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Journal of Geographical Sciences    2018, Vol. 28 Issue (12) : 1757-1780     DOI: 10.1007/s11442-018-1564-z
Research Articles |
The differentiation and evolutionary models of industrial bases in China
JIN Fengjun1,2(),CHEN Linlin1,2,3,*(),YANG Yu1,2,*(),HONG Hui4
1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
2. College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
3. The High School Affiliated to Renmin University of China, Tongzhou Campus, Beijing 101117, China
4. China International Engineering Consulting Corporation, Beijing 100048, China
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Abstract  

The rapid progress of China’s industrialization has been manifested in space as the formation and evolution of a series of industrial bases. Employing data from the years 1985, 2001 and 2010, this paper carries out differentiation, screening, and categorization of industrial bases in China. It then analyses the evolutional characteristics of these industrial bases and explores different paths of growth according to their scale or types, and summarizes the general pattern for their formation and evolution. The results of this study indicate that China’s industrial bases as a whole have gone through three spatial stages since the founding of the PRC in 1949: decentralized development before reform and opening up in 1978, gradual concentration in eastern coastal regions during the early period of reform and opening up, and balanced and diversified development since the beginning of the 21st century. By 2010, China had a total of 251 industrial bases and had thereby established the overall spatial map of its industrialization. As industrial bases expand in scale, their industrial structures develop from homogenization to diversification, and then again from diversification to competitive optimization. Leading industries in the vast majority of industrial bases constantly evolve along the track of light industries, basic materials industries, and advanced manufacturing industries. Meanwhile, the key factors in their evolution and development transition from traditional factors of production like resources and labor to new ones like capital and information, but there are significant differences in terms of influencing factors and growth paths between large, medium, and small bases. Small industrial bases primarily rely on natural resources to maintain development through a single leading industry, medium industrial bases gradually become more comprehensive in their industrial compositions, and large industrial bases evolve in the direction of a combination of basic materials industries and equipment manufacturing industries.

