Please wait a minute...
 Home  About the Journal Subscription Advertisement Contact us   英文  
Just Accepted  |  Current Issue  |  Archive  |  Featured Articles  |  Most Read  |  Most Download  |  Most Cited
Journal of Geographical Sciences    2018, Vol. 28 Issue (5) : 629-646     DOI: 10.1007/s11442-018-1495-8
Research Articles |
Immediately downstream effects of Three Gorges Dam on channel sandbars morphodynamics between Yichang-Chenglingji Reach of the Changjiang River, China
WANG Jie1,,MEI Xuefei1,LOU Yaying1,WEI Wen1,GE Zhenpeng1
1. State Key Laboratory of Estuarine and Coastal Research, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062, China
2. Laboratory for Marine Geology, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao, 266061, China
Download: PDF(2492 KB)   HTML
Export: BibTeX | EndNote | Reference Manager | ProCite | RefWorks    

Sandbars are of vital ecological and environmental significance, which however, have been intensively influenced by human activities. Morphodynamic processes of sandbars along the Yichang-Chenglingji Reach of the Changjiang River, the channel immediately downstream of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD), are assessed based on remote sensing images between 2000 and 2016. It can be found that the entire area of sandbars reduces drastically by 19.23% from 149.04 km2 in 2003 to 120.38 km2 in 2016, accompanied with an increase in water surface width. Owing to differences in sediment grain size and anti-erosion capacity, sandbar area in the upstream sandy gravel reach (Yichang-Dabujie) and downstream sandy reach (Dabujie-Chenglingji) respectively decreases by 45.94% (from 20.79 km2 to 11.24 km2) and 14.93% (from 128.30 km2 to 109.14 km2). Furtherly, morphological evolutions of sandbars are affected by channel type: in straight-microbend channel, mid-channel sandbars exhibit downstream moving while maintaining the basic profile; in meandering channel, point sandbars show erosion and deposition in convex and concave bank respectively, with mid-channel sandbars distributing sporadically; in bending-branching channel, point sandbars experience erosion and move downstream while mid-channel sandbars show erosion in the head part along with retreating outline. We document that the primary mechanism of sandbars shrinkages along the Yichang-Chenglingji Reach can be attributed to TGD induced suspended sediment concentration decreasing and increasing in unsaturation of sediment carrying capacity. Additionally, channel type can affect the morphological evolution of sandbars. Along the Yichang-Chenglingji Reach, sandbars in straight-microbend channel are more affected by water flow than that in bending-branching channel.

Keywords sandbars morphodynamics      Three Gorges Dam (TGD)      remote sensing images      Yichang-Chenglingji Reach      Changjiang River     
Fund:National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41576087;National Science Foundation for Young Scientists of China, No.41706093;Fund of the Key Laboratory of Coastal Science and Engineering, Beibu Gulf, Guangxi, No.2016ZZD01
Issue Date: 31 March 2018
E-mail this article
E-mail Alert
Articles by authors
MEI Xuefei
LOU Yaying
GE Zhenpeng
Cite this article:   
WANG Jie,MEI Xuefei,LOU Yaying, et al. Immediately downstream effects of Three Gorges Dam on channel sandbars morphodynamics between Yichang-Chenglingji Reach of the Changjiang River, China[J]. Journal of Geographical Sciences, 2018, 28(5): 629-646.
