spatial trade-off/synergy between soil conservation and water yield in Beijing, the dominant influencing factor was temperature/elevation, and the dominant interactions of the spatial trade-off and synergy between these two ESs in Beijing and the Chaobai River Basin are all manifested in the superposition of precipitation and potential evapotranspiration, temperature, and elevation. (3) Topographic factors were the dominant factors influencing the spatial relationship between soil conservation and carbon sequestration in Beijing and its five major river basins. As a result of the distribution of water systems and hydrological characteristics of the basins, differences were observed in the effects of different combinations of interaction factors on the spatial relationship between these two ESs in different basins. (4) Temperature had the strongest explanatory power in terms of the spatial trade-offs and synergies between water yield and carbon sequestration. The interactions between precipitation and temperature and between precipitation and elevation were the dominant interactions affecting the spatial relationship between water yield and carbon sequestration in Beijing. Overall, the explanatory power of influencing factors on the trade-offs and synergies and the degree of interaction between factors coexist in different basins with consistency and differences. Therefore, understanding the quantitative characteristics of basin-scale spatial trade-offs and synergies between ESs is important for ecosystem management and the promotion of synergy in different basins.

Key words: ecosystem services, trade-offs and synergies, environmental factors, basin scale, Beijing