Keywords industrial base      differentiation      evolution      model      China     
Fund:Key Project of Chinese Academy of Sciences, No.KFZD-SW-314; The Strategic Priority Research Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences, No.XDA19040403; National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41430636, No.41571159; Bingwei Young Scientist Plan of Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No.2016RC202
Corresponding Authors: CHEN Linlin,YANG Yu     E-mail: jinfj@igsnrr.ac.cn;Chenll.12b@igsnrr.ac.cn;yangyu@igsnrr.ac.cn
Issue Date: 27 December 2018
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JIN Fengjun
CHEN Linlin
YANG Yu
HONG Hui
Cite this article:   
JIN Fengjun,CHEN Linlin,YANG Yu, et al. The differentiation and evolutionary models of industrial bases in China[J]. Journal of Geographical Sciences, 2018, 28(12): 1757-1780.
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http://www.geogsci.com/EN/10.1007/s11442-018-1564-z     OR     http://www.geogsci.com/EN/Y2018/V28/I12/1757
Figure 1  Cumulative distribution of industrial gross output value in a section of industries
Category Large base Medium base Small base
Standard Output value
(108 yuan)
National proportion (%) Output value
(108 yuan)
National
proportion (%)
Output value
(108 yuan)
National
proportion (%)
1985 >600 >1 170-600 0.3-1 <170 <0.3
2000 >2300 >1 650-2300 0.3-1 <650 <0.3
2010 >7000 >1 2000-7000 0.3-1 <2000 <0.3
Table 1  Categorization standards for industrial bases
Period Number Category Directory of bases
1949-
1985
168 Large
21
Anshan, Zhenjiang, Daqing, Wuhan, Hangzhou, Qingdao, Nantong, Yangzhou, Shanghai, Beijing, Tianjin, Wuxi, Suzhou, Guangzhou, Chongqing, Shenyang, Nanjing, Dalian, Changzhou, Chengdu, Ningbo
Medium
67
Liaoyang, Yueyang, Fushun, Lanzhou, Zhuzhou, Maoming, Weifang, Jiaxing, Zhoukou, Huzhou, Bengbu, Luoyang, Baotou, Qiqihar, Changchun, Dandong, Jiangmen, Xianyang, Jiamusi, Shantou, Kaifeng, Yantai, Foshan, Xi’an, Jining, Xiangfan, Wuhu, Yingkou, Leshan, Jilin, Kunming, Zibo, Urumqi, Huangshi, Anyang, Harbin, Jinan, Shijiazhuang, Zhengzhou, Yancheng, Changsha, Nanchang, Fuzhou, Hefei, Guiyang, Jinhua, Baoji, Mianyang, Zhangjiakou, Hengyang, Handan, Shaoguan, Tangshan, Tai’an, Jinzhou, Taiyuan, Xuzhou, Mudanjiang, Xiangtan, Shenzhen, Liuzhou, Wenzhou, Dongying, Benxi, Datong, Neijiang, Shaoxing
Small
80
Ma’anshan, Panzhihua, Panjin, Shuangyashan, Jingmen, Xinyu, Jingdezhen, Sanming, Jiujiang, Baoding, Karamay, Xiamen, Xinxiang, Hunjiang, Liupanshui, Huainan, Tieling, Deyang, Liaoyuan, Zaozhuang, Pingdingshan, Chaoyang,
Yichang, Fuxin, Tonghua, Changzhi, Yangquan, Jiaozuo, Huaibei, Puyang, Jixi, Jincheng, Xingtai, Chifeng, Chengde, Hegang, Shizuishan, Shiyan, Pingxiang, Tongchuan, Yumen, Sanmenxia, Hebi, Qitaihe, Wuhai, Jiaojiang, Hancheng, Qingtongxia, Chenzhou, Zigong, Qinhuangdao, Baiyin, Tongling, Jinchang, Guangyuan, Ezhou, Ganzhou, Loudi, Anqing, Luzhou, Quzhou, Cangzhou, Nanning, Jingzhou, Lianyungang, Zhanjiang, Changde, Yichun, Xuchang, Yuxi, Tianshui, Yibin, Yiyang, Nanping, Longyan, Yakeshi, Bei’an, Yanbian, Hohhot, Zhuhai
1985-
2001
256 Large
24
