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Journal of Geographical Sciences    2018, Vol. 28 Issue (5) : 547-562     DOI: 10.1007/s11442-018-1490-0
Research Articles |
Spatiotemporal patterns and characteristics of land-use change in China during 2010-2015
NING Jia1(),LIU Jiyuan1,Kuang Wenhui1(),XU Xinliang1,ZHANG Shuwen2,YAN Changzhen3,LI Rendong4,WU Shixin5,HU Yunfeng1,DU Guoming6,CHI Wenfeng1,PAN Tao5,NING Jing6
1. Key Laboratory of Land Surface Pattern and Simulation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
2. Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, CAS, Changchun 130102, China
3. Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, CAS, Lanzhou 730000, China
4. Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics, CAS, Wuhan 430077, China
5. Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, CAS, Urumqi 830011, China
6. Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, China
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Abstract  

Land use/cover change is an important theme on the impacts of human activities on the earth systems and global environmental change. National land-use changes of China during 2010-2015 were acquired by the digital interpretation method using the high-resolution remotely sensed images, e.g. the Landsat 8 OLI, GF-2 remote sensing images. The spatiotemporal characteristics of land-use changes across China during 2010-2015 were revealed by the indexes of dynamic degree model, annual land-use changes ratio etc. The results indicated that the built-up land increased by 24.6×103 km2 while the cropland decreased by 4.9×103 km2, and the total area of woodland and grassland decreased by 16.4×103 km2. The spatial pattern of land-use changes in China during 2010-2015 was concordant with that of the period 2000-2010. Specially, new characteristics of land-use changes emerged in different regions of China in 2010-2015. The built-up land in eastern China expanded continually, and the total area of cropland decreased, both at decreasing rates. The rates of built-up land expansion and cropland shrinkage were accelerated in central China. The rates of built-up land expansion and cropland growth increased in western China, while the decreasing rate of woodland and grassland accelerated. In northeastern China, built-up land expansion slowed continually, and cropland area increased slightly accompanied by the conversions between paddy land and dry land. Besides, woodland and grassland area decreased in northeastern China. The characteristics of land-use changes in eastern China were essentially consistent with the spatial govern and control requirements of the optimal development zones and key development zones according to the Major Function-oriented Zones Planning implemented during the 12th Five-Year Plan (2011-2015). It was a serious challenge for the central government of China to effectively protect the reasonable layout of land use types dominated with the key ecological function zones and agricultural production zones in central and western China. Furthermore, the local governments should take effective measures to strengthen the management of territorial development in future.

Keywords land-use change      spatial-temporal characteristics      remote sensing      Major Function-oriented Zones      China     
Fund:National Key Research and Development Program, No.2017YFC0506501;National Key Basic Research Program of China, No.2014CB954302
Issue Date: 31 March 2018
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NING Jia
LIU Jiyuan
Kuang Wenhui
XU Xinliang
ZHANG Shuwen
YAN Changzhen
LI Rendong
WU Shixin
HU Yunfeng
DU Guoming
CHI Wenfeng
PAN Tao
NING Jing
Cite this article:   
NING Jia,LIU Jiyuan,Kuang Wenhui, et al. Spatiotemporal patterns and characteristics of land-use change in China during 2010-2015[J]. Journal of Geographical Sciences, 2018, 28(5): 547-562.
URL:  
http://www.geogsci.com/EN/10.1007/s11442-018-1490-0     OR     http://www.geogsci.com/EN/Y2018/V28/I5/547
Figure 1  National land use map of China in 2015
Figure 2  Distribution of dominant land-use conversion in China during 2010-2015
Region Dry land ←→paddy land Cropland
→woodland / grassland
Other land →water body Other land
→built-up
land
Woodland→ cropland Woodland→ grassland Grassland→
cropland
Grassland→ woodland Water body→
other land
NER 76.00 1.06 0.75 10.43 4.17 0.00 3.95 0.02 8.63
ECR 5.71 2.46 8.81 70.09 1.00 4.05 0.32 1.64 0.26
CR 0.31 0.49 6.52 68.74 1.17 4.24 0.18 1.77 0.15
WR 0.87 14.67 36.97 107.39 4.61 5.00 94.84 3.60 66.43
Total 82.89 18.68 53.05 256.65 10.95 13.29 99.29 7.03 75.47
Table 1  Change area of dominant land-change types by region in China during 2010-2015 (×100 km2)
2010 2015
Cropland Woodland Grassland Water body Built-up land Unused land Total
Cropland - 93.86 12.32 33.51 840.62 7.88 988.19