URL:     OR
Figure 1  Map of the study area. (a) The location of Changjiang River and Yichang-Chenglingji Reach (blue box); (b) the Yichang-Chenglingji Reach. Four inserted satellite images indicate TGD and three typical sandbars are acquired from Google Earth map (
Date Sensor Yichang Zhicheng Shashi Jianli
Feb. 01, 2000 Landsat7 ETM+ 39.53 37.65 31.70 24.21
Jan. 10, 2001 Landsat5 TM 40.15 38.20 32.79 25.13
Jan. 05, 2002 Landsat7 ETM+ 39.68 38.80 32.22 24.74
Mar. 21, 2003 Landsat5 TM 38.92 37.45 31.24 25.72
Mar. 07, 2004 Landsat5 TM 40.49 38.66 32.96 25.82
Feb. 22, 2005 Landsat5 TM 38.63 37.42 30.86 26.07
Feb. 25, 2006 Landsat5 TM 40.15 38.26 32.20 25.57
Feb. 12,2007 Landsat5 TM 39.01 37.62 30.78 24.37
Feb. 15, 2008 Landsat5 TM 39.02 37.73 31.16 24.60
Jan. 16, 2009 Landsat5 TM 39.35 37.98 31.72 24.93
Feb. 20, 2010 Landsat5 TM 39.31 37.88 31.31 24.98
Jan. 06, 2011 Landsat5 TM 39.73 38.20 31.82 25.62
Jan. 14, 2014 Landsat8 OLI 39.85 38.08 31.62 25.38
Jan. 01, 2015 Landsat8 OLI 39.63 37.97 31.56 25.50
Feb. 05, 2016 Landsat8 OLI 39.99 38.16 31.34 26.30
Table 1  Summary of Landsat satellite products and corresponding water level (m) at four hydrologic stations
Figure 2  Temporal variation of sandbar area within Yichang-Chenglingji Reach from 2003 to 2016. (a) ST: total sandbars; (b) SMC: mid-channel sandbars; and (c) SP: point sandbars. The year with grey rectangle indicating data missing
Figure 3  Temporal variation of sandbar area in (a-c) the upstream sandy gravel reach and (e-f) the downstream sandy reach, with ST, SMC, and SP respectively indicating areas of total sandbars, mid-channel sandbars and point sandbars. The year with grey rectangle indicating data missing
Figure 4  Temporal variation of the total water surface width (TWSW) of (a) the Yichang-Chenglingji Reach (LT); (b) the upstream sandy gravel reach (LSG); and (c) the downstream sandy reach (LS). The year with grey rectangle indicating data missing
Area of total (km2) Area of mid-channel (km2) Area of point (km2)
Reach Whole Sandy gravel Sandy Whole Sandy gravel Sandy Whole Sandy gravel Sandy
Before TGD 145.35 20.45 126.75 38.93 10.73 26.31 106.42 10.08 100.45
After TGD 132.66 12.55 107.14 35.93 7.79 25.07 96.73 4.77 82.06
Decrease (%) 8.73 38.65 15.47 7.72 24.86 4.69 9.10 52.84 18.31
Table 2  Summary of sandbar area variation within the Yichang-Chenglingji Reach
Total reach (km) Sandy gravel reach (km) Sandy reach (km)
Before TGD 479.90 143.48 336.42
After TGD 501.51 152.98 348.53
Increase (%) 4.50 6.62 3.60
Table 3  Summary of channel width variation within the Yichang-Chenglingji Reach
Figure 5  Sandbars geomorphological changes within Guanzhou Channel from 2003 to 2016
Figure 6  Sandbars geomorphological changes within Lujiahe Channel from 2003 to 2016
Figure 7  Geomorphological changes of sandbars within Zhougongdi Channel from 2003 to 2016
Figure 8  Geomorphological changes of sandbars within Tiaoguan Channel from 2003 to 2016
Figure 10  Temporal variation of (a) annual water discharge; (b) SSC; and (c) suspended sediment median diameter (D50) at four hydrological stations of Yichang, Zhicheng, Shashi, and Jianli
Figure 11  Relationship between flow discharge and (a) flow velocity; (b) water depth and (c) SSC
Figure 12  Temporal variation of (a-c) calculated sediment carrying capacity (Svm) and (d-e) the difference between calculated SCC and SSC (Svm-SSC) under different water discharge scenarios, with (a, d) 5000 m3/s; (b, e) 10000 m3/s; (c, f) 20000 m3/s
Figure 13  Relationship between sandbar area and Svm-SSC value under different water discharges scenarios: (a) 5000 m3/s; (b) 10000 m3/s; (c) 20000 m3/s
Figure 14  Evolution model of sandbars in different channel types along the Yichang-Chenglingji Reach following the impact of TGD: (a) straight-microbend channel; (b) meandering channel; and (c) bending-branching channel
[6] Chang J, Li J B, Lu D Qet al., 2010. The hydrological effect between Jingjiang River and Dongting Lake during the initial period of Three Gorges Project operation.Journal of Geographical Sciences, 20(5): 771-786.
doi: 10.1007/s11442-010-0810-9
[7] Chen Z Y, Wang Z H, Finlayson Bet al., 2010. Implications of flow control by the Three Gorges Dam on sediment and channel dynamics of the middle Yangtze (Changjiang) River, China.Geology, 38(11): 1043-1046.
doi: 10.1130/G31271.1
[8] Csiki S, Rhoads B L, 2010. Hydraulic and geomorphological effects of run-of-river dams.Progress in Physical Geography, 34(2): 755-780.
