Please wait a minute...
 Home  About the Journal Subscription Advertisement Contact us   英文  
Just Accepted  |  Current Issue  |  Archive  |  Featured Articles  |  Most Read  |  Most Download  |  Most Cited
Journal of Geographical Sciences    2019, Vol. 29 Issue (3) : 323-333     DOI: 10.1007/s11442-019-1600-7
Research Articles |
The impact of global cropland changes on terrestrial ecosystem services value, 1992-2015
LI Yuanyuan1,2,3(),TAN Minghong1,2,*(),HAO Haiguang3
1. Key Laboratory of Land Surface Pattern and Simulation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
2. International College, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
3. State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012, China
Download: PDF(658 KB)   HTML
Export: BibTeX | EndNote | Reference Manager | ProCite | RefWorks    

From 1992 to 2015, ecological environment has been threatened by the changes of cropland around the world. In order to evaluate the impact of cropland changes on ecosystem, we calculated the response of terrestrial ecosystem service values (TESVs) variation to cropland conversion based on land-use data from European Space Agency (ESA). The results showed that cropland changes were responsible for an absolute loss of $166.82 billion, equivalent to 1.17% of global TESVs in 1992. Among the different regions, the impact of cropland changes on TESVs was significant in South America and Africa but not obvious in Oceania, Asia and Europe. Cropland expansion from tropical forest was the main reason for decreases in TESVs globally, especially in South America, Africa and Asia. The effect of wetland converted to cropland was notable in North America and Europe while grassland converted to cropland played an important role in Oceania, Africa and Asia. In Europe, the force of urban expansion cannot be ignored as well. The conversion of cropland to tropical or temperate forest partly compensated for the loss of TESVs globally, especially in Asia.

Keywords terrestrial ecosystem services values (TESVs)      cropland conversion      global     
Fund:National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41771116, No.41501095;National Basic Research Program of China, No.2015CB452705;National Key Research and Development Program of China, No.2016YFC0502103
Corresponding Authors: TAN Minghong     E-mail:;
Issue Date: 20 March 2019
E-mail this article
E-mail Alert
Articles by authors
LI Yuanyuan
TAN Minghong
HAO Haiguang
Cite this article:   
LI Yuanyuan,TAN Minghong,HAO Haiguang. The impact of global cropland changes on terrestrial ecosystem services value, 1992-2015[J]. Journal of Geographical Sciences, 2019, 29(3): 323-333.
URL:     OR
Ecosystem services Tropical forest Temperate forest Grassland Cropland Wetland
Gas regulation 0.00 0.00 11.34 0.00 215.46
Climate regulation 361.26 142.56 0.00 0.00 0.00
Disturbance regulation 8.10 0.00 0.00 0.00 7353.18
Water regulation 9.72 0.00 4.86 0.00 24.30
Water supply 12.96 0.00 0.00 0.00 6156.00
Erosion control 396.90 0.00 46.98 0.00 0.00
Soil formation 16.20 16.20 1.62 0.00 0.00
Nutrient cycling 1493.64 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Waste treatment 140.94 140.94 140.94 0.00 6766.74
Pollination 0.00 0.00 40.50 22.68 0.00
Biological control 0.00 6.48 37.26 38.88 0.00
Habitat/Refugia 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 492.48
Food production 51.84 81.00 108.54 87.48 414.72
Raw materials 510.30 40.50 0.00 0.00 171.72
