Journal of Geographical Sciences ›› 2018, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (4): 445-458.doi: 10.1007/s11442-018-1483-z

• Research Articles • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Sandwich mapping of rodent density in Jilin Province, China

Tiejun LIU1,2,3, , Cheng XU4, , Hongyan ZHANG6, Chengdong XU1   

  1. 1. State Key Laboratory of Resources and Environmental Information System, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
    3. China Siwei Surveying & Mapping Technology Co. Ltd., Beijing 100048, China;
    4. Prevention and Control Base of Plague and Brucellosis, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Jilin 137000, Jilin, China
    5. Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206, China
    6. School of Geographical Sciences, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024, China
  • Received:2017-05-05 Accepted:2017-07-27 Online:2018-03-30 Published:2018-03-30
  • About author:

    Author: Liu Tiejun, PhD, specialized in spatial sampling and data analysis. E-mail:

    *Corresponding author: Wang Jinfeng, Professor, E-mail:
    Ma Jiaqi, E-mail:

  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41531179,No.41421001,No.41271404;MOST, No.2016YFC1302504;Special Scientific Research Fund of Public Welfare Profession of China, No.GYHY20140616


Rodents are the main host animals that spread plague, and Spermophilus dauricus (S. dauricus) is the most common rodent in North China. In this study, a rodent density survey was carried out in China’s Jilin Province from April to August 2005. Moran’s I and semivariogram curves were used to investigate the spatial distribution characteristics of the sampling data. We found that the spatial auto-correlation index was low and failed to generate a meaningful semivariogram curve. In this case, commonly used interpolators, such as kriging, were not suitable for mapping density over the study area. However, the Sandwich model, which is based on spatial stratified heterogeneity, could be applied to our data. Our results showed that the type of soil and land use significantly influenced the distribution of rodent density, and the interactive effect of these variables was much stronger than that of each variable alone. The Sandwich-estimated rodent density map showed that rodent density increased from the southeast to the northwest in Jilin Province. Finally, a framework of a rodent density survey using the Sandwich model was introduced.

Key words: Sandwich model, geographical detector, Spermophilus dauricus