doi: 10.1177/0309133310369435
[9] Dai Z J, Fagherazzi S, Mei X Fet al., 2016. Decline in suspended sediment concentration delivered by the Changjiang (Yangtze) River into the East China Sea between 1956 and 2013.Geomorphology, 268: 123-132.
doi: 10.1016/j.geomorph.2016.06.009
[10] Dai Z J, Liu J T, 2013. Impacts of large dams on downstream fluvial sedimentation: An example of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) on the Changjiang (Yangtze River).Journal of Hydrology, 480(4): 10-18.
doi: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2012.12.003
[11] Dai Z J, Liu J T, Wei Wet al., 2014. Detection of the Three Gorges Dam influence on the Changjiang (Yangtze River) submerged delta.Scientific Reports, 4: 6600.
doi: 10.1038/srep06600 pmid: 25321660
[12] Dai Z J, Liu J T, Xiang Y B, 2015. Human interference in the water discharge of the Changjiang (Yangtze River), china.Hydrological Sciences Journal, 60(10): 1770-1782.
doi: 10.1080/02626667.2014.944182
[13] Erskine W D, 1985. Downstream geomorphic impacts of large dams: The case of Glenbawn Dam, NSW.Applied Geography, 5(3): 195-210.
doi: 10.1016/0143-6228(85)90022-0
[14] Francis B A, Francis L K, Cardenas M B, 2010. Water table dynamics and groundwater-surface water interaction during filling and draining of a large fluvial island due to dam-induced river stage fluctuations.Water Resources Research, 46(7): 7513.
doi: 10.1029/2009WR008694
[15] Friedman J M, Osterkamp W R, Scott M Let al., 1998. Downstream effects of dams on channel geometry and bottomland vegetation: Regional patterns in the Great Plains.Wetlands, 18(4): 619-633.
doi: 10.1007/BF03161677
[16] Ghosh M K, Kumar L, Roy C, 2015. Monitoring the coastline change of Hatiya Island in Bangladesh using remote sensing techniques.ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 101(101): 137-144.
doi: 10.1016/j.isprsjprs.2014.12.009
[17] Grabowski R C, Gurnell A M, 2016. Hydrogeomorphology-ecology interactions in river systems.River Research and Applications, 32(2): 139-141.
doi: 10.1002/rra.2974
[18] Graf W L, 2005. Geomorphology and American dams: The scientific, social, and economic context.Geomorphology, 71(1): 3-26.
doi: 10.1016/j.geomorph.2004.05.005
[19] Graf W L, 2006. Downstream hydrologic and geomorphic effects of large dams on American rivers.Geomorphology, 79(3): 336-360.
doi: 10.1016/j.geomorph.2006.06.022
[20] Grams P E, Schmidt J C, 2005. Equilibrium or indeterminate? Where sediment budgets fail: Sediment mass balance and adjustment of channel form, Green River downstream from Flaming Gorge Dam, Utah and Colorado.Geomorphology, 71(1): 156-181.
doi: 10.1016/j.geomorph.2004.10.012
[1] Asaeda T, Rashid M H, 2012. The impacts of sediment released from dams on downstream sediment bar vegetation.Journal of Hydrology, 430(8): 25-38.
doi: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2012.01.040
[2] Ashworth P J, Best J L, Roden J Eet al., 2000. Morphological evolution and dynamics of a large, sand braid-bar, Jamuna River, Bangladesh.Sedimentology, 47(3): 533-555.
doi: 10.1046/j.1365-3091.2000.00305.x
[3] Birkeland G H, 1996. Riparian vegetation and sandbar morphology along the lower Little Colorado River, Arizona.Physical Geography, 17(6): 534-553.
doi: 10.1080/02723646.1996.10642600
[21] Grant G E, Schmidt J C, Lewis S L, 2003. A Geological Framework for Interpreting Downstream Effects of Dams on Rivers. American Geophysical Union.
doi: 10.1029/007WS13
[22] Hazel J E, Topping D J, Schmidt J Cet al., 2006. Influence of a dam on fine-sediment storage in a canyon river.Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface, 111(F1): 272-288.
doi: 10.1029/2004JF000193
[23] Hooke J M, 1986. The significance of mid-channel bars in an active meandering river.Sedimentology, 33(6): 839-850.
doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3091.1986.tb00986.x
[24] Hui F M, Xu B, Huang H Bet al., 2008. Modelling spatial-temporal change of Poyang Lake using multitemporal Landsat imagery.International Journal of Remote Sensing, 29(20): 5767-5784.
doi: 10.1080/01431160802060912
[25] Ibisate A, Díaz E, Ollero Aet al., 2013. Channel response to multiple damming in a meandering river, middle and lower Aragón River (Spain).Hydrobiologia, 712(1): 5-23.
doi: 10.1007/s10750-013-1490-0
[26] Jiang W G, Jia K, Wu J Jet al., 2015. Evaluating the vegetation recovery in the damage area of Wenchuan Earthquake using MODIS data.Remote Sensing, 7(7): 8757-8778.
doi: 10.3390/rs70708757
[27] Jiang W G, Peng H, Zhu X Het al., 2011. Analysis of vegetation response to rainfall with satellite images in Dongting Lake.Journal of Geographical Sciences, 21(1): 135-149.
doi: 10.1007/s11442-011-0834-9
[28] Jiang W G, Yuan L H, Wang W Jet al., 2015. Spatio-temporal analysis of vegetation variation in the Yellow River Basin.Ecological Indicators, 51: 117-126.
doi: 10.1016/j.ecolind.2014.07.031
[29] Kearsley L H, Schmidt J C, Warren K D, 1994. Effects of Glen Canyon dam on Colorado River sand deposits used as campsites in Grand Canyon National Park, USA.River Research and Applications, 9(3): 137-149.
doi: 10.1002/rrr.3450090302
[30] Kleinhans M G, Berg J H V D, 2011. River channel and bar patterns explained and predicted by an empirical and a physics-based method.Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 36(6): 721-738.
doi: 10.1002/esp.2090
[31] Knighton A D, Nanson G C, 1993. Anastomosis and the continuum of channel pattern.Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 18(7): 613-625.
doi: 10.1002/esp.3290180705
[32] Li Y B, 2015. Flow-sediment Transport and Riverbed Evolutions of the Middle Reaches of the Yangtze River. Beijing: China Communications Press. (in Chinese)
[33] Li Y T, Sun S H, Deng J Y et al., 2011. Water and Sediment Control Theory and Application of Changjiang River. Beijing: Science Press. (in Chinese)
[34] Luo X X, Yang S L, Zhang J, 2012. The impact of the Three Gorges Dam on the downstream distribution and texture of sediments along the middle and lower Yangtze River (Changjiang) and its estuary, and subsequent sediment dispersal in the East China Sea.Geomorphology, 179(1): 126-140.
doi: 10.1016/j.geomorph.2012.05.034
[35] Magilligan F J, Nislow K H, 2005. Changes in hydrologic regime by dams.Geomorphology, 71(1): 61-78.
doi: 10.1016/j.geomorph.2004.08.017
[36] Mei X F, Dai Z J, Fagherazzi Set al., 2016. Dramatic variations in emergent wetland area in China’s largest freshwater lake, Poyang Lake.Advances in Water Resources, 96: 1-10.
doi: 10.1016/j.advwatres.2016.06.003
[37] Mei X F, Dai Z J, Wei Wet al., 2015. Dams induced stage-discharge relationship variations in the upper Yangtze River basin.Hydrology Research, 47(1): 157-170.
doi: 10.2166/nh.2015.010
[38] Messager M L, Lehner B, Grill Get al., 2016. Estimating the volume and age of water stored in global lakes using a geo-statistical approach.Nature Communications, 7: 13603.
doi: 10.1038/ncomms13603 pmid: 27976671
[39] Petts G E, 1979. Complex response of river channel morphology subsequent to reservoir construction.Progress in Physical Geography, 3(3): 329-362.
doi: 10.1177/030913337900300302
[40] Phillips J D, Slattery M C, Musselman Z A, 2005. Channel adjustments of the lower Trinity River, Texas, downstream of Livingston Dam.Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 30(11): 1419-1439.
doi: 10.1002/esp.1203
[41] Provansal M, Dufour S, Sabatier Fet al., 2014. The geomorphic evolution and sediment balance of the lower Rh?ne River (southern France) over the last 130years: Hydropower dams versus other control factors.Geomorphology, 219: 27-41.
doi: 10.1016/j.geomorph.2014.04.033
[42] Qian N, Wan Z H, 2003. Mechanics of Sediment Transport. Beijing: Science Press. (in Chinese)
[43] Ra?ka P, Dolej? M, Hofmanová M, 2017. Effects of damming on long-term development of fluvial islands, Elbe River (N Czechia).River Research and Applications, 33(4): 471-482.
