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Journal of Geographical Sciences    2018, Vol. 28 Issue (5) : 669-684     DOI: 10.1007/s11442-018-1498-5
Research Articles |
Examining the distribution and dynamics of impervious surface in different function zones in Beijing
QIAO Kun1,2,3(),ZHU Wenquan1,2,HU Deyong3(),HAO Ming4,CHEN Shanshan3,CAO Shisong3
1. State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
2. Institute of Remote Sensing Science and Engineering, Faculty of Geographical Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
3. College of Resource Environment and Tourism, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048, China
4. Nuclear Industry of China Geotechnical Engineering Co. Ltd, Shijiazhuang 050021, China
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Impervious surface (IS) is often recognized as the indicator of urban environmental changes. Numerous research efforts have been devoted to studying its spatio-temporal dynamics and ecological effects, especially for the IS in Beijing metropolitan region. However, most previous studies primarily considered the Beijing metropolitan region as a whole without considering the differences and heterogeneity among the function zones. In this study, the subpixel impervious surface results in Beijing within a time series (1991, 2001, 2005, 2011 and 2015) were extracted by means of the classification and regression tree (CART) model combined with change detection models. Then based on the method of standard deviation ellipse, Lorenz curve, contribution index (CI) and landscape metrics, the spatio-temporal dynamics and variations of IS (1991, 2001, 2011 and 2015) in different function zones and districts were analyzed. It is found that the total area of impervious surface in Beijing increased dramatically during the study period, increasing about 144.18%. The deflection angle of major axis of standard deviation ellipse decreased from 47.15° to 38.82°, indicating the major development axis in Beijing gradually moved from northeast-southwest to north-south. Moreover, the heterogeneity of impervious surface’s distribution among 16 districts weakened gradually, but the CI values and landscape metrics in four function zones differed greatly. The urban function extended zone (UFEZ), the main source of the growth of IS in Beijing, had the highest CI values. Its lowest CI value was 1.79 that is still much higher than the highest CI value in other function zones. The core function zone (CFZ), the traditional aggregation zone of impervious surface, had the highest contagion index (CONTAG) values, but it contributed less than UFEZ due to its small area. The CI value of the new urban developed zone (NUDZ) increased rapidly, and it increased from negative to positive and multiplied, becoming an important contributor to the rise of urban impervious surface. However, the ecological conservation zone (ECZ) had a constant negative contribution all the time, and its CI value decreased gradually. Moreover, the landscape metrics and centroids of impervious surface in different density classes differed greatly. The high-density impervious surface had a more compact configuration and a greater impact on the eco-environment.

Keywords impervious surface      landscape metrics      classification and regression tree (CART)      function zones      Lorenz curve      contribution index     
Fund:The National Basic Research Program of China, No.2015CB953603;National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41671339;State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, No.2017- FX-01(1)
Issue Date: 31 March 2018
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ZHU Wenquan
HU Deyong
HAO Ming
CHEN Shanshan
CAO Shisong
Cite this article:   
QIAO Kun,ZHU Wenquan,HU Deyong, et al. Examining the distribution and dynamics of impervious surface in different function zones in Beijing[J]. Journal of Geographical Sciences, 2018, 28(5): 669-684.
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Figure 1  Location of the study area and its function zones
Year Average
error (%)
1991 10.40 0.43 0.73
2001 8.90 0.36 0.80
2011 8.60 0.44 0.76
2015 14.50 0.41 0.78
Table 1  Accuracies of simulated ISP results in different years
Figure 2  The spatial pattern of impervious surface percentage in Beijing in different years
Figure 3  The spatial pattern evolution of impervious surface in Beijing from 1991 to 2015
Year Deflection angle (o) Semi-major axial length (km) Semi-minor axial length (km)
1991 47.15 72.37 49.42
2001 43.79 73.34 46.88
2011 40.05 66.37 44.69
2015 38.82 60.13 41.41
Table 2  The parameter values of standard deviation ellipses in different years
Figure 4  The spatial Lorenz curve in Beijing metropolitan region in 1991, 2001, 2011 and 2015. The horizontal axis represents the cumulative percentage of area of 16 districts in Beijing, and the vertical axis represents the cumulative percentage of the impervious surface proportion in each district. The straight line in the middle is the “standard line”. The closer the spatial Lorenz curve is to the standard line, the more equally distributed is the impervious surface. On the contrary, a departure from the standard line represents an inequality in the impervious surface’s distribution.
Figure 5  The contribution of each function zone and district to the growth of impervious surface in Beijing. The horizontal axis represents the 16 districts and 4 function zones. DC represents Dongcheng district, XC represents Xicheng district, HD represents Haidian district, CY represents Chaoyang district, FT represents Fengtai district, SJS represents Shijingshan district, CP represents Changping district, SY represents Shunyi district, FS represents Fangshan district, TZ represents Tongzhou district, DX represents Daxing district, HR represents Huairou district, PG represents Pinggu district, MTG represents Mentougou district, MY represents Miyun district, and YQ represents Yanqing district.
Figure 6  The migration of spatial centroids of impervious surface landscape in Beijing
1991 31.75 23.20 9.04 10.62 13.19
2001 31.22 23.41 11.05 10.52 13.42
2011 30.64 19.50 12.35 12.35 12.61
2015 36.90 24.17 16.03 19.96 15.72
Table 3  The CONTAG values of each function zone and Beijing in different years
Figure 7  The LSI values of different impervious surface’s types in four function zones and Beijing in 2015. The number 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 in the x-axis represent the low-density impervious surface, medium low-density impervious surface, medium-density impervious surface, medium high-density impervious surface and high-density impervious surface, respectively.
Figure 8  The PD values of different impervious surface’s types in four function zones and Beijing in 2015
Classification method CFZ UFEZ NUDZ ECZ
“soft” classifications 36.90 24.17 16.03 19.96
“hard” classifications 44.84 30.12 23.23 28.17
Table 4  The comparisons of CONTAG values calculated from the “hard” classifications and “soft” classifications for different function zones in 2015
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