Genetic resources 66.42 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Recreation 181.44 58.32 3.24 0.00 929.88
Cultural 3.24 3.24 0.00 0.00 1427.22
Total 3251.00 489.00 376.00 149.00 23952.00
Table 1  TESVs per unit area ($/ha per year based on the 2016 value of the USD) (after Costanza et al., 1997)
Figure 1  Cropland gains between 1992 and 2015
Figure 2  Cropland loss between 1992 and 2015
1992 2015 V ($/ha) A (×106 ha) TESVs (×109 $)
Cropland converted into Tropical forest 3102.00 17.62 54.67
Temperate forest 340.00 12.43 4.23
Grassland 227.00 6.77 1.54
Wetland 23803.00 0.05 1.12
Urban -149.00 25.02 -3.73
Bare land -149.00 0.64 -0.09
Tropical forest Converted into cropland -3102.00 60.44 -187.47
Temperate forest -340.00 25.96 -8.83
Grassland -227.00 56.17 -12.75
Wetland -23803.00 0.68 -16.12
Bare land 149.00 4.07 0.61
Table 2  Changes in TESVs caused by cropland changes at a global level, 1992-2015
Region TESVs of 1992 (×109 $) Growth rate of cropland area (%) TESVs gains caused by cropland loss (×109 $) TESVs loss caused by cropland gains (×109 $) TESVs (×109 $) R1 (%) R2 (%) Main Reason
Global 14269.62 3.96 57.73 224.56 -166.83 -65.21 -1.17 A
North America 1624.14 1.31 2.44 18.93 -16.48 -78.72 -1.01 B
South America 3622.39 12.02 19.85 101.50 -81.65 -74.74 -2.25 A
Africa 3334.06 7.52 9.04 51.99 -42.95 -73.92 -1.29 A
Europe 548.15 -0.67 0.12 3.33 -3.21 -54.57 -0.59 C
Asia 4496.71 2.34 25.86 47.58 -21.72 -36.46 -0.48 A
Oceania 587.69 4.26 0.38 1.01 -0.63 -36.26 -0.11 D
Table 3  Changes in TESVs caused by cropland changes at regional level, 1992-2015
Figure 3  Cropland change in South America, 1992-2015 (Tropical forest-Cropland means that tropical forest in 1992 was converted into cropland in 2015. Other conversions are similar to this.)
Figure 4  Cropland change in Africa, 1992-2015
Figure 5  The extent of TESVs changes caused by cropland change (R2), 1992-2015
[1] Antonelli M, Siciliano G, Turvani M Eet al., 2015. Global investments in agricultural land and the role of the EU: Drivers, scope and potential impacts.Land Use Policy, 47(52): 98-111.
doi: 10.1016/j.landusepol.2015.04.007
[2] Bren d’Amour C, Reitsma F, Baiocchi Get al., 2017. Future urban land expansion and implications for global croplands.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 114(34): 8939-8944.
doi: 10.1073/pnas.1606036114 pmid: 28028219
[3] Brown D S, Brown, J C, Brown C, 2016. Land occupations and deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon.Land Use Policy, 54: 331-338.
doi: 10.1016/j.landusepol.2016.02.003
[4] Cai W B, Gibbs D, Zhang Let al., 2017. Identifying hotspots and management of critical ecosystem services in rapidly urbanizing Yangtze River Delta Region, China.Journal of Environmental Management, 191: 258-267.
doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2017.01.003 pmid: 28119168
[5] Conigliani C, Cuffaro N, D’Agostino G, 2018. Large-scale land investments and forests in Africa.Land Use Policy. doi: 10.13140/RG.2.2.17300.91528.
doi: 10.13140/RG.2.2.17300.91528
[6] Costanza R, Arge R D, de Groot Ret al., 1997. The value of the world’s ecosystem services and natural capital.Nature, 387(1): 253-260.
[7] Costanza R, de Groot R, Sutton Pet al., 2014. Changes in the global value of ecosystem services.Global Environmental Change, 26(1): 152-158.
doi: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2014.04.002
[8] Dahl T E, 2000. Status and trends of wetlands in the conterminous United States 1986 to 1997.Research.
