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Journal of Geographical Sciences    2018, Vol. 28 Issue (12) : 1877-1895     DOI: 10.1007/s11442-018-1569-7
Research Articles |
Urban structural evolution over a century in Changchun city, Northeast China
KUANG Wenhui1(),YAN Fengqin2
1. Key Laboratory of Land Surface Pattern and Simulation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
2. Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, CAS, Changchun 130102, China
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Abstract  

Knowledge on urban land-use change and its driving forces has vital significance in the practice of urban planning and management. However, the characteristics of historical, long-term changes and their quantitative relationships with the urban environment are still poorly understood. Based on multi-source data, including remote sensing imageries, large-scale topographic maps, historical maps, multi-temporal city maps, and other urban thematic maps, high-quality spatial information on urban land use in the built-up area of Changchun has been extracted for 1898, 1932, 1954, 1976, 1990, 2002, and 2012 by means of geographic information systems and remote sensing. We found that the land-use structure and spatial configuration has undergone tremendous alterations according to urban function in the 100-year history of Changchun city. The built-up area of Changchun expanded from 2.26 km2 in 1898 to 328.12 km2 in 2012, increasing about 144 times over the past century. Historically, the development of Changchun can be categorized into three stages: the initial forming stage, the old industrial development stage, and the modern metropolis development stage. Commercial and industrial land expanded rapidly following the founding of the People’s Republic of China in 1949, with an increase from 1.74 km2 in 1954 to 15.91 km2 in 2012, and from 16.45 km2 in 1954 to 107.05 km2 in 2012, respectively. Although there was substantial growth in residential land use (from 1.81 km2 in 1898 to 113.95 km2 in 2012), the area percentage of residential land decreased continuously (from 80.09% in 1898 to 34.73% in 2012). Moreover, it was noted that the spatial configuration and structural percentage for commercial, industrial, and residential lands and others had tremendous divergences at different stages. These divergences of land-use structure occurred between the stages and were associated with social regimes and the functional orientation of urban society across the 100 years of historical development. Socio-economics, population growth, and planning policies from specific stages, especially after 1949, had strong effects on the divergence of urban structure.

Keywords urban expansion      land use      urban structure      driving factors      Changchun city      China     
Fund:China Postdoctoral Science Foundation, No.BX201700241; National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41371408
Issue Date: 27 December 2018
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KUANG Wenhui
YAN Fengqin
Cite this article:   
KUANG Wenhui,YAN Fengqin. Urban structural evolution over a century in Changchun city, Northeast China[J]. Journal of Geographical Sciences, 2018, 28(12): 1877-1895.
URL:  
http://www.geogsci.com/EN/10.1007/s11442-018-1569-7     OR     http://www.geogsci.com/EN/Y2018/V28/I12/1877
Figure 1  The study area and SPOT image for the Changchun area
Year Data types Data source/scale Producer/provider Process
1898 Urban thematic maps Changchun urban outlines maps Library of Changchun city Digitalization coordinates integration
1905 Urban thematic maps Changchun urban outlines maps Library of Changchun city Same as above
1932 Urban thematic maps Urban planning maps Library of Changchun city Same as above
1954 Urban thematic maps Topographic maps/
1:100,000
Changchun Institute of Geography, CAS Same as above
1976 Large-scale topographic maps 1:10,000 Changchun Institute for Surveying and Mapping Same as above
1990 Large-scale topographic maps 1:1000
1:500
Changchun Institute for Surveying and Mapping Same as above
2002 Satellite images SPOT5/2.5 m Ordered by China Remote Sensing Ground Station Geometric correction; Digitalization
2012 Satellite images Google Earth/2.5 m Download Digitalization; coordinates integration
Table 1  Data sources and processing for determination of land-use changes in Changchun
Figure 2  Spatial layouts of land use and urban planning in 1932 in Changchun city
Figure 3  The flow chart of urban land classification using a multi-source dataset
Urban land-use
type
Number of
samples
Correct samples
in 1990
Accuracy
in 1990 (%)
Correct samples
in 2012
Accuracy in
2012 (%)
Commercial 17 16 94.12 16 94.12
Industrial 20 18 90.00 19 95.00
Residential 44 42 95.45 43 97.73
Public services 22 19 86.36 19 86.36
Transportation 15 14 93.33 14 93.33
Greenspace 20 18 90.00 19 95.00
Water area 16 15 93.75 15 93.75
Others 12 11 91.66 11 91.66
Total/average 122 116 91.83 156 93.37
Table 2  Accuracy analysis of the different urban land-use types
Figure 4  Urban land-use maps of Changchun from 1898 to 2012 (a. 1898; b. 1932; c. 1954; d. 1976; e. 1990; f. 2002; g. 2012)
Figure 5  Percentages of urban land use in Changchun from 1898 to 2012
Commercial Industrial Residential Public
services
Transportation Greenspace Water area Others
Urban land-use areas in km2 at specific dates (year)
1898 0.01 0.00 1.81 0.08 0.36 0.00 0.00 0.00
1932 0.12 0.15 7.73 0.73 3.21 0.26 0.02 0.02
1954 1.74 16.45 40.07 3.90 7.07 6.56 0.92 0.32
1976 3.21 29.27 50.86 8.67 9.41 12.66 2.38 1.38
1990 5.57 42.26 71.70 11.95 13.83 17.32 3.19 1.17
2002 13.38 70.64 100.21 19.31 20.59 24.56 5.00 10.55
2012 15.91 107.05 113.95 25.95 26.40 30.86 5.03 2.97
Overall urban land-use change area (km2)
1898-1932 0.11 0.15 5.92 0.65 2.85 0.26 0.02 0.02
1932-1954 1.62 16.3 32.34 3.17 3.86 6.3 0.9 0.3
1954-1976 1.47 12.82 10.79 4.77 2.34 6.1 1.46 1.06
1976-1990 2.36 12.99 20.84 3.28 4.42 4.66 0.81 -0.21
1990-2002 7.81 28.38 28.51 7.36 6.76 7.24 1.81 9.38
2002-2012 2.53 36.41 13.74 6.64 5.81 6.3 0.03 -7.58
1898-2012 15.9 107.05 112.14 25.87 26.04 30.86 5.03 2.97
Urban expansion rate (km2/a)
1898-1932 0.003 0.004 0.174 0.019 0.084 0.008 0.001 0.001
1932-1954 0.07 0.74 1.47 0.14 0.18 0.29 0.04 0.01
1954-1976 0.07 0.58 0.49 0.22 0.11 0.28 0.07 0.05
1976-1990 0.17 0.93 1.49 0.23 0.32 0.33 0.06 -0.02
1990-2002 0.65 2.37 2.38 0.61 0.56 0.60 0.15 0.78
2002-2012 0.25 3.64 1.37 0.66 0.58 0.63 0.00 -0.76
1898-2012 0.14 0.94 0.98 0.23 0.23 0.27 0.04 0.03
Table 3  Urban land use and changes from 1898 to 2012
Figure 6  The land-use structure for different districts of Changchun
Figure 7  The land-use structure at different distances from the city center to the fringes
Figure 8  Relationship between urban land changing rate and macro-policies for different stages of Changchun’s development
Year Built-up area (km2) Urban population (million) GDP (yuan)
1898 2.26 0.03 -
1932 12.24 0.13 -
1954 77.03 0.84 0.52
1976 117.84 1.46 2.49
1990 166.99 2.11 5.88
2002 264.24 3.03 84.74
2012 328.12 3.65 282.39
Table 4  Summary of built-up areas, population, and economic conditions in Changchun, 1898-2012
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