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Journal of Geographical Sciences    2019, Vol. 29 Issue (5) : 749-761     DOI: 10.1007/s11442-019-1625-y
Multi-dimensional expansion of urban space through the lens of land use: The case study of Nanjing City, China
QIAO Weifeng1,2,4(),GAO Junbo2,3,GUO Yuanzhi2,5,*(),JI Qingqing1,WU Ju1,CAO Min1,4
1. School of Geography, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023, China
2. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
3. School of Geographic Sciences, Xinyang Normal University, Xinyang 464000, Henan, China
4. Jiangsu Center for Collaborative Innovation in Geographical Information Resource Development and Application, Nanjing 210023, China
5. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
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The study of multi-dimensional expansion of urban space (MEUS) addresses the laws of urban spatial expansion from all directions and angles. Using Nanjing as an example, this paper constructs multi-temporal, urban three-dimensional models based on RS and GIS technology and then conducts qualitative and quantitative analysis of MEUS using plot ratio change maps and MEUS quantitative index for built-up areas. Based especially on the concept of volume growth contribution rate, this paper analyzes the characteristics of MEUS in different stages. The results show that in 2000-2004, planar expansion played the main role, the internal potential development (IPD) intensity of the urban built-up areas was relatively large, and the volume growth contribution rate was low; in 2004-2008, planar expansion accelerated, and IPD slowed down; in 2008-2012, planar expansion slowed while IPD intensity increased; the contribution rates of volume growth of urban IPD for the three periods were 22.21%, 24.51% and 73.38%, respectively. This study expands the research perspective of urban spatial expansion, and the adopted methods are instructive and meaningful for MEUS research. In addition, the results of this study will deepen the understanding of MEUS laws and help improve scientific decision-making for urban planning and urban land use management.

Keywords urban land use      plot ratio change map      multi-dimensional expansion      volume growth contribution rate      Nanjing     
Fund:National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41871178, No.41671385, No.41371172
Corresponding Authors: GUO Yuanzhi     E-mail:;
Issue Date: 19 April 2019
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QIAO Weifeng
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JI Qingqing
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QIAO Weifeng,GAO Junbo,GUO Yuanzhi, et al. Multi-dimensional expansion of urban space through the lens of land use: The case study of Nanjing City, China[J]. Journal of Geographical Sciences, 2019, 29(5): 749-761.
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Figure 1  Map of Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, China
Figure 2  Technical flowchart of urban spatial multi-dimensional expansion research
Figure 3  Staged variation maps of land use expansion and plot ratio change in Nanjing for 2000-2004 (a), 2004-2008 (b) and 2008-2012 (c)
Serial No. Index 2000-2004 2004-2008 2008-2012
(1) Area of the city at the beginning of the period (km2) 354.10 533.37 754.50
(2) Area of the city at the end of the period (km2) 533.37 754.50 960.08
(3) Urban planar expansion area (km2) 179.27 221.13 205.58
(4) Growth rate of urban planar area (%) 50.63 41.46 27.25
(5) Total urban volume at the beginning of the period (m3) 9.19×108 1.39×109 1.70×109
(6) Total urban volume at the end of the period (m3) 1.39×109 1.70×109 2.07×109
(7) Total volume at the end of the period within the urban planar scope at the end of the period (m3) 1.02×109 1.46×109 1.97×109
(8) Volume growth of urban IPD (m3) 1.04×108 7.59×107 2.72×108
(9) Volume growth of urban planar expansion (m3) 3.64×108 2.34×108 9.88×107
(10) Volume growth of IPD per unit area (m3/km2) 2.94×105 1.42×105 3.61×105
(11) Total amount of urban volume growth (m3) 4.69×108 3.10×108 3.71×108
(12) Growth rate of total urban volume (%) 50.97 22.32 21.87
(13) Contribution rate of volume growth of urban expansion (%) 77.79 75.49 26.62
(14) Contribution rate of volume growth of urban IPD (%) 22.21 24.51 73.38
Table 1  Volume growth contribution of two-dimensional and three-dimensional urban spatial expansion in Nanjing
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