doi: 10.1002/rra.3104
[44] Sherrard J J, Erskine W D, 1991. Complex response of a sand-bed stream to upstream impoundment.River Research and Applications, 6(1): 53-70.
doi: 10.1002/rrr.3450060106
[45] Skalak K J, Benthem A J, Schenk E Ret al., 2013. Large dams and alluvial rivers in the Anthropocene: The impacts of the Garrison and Oahe Dams on the Upper Missouri River.Anthropocene, 2: 51-64.
doi: 10.1016/j.ancene.2013.10.002
[46] Soti V, Tran A, Bailly J Set al., 2009. Assessing optical earth observation systems for mapping and monitoring temporary ponds in arid areas.International Journal of Applied Earth Observations and Geoinformation, 11(5): 344-351.
doi: 10.1016/j.jag.2009.05.005
[47] Sun F D, Sun W X, Chen Jet al., 2012. Comparison and improvement of methods for identifying water bodies in remotely sensed imagery.International Journal of Remote Sensing, 33(21): 6854-6875.
doi: 10.1080/01431161.2012.692829
[48] Tang Z H, Li R P, Li Xet al., 2014. Capturing lidar-derived hydrologic spatial parameters to evaluate playa wetlands.Jawra Journal of the American Water Resources Association, 50(1): 234-245.
doi: 10.1111/jawr.12125
[49] Tang Z H, Li Y, Gu Yet al., 2016. Assessing Nebraska playa wetland inundation status during 1985-2015 using Landsat data and Google Earth engine.Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 188(12): 654.
doi: 10.1007/s10661-016-5664-x pmid: 27826819
[50] Tran A, Sudre B, Paz Set al., 2014. Environmental predictors of west Nile fever risk in Europe. International Journal of Health Geographics, 13(1): 26.
doi: 10.1186/1476-072X-13-26 pmid: 4118316
[51] Ullah S, Skidmore A K, Groen T Aet al., 2013. Evaluation of three proposed indices for the retrieval of leaf water content from the mid-wave infrared (2-6 μm) spectra.Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 171: 65-71.
doi: 10.1016/j.agrformet.2012.11.014
[52] Wang Z Q, Chen Z Y, Li M Tet al., 2009. Variations in downstream grain-sizes to interpret sediment transport in the middle-lower Yangtze River, China: A pre-study of Three-Gorge Dam.Geomorphology, 113(3): 217-229.
doi: 10.1016/j.geomorph.2009.03.009
[53] Wang Z Y, 2009. Integrated Management of Hydro-sediment and Ecology in the Yangtze River Basin. Beijing: Science Press. (in Chinese)
[54] Wei W, Chang Y P, Dai Z J, 2014. Streamflow changes of the Changjiang (Yangtze) River in the recent 60 years: Impacts of the East Asian summer monsoon, ENSO, and human activities.Quaternary International, 336(12): 98-107.
doi: 10.1016/j.quaint.2013.10.064
[55] Wright S A, Kaplinski M, 2011. Flow structures and sandbar dynamics in a canyon river during a controlled flood, Colorado River, Arizona.Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 116(F1): 132-140.
doi: 10.1029/2009JF001442
[56] Wyrick J R, Klingeman P C, 2011. Proposed fluvial island classification scheme and its use for river restoration.River Research and Applications, 27(7): 814-825.
doi: 10.1002/rra.1395
[57] Xia J Q, Deng S S, Zhou M Ret al., 2017. Geomorphic response of the Jingjiang Reach to the Three Gorges Project operation.Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 42(6): 866-876.
doi: 10.1002/esp.4043
[58] Xia J Q, Zong Q L, Zhang Yet al., 2014. Prediction of recent bank retreat processes at typical sections in the Jingjiang Reach after the TGP operation.Science China Technological Sciences, 57(8): 1490-1499.
doi: 10.1007/s11431-014-5597-y
[59] Xiong M, Xu Q X, Yuan Jet al., 2010. Study of the influences of Three Gorges Project’s initial operation on river regime of the middle and lower Yangtze River.Journal of Hydroelectric Engineering, 29(1): 120-125. (in Chinese)'s_initial_operation_on_river_regime_of_the_middle_and_lower_Yangtze_River
[60] Xu H Q, 2006. Modification of normalised difference water index (NDWI) to enhance open water features in remotely sensed imagery.International Journal of Remote Sensing, 27(14): 3025-3033.