[9] Damien A, Isabelle T, Christovam Bet al., 2017. Land use sustainability on the South-Eastern Amazon agricultural frontier: Recent progress and the challenges ahead.Applied Geography, 80: 86-97.
doi: 10.1016/j.apgeog.2017.02.003
[10] de Groot R, Brander L, van der Ploeg Set al., 2012. Global estimates of the value of ecosystems and their services in monetary units.Ecosystem Services, 1(1): 50-61.
doi: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2012.07.005
[11] Defries R S, Houghton R A, Hansen M Cet al., 2002. Carbon emissions from tropical deforestation and regrowth based on satellite observations for the 1980s and 1990s.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 99(22): 14256-14261.
doi: 10.1073/pnas.182560099
[12] Dupras J, Alam M, 2014. Urban sprawl and ecosystem services: A half century perspective in the Montreal area (Quebec, Canada).Journal of Environmental Policy & Planning, 17(2): 180-200.
doi: 10.1080/1523908X.2014.927755
[13] European Space Agency (ESA), 2017. Land cover CCI product user guide version 2.0. . /CCI/ viewer/, accessed on 10.05.2017
[14] FAOSTAT, Statistics Division (ESS), Environment Statistics Team, FAO, 2017. . data/LC
[15] Fu B L, Li Y, Wang Y Qet al., 2016. Evaluation of ecosystem service value of riparian zone using land use data from 1986 to 2012.Ecological Indicators, 69: 873-881.
doi: 10.1016/j.ecolind.2016.05.048
[16] Gibbs H, Ruesch A, Achard Fet al., 2010. Tropical forests were the primary sources of new agricultural land in the 1980s and 1990s.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107(38): 16732-16737.
doi: 10.1073/pnas.0910275107
[17] Iizumi T, Ramankutty N, 2015. How do weather and climate influence cropping area and intensity?Global Food Security, 4: 46-50.
doi: 10.1016/j.gfs.2014.11.003
[18] Johansson E L, Fader M, Seaquist J Wet al., 2016. Green and blue water demand from large-scale land acquisitions in Africa. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 113(41): 11471-11476.
doi: 10.1073/pnas.1524741113 pmid: 27671634
[19] Johnston R J, Rosenberger R S, 2010. Methods, trends and controversies in contemporary benefit transfer.Journal of Economic Surveys, 24(3): 479-510.
doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6419.2009.00592.x
[20] Kubiszewski I., Costanza R,Anderson S et a.., 2017. The future value of ecosystem services: Global scenarios and national implications.Ecosystem Services, 26: 289-301.
doi: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.05.004
[21] Lambin E F, Meyfroidt P, 2011. Global land use change, economic globalization, and the looming land scarcity.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108(9): 3465-3472.
doi: 10.1073/pnas.1100480108
[22] Laurance W F, Sayer J, Cassman K G, 2014. Agricultural expansion and its impacts on tropical nature.Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 29(2): 107-116.
doi: 10.1016/j.tree.2013.12.001 pmid: 24388286
[23] Li G D, Fang C L, 2014. Global mapping and estimation of ecosystem services values and gross domestic product: A spatially explicit integration of national ‘green GDP’ accounting. Ecological Indicators, 46: 293-314.
doi: 10.1016/j.ecolind.2014.05.020
[24] Lu X, Shi Y Y, Chen C Let al., 2017. Monitoring cropland transition and its impact on ecosystem services value in developed regions of China: A case study of Jiangsu Province.Land Use Policy, 69: 25-40.
doi: 10.1016/j.landusepol.2017.08.035
[25] Mann M L, Kaufmann R K, Bauer D Met al., 2012. Ecosystem service value and agricultural conversion in the Amazon: Implications for policy intervention.Environmental and Resource Economics, 53(2): 279-295.
doi: 10.1007/s10640-012-9562-6
[26] Niquisse S, Cabral P, 2017. Assessment of changes in ecosystem service monetary values in Mozambique.Environmental Development. doi: 10.1016/j.envdev.2017.09.003.
[27] Piao S L, Ciais P, Huang Yet al., 2010. The impacts of climate change on water resources and agriculture in China. Nature, 467(7311): 43-51.
doi: 10.1038/nature09364 pmid: 20811450
[28] Pinke Z, Kiss M, Lövei G L, 2018. Developing an integrated land use planning system on reclaimed wetlands of the Hungarian Plain using economic valuation of ecosystem services.Ecosystem Services, 30: 299-308.
doi: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.09.007
[29] Quintas-Soriano C, Martín-López B, Santos-Martín Fet al., 2016. Ecosystem services values in Spain: A meta-analysis.Environmental Science & Policy, 55(2): 186-195.
