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Journal of Geographical Sciences    2019, Vol. 29 Issue (5) : 831-845     DOI: 10.1007/s11442-019-1631-0
Spatiotemporal heterogeneity and influencing mechanism of ecosystem services in the Pearl River Delta from the perspective of LUCC
ZHOU Rubo(),LIN Meizhen(),GONG Jianzhou,WU Zhuo
School of Geographical Sciences, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006, China
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Land use/land cover change (LUCC) has considerable impact on ecosystem services. It is essential to quantify the spatiotemporal heterogeneity of ecosystem services from the perspective of LUCC, which will benefit regional land management and ecological protection. We analyzed land use change in the Pearl River Delta from 2000 to 2015, and we used a spatially explicit integrated modeling tool (InVEST) for quantification of ecosystem services-water yield, carbon storage, soil retention, and food supply. The results revealed increases in the areas of grassland and built-up land, and decreases in the areas of woodland, cropland, water body, and unused land during 2000 to 2015, which have caused increase in water yield and carbon storage, while decrease in soil retention and food supply. The dynamic changes of woodland, grassland, cropland, and built-up land were the main driving factors in the relationship of trade-offs and synergies among the four ecosystem services, which are ubiquitous. Those all illustrate the importance of considering ecosystem services in decision making related to land use and land management.

Keywords LUCC      ecosystem services      InVEST model      heterogeneity     
Fund:National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41771097, No.41671175
Corresponding Authors: LIN Meizhen     E-mail:;
Issue Date: 19 April 2019
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LIN Meizhen
GONG Jianzhou
WU Zhuo
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ZHOU Rubo,LIN Meizhen,GONG Jianzhou, et al. Spatiotemporal heterogeneity and influencing mechanism of ecosystem services in the Pearl River Delta from the perspective of LUCC[J]. Journal of Geographical Sciences, 2019, 29(5): 831-845.
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Figure 1  Location of the Pearl River Delta
Figure 2  The Pearl River Delta land use map from 2000 to 2015
Land use 2015 Total
Cropland Woodland Grassland Water body Built-up land Unused land
2000 Cropland 12007.96 227.96 8.50 285.46 1765.01 1.38 14296.27
Woodland 118.51 29477.28 126.46 44.27 806.18 0.78 30573.48
Grassland 3.17 45.80 827.54 0.09 67.74 944.34
Water body 56.90 22.49 4.39 3405.61 599.30 0.00 4088.69
Built-up land 42.50 26.76 1.10 26.37 3969.27 4066.00
Unused land 0.06 0.19 0.86 2.64 22.12 25.87
Total 12229.10 29800.48 967.99 3762.66 7210.14 24.28 53994.65
Table 1  Land-use structure and its transfer matrix of in the Pearl River Delta from 2000 to 2015 (km2)
Year Water yield(×108 m3) Carbon storage (×104 t) Soil retention (×108 t) Food supply (×104 t/km2)
2000 734.82 61984.81 40.53 601.15
2015 745.49 62242.02 40.46 291.71
Change 10.67 257.21 -0.07 -309.44
ESCI (-0.37, 0.76) (-1, 0.29) (-0.29, 0.42) (-0.69, -0.18)
Table 2  Ecosystem services change in the Pearl River Delta from 2000 to 2015
Figure 3  Spatial distribution and change of ecosystem services in the Pearl River Delta from 2000 to 2015
Water yield Carbon storage Soil retention Food supply
R Moran’s I Re. R Moran’s I Re. R Moran’s I Re. R Moran’s I
Water yield 1
Carbon storage 0.632** 0.115 S 1
Soil retention -0.294** 0.014 T/S 0.069 0.086 S 1
Food supply -0.334** -0.007 T 0.035 0.065 S 0.332** 0.200 S 1
Table 3  Relationship among ecosystem services of the Pearl River Delta
Figure 4  Spatial trade-offs/synergies between four ecosystem services in the study are: High-High and Low-Low represent synergies, while Low-High and High-Low represent trade-offs, numbers in the brackets indicate the number of towns/districts.
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