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Journal of Geographical Sciences    2018, Vol. 28 Issue (12) : 1860-1876     DOI: 10.1007/s11442-018-1568-8
Research Articles |
Comparative research on regional differences in urbanization and spatial evolution of urban systems between China and India
LI Jiaming1(),YANG Yu1,2,*(),FAN Jie1,2,JIN Fengjun1,2,ZHANG Wenzhong1,2,LIU Shenghe1,2,FU Bojie2,3,*()
1. Key Laboratory of Regional Sustainable Development Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
2. College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
3. State Key Laboratory of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences of CAS, Beijing 100085, China
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Abstract  

As two rising great powers, China and India have undergone similar development processes, but they also exhibit significant differences in development paths and patterns. The significant differences in political systems, economic systems, and developmental environment between the two countries have attracted great attention from scholars. This research focuses on the regional differences and spatial evolution processes in urbanization and urban systems between the two countries from a geographical perspective. Based on the demographic censuses of both countries and the urban population data from the United Nations, this paper systematically compared and analyzed the spatial characteristics of urbanization and urban systems in China and India using various methods including spatial analysis, parameter estimation, and nonparametric estimation. The results indicate that: (1) Since the 1990s, the regional differences in urbanization in China have transformed from south-north differences to coastal-inland differences, whereas the north-south differences in India have been stable. (2) In recent years, the correlation between population density and urbanization rate kept increasing in China, while such correlation has been decreasing in India. (3) The economic reform posed significantly different effects on the spatial evolution of the urban systems in the two countries. The economic reform changed the major driving force for urban development in China from geographical and historical factors to the spatial structure of the economic system. However, in India, the driving forces for urban development have always been geographical and historical factors, and the economic reform even decreased the effect of the spatial structure of the economic system on urban development.

Keywords urbanization      urban system      spatial pattern      spatial evolution      China      India     
Fund:National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41230632, No.41671166, No.41571159, No.41430636, No.41701128
Corresponding Authors: YANG Yu,FU Bojie     E-mail: lijm.12b@igsnrr.ac.cn;yangyu@igsnrr.ac.cn;bfu@rcees.ac.cn
Issue Date: 27 December 2018
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LI Jiaming
YANG Yu
FAN Jie
JIN Fengjun
ZHANG Wenzhong
LIU Shenghe
FU Bojie
Cite this article:   
LI Jiaming,YANG Yu,FAN Jie, et al. Comparative research on regional differences in urbanization and spatial evolution of urban systems between China and India[J]. Journal of Geographical Sciences, 2018, 28(12): 1860-1876.
URL:  
http://www.geogsci.com/EN/10.1007/s11442-018-1568-8     OR     http://www.geogsci.com/EN/Y2018/V28/I12/1860
State
(Union territory)
Population in 2011 (person) Urbanization rate (%) Population density
(person/km2)
State
(Union territory)
Population in 2011
(person)
Urbanization
rate (%)
Population density
(person/km2)
Uttar Pradesh 199,581,477 26.17 828 North
Arkande
10,116,752 30.23 189
Maharashtra 112,372,972 45.22 365 Himachal Pradesh 6,856,509 10.03 123
Bihar 103,804,637 11.30 1102 Tripura 3,671,032 48.40 350
West Bengal 91,347,736 31.87 1029 Meghalaya 2,964,007 20.07 132
Andhra Pradesh 84,665,533 33.36 308 Manipur 2,721,756 29.21 122
Central states 72,597,565 27.63 236 Nagaland 1,980,602 28.86 119
Tamil Nadu 72,138,958 23.21 555 Goa 1,457,723 62.17 394
Rajasthan 68,621,012 24.87 201 Chhattigarh 25,540,196 23.24 189
Karnataka 61,130,704 38.67 319 Mizoram 1,091,014 52.11 52
Gujarat 60,383,628 42.60 308 Sikkim 607,688 25.15 86
Odisha 41,947,358 16.69 269 Delhi 16,753,235 97.50 9,340
Kerala 33,387,677 47.70 859 Puducherry 1,244,464 68.33 2,598
Jharkhand 32,966,238 24.05 414 Chandigarh 1,054,686 97.25 9,252
Assam 31,169,272 14.10 397 Andaman Islands 379,944 37.70 46
Punjab 27,704,236 37.48 550 Dadra and Nagar Haveli 342,853 46.72 698
Haryana 25,353,081 34.88 573 Daman 242,911 75.17 2,169
Jammu and
Kashmir
12,548,926 27.38 56 Laccadive Islands 64,429 78.07 2,013
Table 1  India’s urbanization and population profiles in states and union territories in 2011
Figure 1  Change of population scale and urbanization in China and India since 1901
Note: China’s data before 1949 came from China’s Population History. Due to the lack of data in 1921 and 1941, the total population of 1928 and 1937 was used instead. The data after 1949 are obtained from the China Statistical Yearbooks. India’s data are obtained from the Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner.
Figure 2  Evolution of spatial patterns of urbanization in China from 1990 to 2010
Figure 3  Evolution of urbanization spatial pattern in India between 1991 and 2011
Figure 4  Characteristics of spatial distribution of population in China
Figure 5  Characteristics of spatial distribution of population in India
Figure 6  Characteristics of Spatial distribution of population density in China and India
Figure 7  Correlation between urbanization and population density in China and India
Figure 8  Changes in correlation between urbanization and population density in China
Figure 9  Changes in correlation between urbanization and population density in India
Year China India
Pearson correlation Spearman correlation Pearson correlation Spearman correlation
1990/1991 0.143 0.047 0.846** 0.483**
2000/2001 0.706** 0.393* 0.820** 0.441**
2010/2011 0.719** 0.546** 0.769** 0.453**
Table 2  Comparison of the correlation between urbanization and population density in different periods in China and India
Figure 10  Comparison between China and India in development of urban systems
China India
a b a b
Value 10.7622 -0.8251 10.5622 -0.9380
Goodness of fit 0.9936 0.99
Table 3  Fitting analysis of urban systems in China and India
Figure 11  Change of urban spatial patterns in China
Figure 12  The evolution of urban spatial pattern in India
Year China India
Pearson
correlation
Spearman correlation Pearson
correlation
Spearman correlation
Urban scale in 1950 and its growth (1950-1980/1990) 0.730** 0.860** 0.857** 0.646**
Urban scale in 1950 and its growth (1980/1990-2015) 0.768** 0.350** 0.623** 0.496**
Urban scale in 1980/1990 and its growth (1980/1990-2015) 0.796** 0.440** 0.848** 0.737**
Table 4  Correlation between urban development and initial scale in China and India
Year China India
Pearson
correlation
Spearman correlation Pearson
correlation
Spearman correlation
Distance to six major cities and urban scale growth (1950-1980/1990) -0.053
(0.301)
-0.146**
(0.004)
0.108
(0.176)
0.155
(0.050)
Distance to six major cities and urban scale growth (1980/1990-2015) -0.189**
(0.000)
-0.243**
(0.000)
0.016
(0.837)
0.020
(0.806)
Table 5  Correlation between urban development and distance to core cities in China and India
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