doi: 10.1016/j.envsci.2015.10.001
[30] Schoneveld G C, 2014. The geographic and sectoral patterns of large-scale farmland investments in sub-Saharan Africa.Food Policy, 48(1): 34-50.
doi: 10.1016/j.foodpol.2014.03.007
[31] Schoneveld G C, 2017. Host country governance and the African land rush: 7 reasons why large-scale farmland investments fail to contribute to sustainable development.Geoforum, 83: 119-132.
doi: 10.1016/j.geoforum.2016.12.007
[32] Sheng W P, Zhen L, Xie G Det al., 2017. Determining eco-compensation standards based on the ecosystem services value of the mountain ecological forests in Beijing, China.Ecosystem Services, 26: 422-430.
doi: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.04.016
[33] Shi X L, Wang W, Shi W J, 2016. Progress on quantitative assessment of the impacts of climate change and human activities on cropland change.Journal of Geographical Sciences, 26(3): 339-354.
doi: 10.1007/s11442-016-1272-5
[34] Smaliychuk A, Müller D, Prishchepov A Vet al., 2016. Recultivation of abandoned agricultural lands in Ukraine: Patterns and drivers.Global Environmental Change, 38: 70-81.
doi: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2016.02.009
[35] Song W, Deng X Z, 2017. Land-use/land-cover change and ecosystem service provision in China.Science of the Total Environment, 576: 705-719.
doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.07.078 pmid: 27810757
[36] Song W, Pijanowski B C, Tayyebi A, 2015. Urban expansion and its consumption of high-quality farmland in Beijing, China.Ecological Indicators, 54: 60-70.
doi: 10.1016/j.ecolind.2015.02.015
[37] Song X P, 2018. Global estimates of ecosystem service value and change: Taking into account uncertainties in satellite-based land cover data.Ecological Economics, 143: 227-235.
doi: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2017.07.019
[38] Swinnen J, Burkitbayeva S, Schierhorn Fet al., 2017. Production potential in the “bread baskets” of Eastern Europe and Central Asia.Global Food Security, 14: 38-53.
doi: 10.1016/j.gfs.2017.03.005
[39] Tan M H, Li X B, Xie Het al., 2005. Urban land expansion and arable land loss in China: A case study of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region.Land Use Policy, 22(3): 187-196.
doi: 10.1016/j.landusepol.2004.03.003
[40] Tilman D, Cassman K G, Matson P Aet al., 2002. Agricultural sustainability and intensive production practices.Nature, 418: 671-677.
doi: 10.1038/nature01014 pmid: 12167873
[41] Tscharntke T, Clough Y, Wanger T Cet al., 2012. Global food security, biodiversity conservation and the future of agricultural intensification.Biological Conservation, 151(1): 53-59.
doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2012.01.068
[42] United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, 2017. World Urbanization Prospects: The 2017 Revision, DVD Edition.
[43] Varis O, Kummu M, 2012. The major Central Asian river basins: An assessment of vulnerability.International Journal of Water Resources Development, 28(3): 433-452.
doi: 10.1080/07900627.2012.684309
[44] Vliet J V, Eitelberg D A, Verburg P H, 2017. A global analysis of land take in cropland areas and production displacement from urbanization.Global Environmental Change, 43: 107-115.
doi: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2017.02.001
[45] Weinzettel J, Hertwich E G, Peters G Pet al., 2013. Affluence drives the global displacement of land use.Global Environmental Change, 23(2): 433-438.
doi: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2012.12.010
[46] Xie G D, Lu C X, Leng Y Fet al., 2003. Ecological assets valuation of the Tibetan Plateau. Journal of Natural Resources, 18: 189-196. (in Chinese)
[47] Xie G D, Zhang C X, Zhen Let al., 2017. Dynamic changes in the value of China’s ecosystem services.Ecosystem Services, 26: 146-154.
doi: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.06.010
[48] Zhang W L, Xu A G, Ji H Jet al., 2004. Estimation of agricultural non-point source pollution in China and the alleviating strategies III. A review of policies and practices for agricultural non-point source pollution control in China.Scientia Agricultura Sinica, 43(9): 1965-1970. (in Chinese)
[1] LIU Weidong,Michael DUNFORD,GAO Boyang. A discursive construction of the Belt and Road Initiative: From neo-liberal to inclusive globalization[J]. Journal of Geographical Sciences, 2018, 28(9): 1199-1214.