Shenzhen, Beijing, Qingdao, Changchun, Huizhou, Dalian, Xiamen, Zhuhai, Shanghai, Tianjin, Foshan, Nanjing, Chongqing, Wuhan, Suzhou, Guangzhou, Hangzhou, Wuxi, Ningbo, Shaoxing, Jiangmen, Weihai, Yantai, Changzhou
Medium
44
Zibo, Anshan, Jilin, Taiyuan, Tangshan, Dongguan, Hefei, Shiyan, Shenyang, Jinan, Wenzhou, Taizhou (Z), Taizhou (J), Lanzhou, Liuzhou, Fuzhou, Chengdu, Yangzhou, Kunming, Daqing, Jiaxing, Huzhou, Quanzhou, Linyi, Zhongshan, Nantong, Weifang, Zhenjiang, Yancheng, Zhaoqing, Harbin, Jinhua, Baoding, Changsha, Shantou, Nanchang, Xiangfan, Xi’an, Jining, Zhengzhou, Xuzhou, Mianyang, Wenzhou, Shijiazhuang
Small
188
Jiuquan, Handan, Fushun, Liaoyang, Yuncheng, Baotou, Urumqi, Linfen, Panzhihua, Karamay, Changzhi, Loudi, Hechi, Baiyin, Suqian, Dali, Chongzuo, Panjin, Pingdingshan, Wuzhong, Yan’an, Sanmenxia, Wuhu, Guilin, Leshan, Anyang, Zhuzhou, Shaoguan, Jinzhong, Jiaozuo, Xinxiang, Luoyang, Cangzhou, Guiyang, Huai’an, Lianyungang, Yichang, Dezhou, Nanyang, Yueyang, Zaozhuang, Xingtai, Sanming, Chenzhou, Baishan, Chuxiong, Chengde, Yanbian, Honghe, Longyan, Xinyang, Zhangjiakou, Anqing, Qujing, Yuxi, Liaocheng, Zhangzhou, Yunfu, Shangqiu, Tai’an, Hengshui, Jingzhou, Deyang, Hainan, Langfang, Yingkou, Xuchang, Xiaogan, Qinhuangdao, Jieyang, Baoji, Kaifeng, Mudanjiang, Qiqihar, Nanping, Putian, Siping, Wuzhou, Dongying, Ordos, Weinan, Chifeng, Bayingolin, Xianyang, Puyang, Qianjiang, Hebi, Huainan, Yangquan, Tieling, Datong, Lüliang, Huaibei, Liupanshui, Jincheng, Shuozhou, Huaihua, Shizuishan, Fuxin, Jixi, Yulin, Pingxiang, Wuhai, Tongchuan, Ulanqab, Hulunbuir, Qianxinan, Shuangyashan, Hegang, Pingliang, Qitaihe, Benxi, Chuzhou, Huangshi, Dandong, Ezhou, Heng- yang, Ma’anshan, Laiwu, Xiangtan, Zigong, Tongling, Chaozhou, Suizhou, Yingtan, Xining, Qiannan, Xinyu, Jinchang, Shaoyang, Hanzhong, Ganzhou, Baise, Heyuan, Liangshan, Jiayuguan, Xiangxi, Xinzhou, Haixi, Bayannur, Ya’an, Qinzhou, Pu’er, Longnan, Hami, Wenshan, Alxa, Shangluo, Altay, Nujiang, Ganzi, Maoming, Huanggang, Huludao, Quzhou, Tonghua, Jingmen, Jinzhou, Zhumadian, Jiujiang, Yinchuan, Chaoyang, Suihua, Ziyang, Songyuan, Binzhou, Luohe, Zhanjiang, Nanning, Zunyi, Zhoukou, Hohhot, Yibin, Changde, Bengbu, Zhoushan, Lishui, Xianning, Fuyang, Liu’an, Yichun, Luzhou, Suining, Bijie, Enshi, Zhaotong, Yichun, Rizhao, Yangjiang
Period Number Category Directory of bases
2001-
2010
251 Large
22
Zibo, Tangshan, Shenzhen, Beijing, Tianjin, Shenyang, Nanjing, Wuhan, Guangzhou, Chongqing, Dalian, Shanghai, Wuxi, Changzhou, Suzhou, Nantong, Hangzhou, Ningbo, Qingdao, Yantai, Foshan, Weifang
Medium
64
Anshan, Handan, Qingyuan, Kunming, Yingkou, Anyang, Changchun, Taizhou, Liuzhou, Zhuhai, Xiamen, Dongguan, Ordos, Huizhou, Wuhu, Cangzhou, Luoyang, Baotou, Jiaozuo, Langfang, Zhenjiang, Taizhou, Jinhua, Yangzhou, Wenzhou, Zhongshan, Hefei, Xi’an, Daqing, Baoding, Taiyuan, Rizhao, Quanzhou, Binzhou, Yueyang, Heze, Yichang, Linyi, Shaoxing, Liaocheng, Jiangmen, Weihai, Yancheng, Xinxiang, Tieling, Huzhou, Jiaxing, Dezhou, Huai’an, Xuzhou, Xiangfan, Shijiazhuang, Harbin, Nanchang, Jinan, Zaozhuang, Jining, Tai’an, Zhengzhou, Xuchang, Changsha, Chengdu, Dongying, Fuzhou
Small
165
