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Journal of Geographical Sciences    2018, Vol. 28 Issue (12) : 1825-1844     DOI: 10.1007/s11442-018-1566-x
Research Articles |
Quantitative measurement and development evaluation of logistics clusters in China
LIU Sijing1(),LI Guoqi2,*(),JIN Fengjun2
1. School of Transportation & Logistics, Southwest Jiaotong University, National United Engineering Laboratory of Integrated and Intelligent Transportation, Chengdu 610031, China;
2. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
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The logistics clusters are the result of concentration, scale and specialization of logistics activities, and their quantitative measurement and development evaluation provide an important foundation for improving the land use efficiency and achieving economies of scale. Taking 289 cities at prefecture-level and above as research objects, this paper collected macro-statistical data of transport, postal and warehousing industry during 2000-2014, business registration data of more than 290 thousand logistics enterprises, and 170 thousand logistics points of interest (POI). With the integration of multi-index and multi-source data, the evolution process and spatial pattern of logistics clusters in China were explored with the methods of Location Quotient (LQ), Horizontal Cluster Location Quotient (HCLQ), Logistics Employment Density (LED) and modified Logistics Establishments’ Participation (LEP). The development levels, types and modes of different logistics clusters were quantified. Several important findings are derived from the study. (1) The logistics clusters are mainly located on the east side of the Hu Huanyong Line, and the accumulative pattern evolves from group to block structure, featuring wide coverage and high concentration. The evolution of logistics clusters has two stages of rapid convergence and stable change, resulting in gradual increase in the development level and efficiency of logistics clusters and in emergence of spillover effect. (2) 21 mature logistics clusters are distributed in the core and sub-cities of the main metropolitan areas of 16 provincial-level administrative divisions, conforming to the government logistics and transport planning. 43 emerging logistics clusters are distributed in 21 provincial administrative divisions, and different types of cities have huge disparities which highlight the differentiation of the market behaviors and government planning among them. (3) The logistics clusters present differentiated development modes with the change of scales. In urban agglomerations scale, the nested “center-periphery” structures with “main nucleus-secondary cores-general nodes” are clarified. The polar nuclear development, networked and balanced development, single core and multipoint, multi-core multipoint hub-spoke development patterns are formed in different provincial administrative divisions.

Keywords logistics cluster      agglomeration      spatial pattern      comprehensive integration      multi-scale     
Fund:National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.71603219, No.41501123
Corresponding Authors: LI Guoqi     E-mail:;
Issue Date: 27 December 2018
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LIU Sijing
LI Guoqi
JIN Fengjun
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LIU Sijing,LI Guoqi,JIN Fengjun. Quantitative measurement and development evaluation of logistics clusters in China[J]. Journal of Geographical Sciences, 2018, 28(12): 1825-1844.
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Figure 1  Spatial pattern of logistics clusters of cities at prefecture-level and above in typical years by LQ
Figure 2  Evolution process of logistics clusters of cities at prefecture-level and above during 2000-2014
Figure 3  Spatial pattern of logistics clusters of cities at prefecture-level and above in typical years by HCLQ
Figure 4  Spatial pattern of logistics clusters of cities at prefecture-level and above in typical years by LED
Figure 5  Cumulative curve of number of logistics clusters by the value of HCLQ during 2000-2014
Figure 6  Cumulative curve of number of logistics clusters by the value of LED during 2000-2014
Figure 7  Cumulative curve of number of cities by the different values of LEP
Figure 8  Spatial pattern of logistics clusters of cities at prefecture-level and above in typical years by LEP
Figure 9  Results of superposition of logistics employment population and logistics enterprises
Category Subcategory Standards Results
Mature logistics cluster I First level cities with one of the indexes for each of the two types satisfied Shanghai, Beijing, Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Chengdu, Xi’an
II First level cities with type two indexes satisfied Tianjin, Chongqing, Wuhan, Nanjing, Zhengzhou, Suzhou, Ningbo, Hangzhou, Qingdao
III Second level cities with LEP or one of the indexes for each of the two types satisfied and up cross-strata Jinan, Kunming, Harbin, Dalian, Xiamen, Dongguan, Shenyang
Emerging logistics
I Other level first and second level cities Changsha, Urumqi, Taiyuan, Foshan, Xuzhou, Qiqihar, Zhoushan, Haikou, Zhuhai, Lianyungang, Jinhua, Wuxi, Weifang, Baoding, Xiangtan
II Third level cities with one of the indexes for each of the two types or type two indexes satisfied Yingkou, Shijiazhuang, Guiyang, Zhongshan, Hefei, Changchun, Fuzhou, Nanning
III Other third level cities, and fourth and fifth level cities with all indexes of both types satisfied Fangchenggang, Qinhuangdao, Xiaogan, Jiaozuo, Shantou, Yichun, Ganzhou, Shangrao, Nanchang, Yantai, Changzhou, Quanzhou, Taizhou, Nantong, Yancheng, Tangshan, Hohhot, Fuyang, Bengbu, Liaocheng
Table 1  Results of comprehensive development evaluation of logistics clusters in China
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