Woodland 417.22 - 0 5.23 96.17 6.86 525.48
Grassland 395.08 1.78 - 11.52 60.53 2.31 471.22
Water body 36.85 0 3.71 - 24.77 17.07 82.40
Built-up land 5.84 0.02 0 0.61 - 0 6.46
Unused land 634.91 1.13 179.34 24.80 23.07 - 863.25
Total 1489.90 96.79 195.37 75.67 1045.16 34.12 2937.00
Table 2  Change area of land-change types in northeastern China during 2010-2015 (km2)
2010 2015
Cropland Woodland Grassland Water body Built-up land Unused land Total
Cropland - 231.88 14.01 563.47 5503.62 3.75 6316.72
Woodland 99.75 - 407.35 18.41 873.21 4.69 1403.42
Grassland 32.21 165.77 - 28.02 176.50 1.16 403.66
Water body 259.18 3.76 74.39 - 399.55 3.08 739.96
Built-up land 446.87 71.12 18.33 165.42 - 6.50 708.25
Unused land 14.20 0.79 0 1.02 7.27 - 23.28
Total 852.21 473.32 514.08 776.34 6960.15 19.18 9595.29
Table 3  Change area of land-change types in eastern China during 2010-2015 (km2)
2010 2015
Cropland Woodland Grassland Water body Built-up land Unused land Total
Cropland - 35.10 14.10 529.06 4906.73 14.39 5499.38
Woodland 117.06 - 424.27 70.98 1569.34 15.92 2197.56
Grassland 18.10 175.43 - 24.21 242.30 3.75 463.78
Water body 101.11 5.40 6.06 - 159.03 12.69 284.29
Built-up land 105.21 9.11 10.60 19.77 - 2.40 147.09
Unused land 0 0.63 0.12 13.64 0.35 - 14.74
Total 341.48 225.67 455.15 657.66 6877.75 49.15 8606.84
Table 4  Change area of land-change types in central China during 2010-2015 (km2)
2010 2015
Cropland Woodland Grassland Water body Built-up land Unused land Total
Cropland - 150.51 1316.95 627.74 5394.10 127.35 7616.65
Woodland 461.37 - 497.59 373.16 924.88 43.83 2300.84
Grassland 9489.45 360.13 - 1324.36 3363.35 463.72 15001.01
Water body 127.45 4.79 330.23 - 107.59 1663.74 2233.80
Built-up land 15.40 20.79 21.36 36.61 - 4.99 99.14
Unused land 2743.03 363.82 1238.42 1335.55 970.26 - 6651.08
Total 12836.70 900.04 3404.55 3697.42 10760.18 2303.63 33902.52
Table 5  Change area of land-change types in western China during 2010-2015 (km2)
Region Land-use features
from 2000 to 2010
Land-use features
from 2010 to 2015
Variations in regions between the two periods
1. NER The main land-use change type was conversion from cropland to built-up land, with ~0.9×103 km2. It was followed by change from woodland and grassland to cropland, with 0.7×103 and 0.6×103 km2 respectively. The main land-use change type was conversion from cropland to built-up land and from unused land to cropland. That was followed by change from woodland and grassland to cropland. There was little difference in area of the main land-use change types. The change area from cropland to the woodland decreased. The change area from unused land into cropland increased.
2. ECR The main land-use change type was conversion from cropland to built-up land, with ~14.5×103 km2. It was followed by change from woodland to built-up land, with ~2.2×103 km2. The main land-use change type was conversion from cropland to built-up land. It was followed by change from woodland to built-up land and grassland. The area of dynamic land-use change declined. The area of cropland and woodland change into built-up land greatly decreased.
3. CR The main land-use change type was conversion from cropland and woodland to built-up land, accounting for 5.6×103 and 1.2×103 km2 respectively. It was followed by cropland change into woodland, ~0.8×103 km2. The main land-use change type was conversion from cropland to built-up land. It was followed by change from woodland to built-up land. The change from cropland and woodland to built-up land showed small differences, but the conversion area from cropland into woodland shrank.
4. WR The main land-use change type was conversion from grassland to cropland, accounting for 16.1×103 km2. It was followed by change from cropland to grassland, and from grassland to woodland, both accounting for 6.4×103 km2. The main land-use change type was conversion from grassland to cropland. It was followed by change from cropland and grassland to built-up land. Reclamation of unused land was also substantial. The area of grassland change to cropland decreased. In addition, the area of cropland return to woodland and grassland decreased obviously.
Table 6  Regional characteristics of land-use change across China during 2000-2010 and 2010-2015
Figure 3  Distribution of built-up land change in China during 2010-2015
Figure 4  Statistical histogram of built-up land change by region during 2000-2010 and 2010-2015
Figure 5  Distribution of cropland change in China during 2010-2015
Figure 6  Statistical histogram of cropland change by region during 2000-2010 and 2010-2015
Figure 7  Distribution of woodland and grassland change in China during 2010-2015
Figure 8  Statistical histogram of woodland and grassland change by region during 2000-2010 and 2010-2015
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