Maoming, Chengde, Sanmenxia, Tonghua, Panzhihua, Fushun, Linfen, Shaoguan, Lanzhou, Honghezhou, Chifeng, Chenzhou, Karamay, Xining, Jilin, Jinzhou, Yan’an, Zhoukou, Loudi, Urumqi, Zhangjiakou, Pingdingshan, Lüliang, Changzhi, Jinzhong, Yinchuan, Ximeng, Hengshui, Lishui, Heyuan, Zhuzhou, Zigong, De- yang, Wuzhou, Jingmen, Lianyungang, Xingtai, Jiujiang, Neijiang, Huaihua, Yuxi, Yichun, Ji’an, Qinhuangdao, Sanming, Xinyang, Zhumadian, Guilin, Bayannur, Nanyang, Bozhou, Siping, Ziyang, Kaifeng, Shantou, Hulunbuir, Liu’an, Putian, Qujing, Zhanjiang, Zhangzhou, Nanning, Qiqihar, Shangqiu, Hengyang, Tongliao, Baishan, Xianyang, Guiyang, Puyang, Hohhot, Hebi, Yibin, Songyuan, Zhaoqing, Jieyang, Panjin, Datong, Yangquan, Jincheng, Shuozhou, Wuhai, Ulanqab, Jixi, Hegang, Shuangyashan, Qitaihe, Huainan, Huaibei, Dazhou, Liupanshui, Bijie, Yulin, Qingyang, Bazhou, Yuncheng, Xinzhou, Benxi, Dandong, Liaoyang, Chao- yang, Ma’anshan, Tongling, Chizhou, Xuancheng, Ningde, Pingxiang, Xinyu, Yingtan, Ganzhou, Fuzhou, Shangrao, Laiwu, Huangshi, Ezhou, Huanggang, Suizhou, Xiangtan, Xiangxi, Chaozhou, Yunfu, Baise, Hechi, Leshan, Liangshan, Wenshan, Baoji, Weinan, Shangluo, Jiayuguan, Jinchang, Baiyin, Longnan, Altay, Alxa, Huludao, Anqing, Qinzhou, Haikou, Nanchong, Yanbian, Yichun, Jiamusi, Mudan- jiang, Suqian, Quzhou, Suzhou, Nanping, Longyan, Luohe, Xiaogan, Jingzhou, Xiantao, Shaoyang, Yiyang, Yongzhou, Fangchenggang, Luzhou, Bazhong, Zunyi, Chuxiong, Zhoushan, Shiyan, Yangjiang, Mianyang
Table 2  China’s industrial bases from 1949-2010
Figure 2  Spatial distribution of China’s “156 Projects” and industrial bases
Figure 3  Growth models of China’s industrial bases
Note: Circles represent industries; the size of circles represents the size of output value; lines represent combination; the thickness of lines represents the number of cities; the color of lines represents industrial composition type - red represents single leading industry, blue represents double leading industry, green represents triple leading industry, and yellow represents quadruple leading industry. (1-Light industry; 2-Energy industry; 3-Material industry; 4-Manufacturing industry)
Province City
Shanxi (2) Datong (68.53%); Yangquan (88.33%)
Liaoning (4) Benxi (89.58%); Liaoyang (83.24%); Chaoyang (71.12%); Huludao (65.21%)
Heilongjiang (4) Mudanjiang (44.73%); Jiamusi (67.64%); Jixi (54.42%); Yichun (38.56%)
Anhui (5) Huaibei (49.02%); Huainan (71.22%); Wuhu (55.44%); Ma’anshan (66.56%); Anqing (48.28%)
Jiangxi (1) Pingxiang (74.09%)
Henan (2) Hebi (63.69%); Anyang (61.40%)
Hubei (4) Huangshi (72.00%); Xiangyang (53.94%); Jingzhou (40.93%); Shiyan (81.35%)
Hunan (2) Xiangtan (42.19%); Shaoyang (36.65%)
Guangdong (1) Maoming (83.76%)
Guangxi (1) Liuzhou (60.15%)
Sichuan (4) Zigong (44.42%); Panzhihua (74.87%); Luzhou (52.18%); Leshan (59.4%)
Guizhou (2) Zunyi (39.93%); Liupanshui (61.55%)
Shaanxi (1) Baoji (47.37%)
Gansu (3) Jiayuguan (93.53%); Jinchang (97.97%); Baiyin (67.96%)
Table 3  Specialized old industrial bases in 2010
Figure 4  Geographical orientation of major regional preferential policies in China from 1979-2010
City Leading industry Large enterprise share of output value Central enterprise share of assets City Leading industry Large enterprise share of output value Central enterprise share of assets
Zhangjiakou


