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Journal of Geographical Sciences    2019, Vol. 29 Issue (3) : 323-333     DOI: 10.1007/s11442-019-1600-7
Research Articles |
The impact of global cropland changes on terrestrial ecosystem services value, 1992-2015
LI Yuanyuan1,2,3(),TAN Minghong1,2,*(),HAO Haiguang3
1. Key Laboratory of Land Surface Pattern and Simulation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
2. International College, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
3. State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012, China
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Abstract  

From 1992 to 2015, ecological environment has been threatened by the changes of cropland around the world. In order to evaluate the impact of cropland changes on ecosystem, we calculated the response of terrestrial ecosystem service values (TESVs) variation to cropland conversion based on land-use data from European Space Agency (ESA). The results showed that cropland changes were responsible for an absolute loss of $166.82 billion, equivalent to 1.17% of global TESVs in 1992. Among the different regions, the impact of cropland changes on TESVs was significant in South America and Africa but not obvious in Oceania, Asia and Europe. Cropland expansion from tropical forest was the main reason for decreases in TESVs globally, especially in South America, Africa and Asia. The effect of wetland converted to cropland was notable in North America and Europe while grassland converted to cropland played an important role in Oceania, Africa and Asia. In Europe, the force of urban expansion cannot be ignored as well. The conversion of cropland to tropical or temperate forest partly compensated for the loss of TESVs globally, especially in Asia.

Keywords terrestrial ecosystem services values (TESVs)      cropland conversion      global     
Fund:National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41771116, No.41501095;National Basic Research Program of China, No.2015CB452705;National Key Research and Development Program of China, No.2016YFC0502103
Corresponding Authors: TAN Minghong     E-mail: 13511038653@126.com;tanmh@igsnrr.ac.cn
Issue Date: 20 March 2019
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LI Yuanyuan
TAN Minghong
HAO Haiguang
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LI Yuanyuan,TAN Minghong,HAO Haiguang. The impact of global cropland changes on terrestrial ecosystem services value, 1992-2015[J]. Journal of Geographical Sciences, 2019, 29(3): 323-333.
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http://www.geogsci.com/EN/10.1007/s11442-019-1600-7     OR     http://www.geogsci.com/EN/Y2019/V29/I3/323
Ecosystem services Tropical forest Temperate forest Grassland Cropland Wetland
Gas regulation 0.00 0.00 11.34 0.00 215.46
Climate regulation 361.26 142.56 0.00 0.00 0.00
Disturbance regulation 8.10 0.00 0.00 0.00 7353.18
Water regulation 9.72 0.00 4.86 0.00 24.30
Water supply 12.96 0.00 0.00 0.00 6156.00
Erosion control 396.90 0.00 46.98 0.00 0.00
Soil formation 16.20 16.20 1.62 0.00 0.00
Nutrient cycling 1493.64 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Waste treatment 140.94 140.94 140.94 0.00 6766.74
Pollination 0.00 0.00 40.50 22.68 0.00
Biological control 0.00 6.48 37.26 38.88 0.00
Habitat/Refugia 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 492.48
Food production 51.84 81.00 108.54 87.48 414.72
Raw materials 510.30 40.50 0.00 0.00 171.72
Genetic resources 66.42 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Recreation 181.44 58.32 3.24 0.00 929.88
Cultural 3.24 3.24 0.00 0.00 1427.22
Total 3251.00 489.00 376.00 149.00 23952.00
Table 1  TESVs per unit area ($/ha per year based on the 2016 value of the USD) (after Costanza et al., 1997)
Figure 1  Cropland gains between 1992 and 2015
Figure 2  Cropland loss between 1992 and 2015
1992 2015 V ($/ha) A (×106 ha) TESVs (×109 $)
Cropland converted into Tropical forest 3102.00 17.62 54.67
Temperate forest 340.00 12.43 4.23
Grassland 227.00 6.77 1.54
Wetland 23803.00 0.05 1.12
Urban -149.00 25.02 -3.73
Bare land -149.00 0.64 -0.09
Tropical forest Converted into cropland -3102.00 60.44 -187.47
Temperate forest -340.00 25.96 -8.83
Grassland -227.00 56.17 -12.75
Wetland -23803.00 0.68 -16.12
Bare land 149.00 4.07 0.61
Table 2  Changes in TESVs caused by cropland changes at a global level, 1992-2015
Region TESVs of 1992 (×109 $) Growth rate of cropland area (%) TESVs gains caused by cropland loss (×109 $) TESVs loss caused by cropland gains (×109 $) TESVs (×109 $) R1 (%) R2 (%) Main Reason
Global 14269.62 3.96 57.73 224.56 -166.83 -65.21 -1.17 A
North America 1624.14 1.31 2.44 18.93 -16.48 -78.72 -1.01 B
South America 3622.39 12.02 19.85 101.50 -81.65 -74.74 -2.25 A
Africa 3334.06 7.52 9.04 51.99 -42.95 -73.92 -1.29 A
Europe 548.15 -0.67 0.12 3.33 -3.21 -54.57 -0.59 C
Asia 4496.71 2.34 25.86 47.58 -21.72 -36.46 -0.48 A
Oceania 587.69 4.26 0.38 1.01 -0.63 -36.26 -0.11 D
Table 3  Changes in TESVs caused by cropland changes at regional level, 1992-2015
Figure 3  Cropland change in South America, 1992-2015 (Tropical forest-Cropland means that tropical forest in 1992 was converted into cropland in 2015. Other conversions are similar to this.)
Figure 4  Cropland change in Africa, 1992-2015
Figure 5  The extent of TESVs changes caused by cropland change (R2), 1992-2015
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