[2] SONG Zhouying,CHE Shuyun,YANG Yu*. The trade network of the Belt and Road Initiative and its topological relationship to the global trade network[J]. Journal of Geographical Sciences, 2018, 28(9): 1249-1262.
[3] HAN Mengyao,YAO Qiuhui,LIU Weidong,Michael DUNFORD. Tracking embodied carbon flows in the Belt and Road regions[J]. Journal of Geographical Sciences, 2018, 28(9): 1263-1274.
[4] SONG Tao,LIU Weidong,LIU Zhigao,WUZHATI Yeerken. Chinese overseas industrial parks in Southeast Asia: An examination of policy mobility from the perspective of embeddedness[J]. Journal of Geographical Sciences, 2018, 28(9): 1288-1306.
[5] FANG Zhixiang,YU Hongchu,LU Feng,FENG Mingxiang,HUANG Meng. Maritime network dynamics before and after international events[J]. Journal of Geographical Sciences, 2018, 28(7): 937-956.
[6] ZHANG Wenxia,,FENG Qingrong,WANG Tianguang,WANG Tianqiang. The spatiotemporal responses of Populus euphratica to global warming in Chinese oases between 1960 and 2015[J]. Journal of Geographical Sciences, 2018, 28(5): 579-594.
[7] HUANG Gengzhi,LENG Shuying. The progress of human geography in China under the support of the National Natural Science Foundation of China[J]. Journal of Geographical Sciences, 2018, 28(12): 1735-1756.
[8] YAO Ziyan,ZHANG Lijuan,TANG Shihao,LI Xiaxiang,HAO Tiantian. The basic characteristics and spatial patterns of global cultivated land change since the 1980s[J]. Journal of Geographical Sciences, 2017, 27(7): 771-785.
[9] WU Shaohong,YIN Yunhe,*ZHENG Du,YANG Qinye,DENG Haoyu. Advances in terrestrial system research in China[J]. Journal of Geographical Sciences, 2016, 26(7): 791-802.
[10] SHEN Lei,*SUN Yanzhi. Review on carbon emissions, energy consumption and low-carbon economy in China from a perspective of global climate change[J]. Journal of Geographical Sciences, 2016, 26(7): 855-870.
[11] MIN Qingwen,ZHANG Yongxun,*JIAO Wenjun,SUN Xueping. Responding to common questions on the conservation of agricultural heritage systems in China[J]. Journal of Geographical Sciences, 2016, 26(7): 969-982.
[12] Li WANG,Xinfa QIU,Peifa WANG,Xiaoying WANG,Aili LIU. Influence of complex topography on global solar radiation in the Yangtze River Basin[J]. Journal of Geographical Sciences, 2014, 24(6): 980-992.
[13] Mingjun ZHANG,Lei DONG,Shengjie WANG,Aifang ZHAO,Fang QIANG,Meiping SUN,Qiong WANG. Increasing free-air 0℃ isotherm height in Southwest China from 1960 to 2010[J]. Journal of Geographical Sciences, 2014, 24(5): 833-844.
[14] LONG Kaisheng, ZHAO Yali, ZHANG Honghui, CHEN Ligen, LU Fangfang, GU Yuanyuan. Differentiation characteristics and influencing factors of ecological land rent among provinces in China[J]. Journal of Geographical Sciences, 2013, 23(3): 387-403.
[15] PANG Hongxi, LI Zongxing, Wilfred H. THEAKSTONE. Changes of the hydrological cycle in two typical Chinese monsoonal temperate glacier basins: A response to global warming?[J]. Journal of Geographical Sciences, 2012, 22(5): 771-780.
Full text



Copyright © Journal of Geographical Sciences, All Rights Reserved.
Powered by Beijing Magtech Co. Ltd