Datong
Yangquan


Jincheng

Fushun

Benxi

Jinzhou

Kaifeng


Tieling

Jilin


Hegang
Jixi

Daqing
Urumqi


Jiamusi


Baiyin
Machinery, tobacco, iron & steel,
chemicals
Coal extraction
Coal extraction, thermal power,
iron & steel
Coal extraction,
iron & steel
Petrochemicals,
iron & steel
Iron & steel,
machinery
Petrochemicals,
coal extraction
Textiles, foodstuffs and tobacco, chemicals, machinery
Thermal power,
textiles, machinery
Foodstuffs and
tobacco, chemicals, machinery
Coal extraction
Coal extraction, machinery
Petrochemicals
Machinery, iron & steel, foodstuffs and tobacco
Foodstuffs and tobacco, papermaking, machinery
Nonferrous metals, coal extraction
26.7


57.7
59.3


0

56.5

43.9

43.7

25.8


57.3

53.2


55.8
44

92.5
49.9


42.7


64.2
90.61


95.03
95.1


89.45

95.01

94.81

92.11

89.29


97.4

94.38


94.83
94.63

99.52
90.95


91.81


98.9
Mudanjiang


Huaibei

Anqing

Liaoyang
Pingdingshan

Huangshi


Shiyan

Jingmen
Zhuzhou


Xiangtan

Hengyang


Shaoguan


Panzhihua

Guiyang


Xianyang

Lanzhou
Foodstuffs and tobacco, textiles, machinery
Coal extraction, thermal power
Petrochemicals, textiles
Chemicals
Coal extraction, thermal power
Iron & steel,
nonferrous metals, textiles
Automotive equipment
Petrochemicals
Locomotives, nonferrous metals, chemicals
Iron & steel,
textiles, machinery
Nonferrous metals, machinery, foodstuffs and tobacco
Thermal power, foodstuffs and tobacco, textiles
Iron & steel,
coal extraction
Tobacco,
nonferrous metals,
machinery
Textiles,
machinery
Petrochemicals, nonferrous metals
19.7


68.3

43.3

60.7
63.4

57.7


79.8

72
57.2


36.3

24.9


19.1


79.1

18.6


61.9

59.3
86.83


98.35

90.87

95.67
96.67

93.42


97.34

91.79
91.68


90.55

85.61


97.99


99.06

95.77


96.47

97.22
Table 4  Leading industries and standing of central enterprises in small industrial bases in 2009 (%)
Figure 5  Scientific and technological levels of provinces and cities in 2001 and 2010
Figure 6  General pattern of the formation and evolution of industrial bases in China
Influencing Factor Small Medium Large
Light industry led Basic materials industry led Equipment manufacturing led
Natural resources ◎◎◎ ◎◎
Location ◎◎ ◎◎
Infrastructure ◎◎ ◎◎ ◎◎
Labor ◎◎ ◎◎
Market ◎◎ ◎◎ ◎◎
Science & tech ◎◎◎ ◎◎◎
Globalization ◎◎ ◎◎◎
Capital ◎◎ ◎◎
Policies & systems ◎◎
Table 5  Various influencing factors on the development of industrial bases at different stages
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