doi: 10.1080/01431160600589179
[61] Xu J X, 1997. Evolution of mid-channel bars in a braided river and complex response to reservoir construction: An example from the middle Hanjiang River, China.Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 22(10): 953-965.
doi: 10.1002/(ISSN)1096-9837
[62] Xu X B, Tan Y, Yang G S, 2013. Environmental impact assessments of the Three Gorges Project in China: Issues and interventions.Earth-science Reviews, 124(9): 115-125.
doi: 10.1016/j.earscirev.2013.05.007
[63] Xu K H, Milliman J D, 2009. Seasonal variations of sediment discharge from the Yangtze River before and after impoundment of the Three Gorges Dam.Geomorphology, 104(3): 276-283.
doi: 10.1016/j.geomorph.2008.09.004
[64] Yang S L, Milliman J D, Li Pet al., 2011. 50000 dams later: Erosion of the Yangtze River and its delta.Global and Planetary Change, 75(1): 14-20.
doi: 10.1016/j.gloplacha.2010.09.006
[65] Yang S L, Milliman J D, Xu K Het al., 2014. Downstream sedimentary and geomorphic impacts of the Three Gorges Dam on the Yangtze River.Earth-Science Reviews, 138: 469-486.
doi: 10.1016/j.earscirev.2014.07.006
[66] Yang S L, Xu K H, Milliman J Det al., 2015. Decline of Yangtze River water and sediment discharge: Impact from natural and anthropogenic changes.Scientific Reports, 5: 12581.
doi: 10.1038/srep12581 pmid: 26206169
[67] Yang Y P, Zhang M J, Li Y Tet al., 2016. Suspended sediment recovery and bedsand compensation mechanism affected by the Three Gorges Project.Acta Geographica Sinica, 71(7): 1241-1254. (in Chinese)
doi: 10.11821/dlxb201607012
[68] Yu W C, Lu J Y, 2005. River Channel Evolution and Governance of Changjiang River. Beijing: China Water Power Press. (in Chinese)
[69] Yu W C, Lu J Y, 2008. Bank Erosion and Protection in the Yangtze River. Beijing: China Water and Power Press. (in Chinese)
[70] Yuan W H, Yin D W, Finlayson Bet al., 2012. Assessing the potential for change in the middle Yangtze River channel following impoundment of the Three Gorges Dam.Geomorphology, 147(8): 27-34.
doi: 10.1016/j.geomorph.2011.06.039
[71] Zhang W, Yang Y P, Zhang M Jet al., 2017. Mechanisms of suspended sediment restoration and bed level compensation in downstream reaches of the Three Gorges Projects (TGP).Journal of Geographical Sciences, 27(4): 463-480.
doi: 10.1007/s11442-017-1387-3
[4] Brandt S A, 2000a. Prediction of downstream geomorphological changes after dam construction: A stream power approach.International Journal of Water Resources Development, 16(3): 343-367.
doi: 10.1080/713672510
[5] Brandt S A, 2000b. Classification of geomorphological effects downstream of dams.Catena, 40(4): 375-401.
doi: 10.1016/S0341-8162(00)00093-X
[72] Zhao Y F, Zou X Q, Gao J Het al., 2015. Quantifying the anthropogenic and climatic contributions to changes in water discharge and sediment load into the sea: A case study of the Yangtze River, China.Science of the Total Environment, 536: 803-812.
doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.07.119 pmid: 26254080
[73] Zhu L L, Chen J C, Yuan Jet al., 2014. Sediment erosion and deposition in two lakes connected with the middle Yangtze River and the impact of Three Gorges Dam.Advances in Water Science, 25(3): 348-357. (in Chinese)
doi: 10.1680/geot.SIP13.P.007
[1] Qian SUN,Fanghua TANG,Yong TANG. An economic tie network-structure analysis of urban agglomeration in the middle reaches of Changjiang River based on SNA[J]. Journal of Geographical Sciences, 2015, 25(6): 739-755.
[2] ZHANG Erfeng, CHEN Xiqing, WANG Xiaoli. Water discharge changes of the Changjiang River downstream Datong during dry season[J]. Journal of Geographical Sciences, 2003, 13(3): 355-362.
Full text



Copyright © Journal of Geographical Sciences, All Rights Reserved.
Powered by Beijing Magtech Co. Ltd